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Printed by William Clowjes and Sons, 
Stamford Street. 


I suppose you to be animated with as great a desire to learn the 
French language as I am to assist you. Before we begin, permit me 
to ask you a single painful question. Do you know your own lan- 
guage ? Do you know the parts of which it is composed, — nouns, 


conjunctions, &c. ? Are these terms familiar to you ? If you 
answer no, then will I say to you, learn them before we go further, 
for it is ten to one that you and I should not understand each other, 
or, if we did, it would be with a great deal of difficulty. Besides, you 
may be excused for not knowing a foreign language; you can hardly 
be pardoned for being ignorant of your own, especially at a time 
when so many able persons devote themselves to the teaching of it. 
Nor do you even want the assistance of a teacher; -with a moderate 
share of understanding and a good grammar, you may learn as much 
as is necessary for our purpose in the course of a fortnight. 

Now I suppose that you have these few requisites, and you wish to 
make use of this book. Begin at the part called Introduction a 
la Langue Francaise, page 27 : compare the French with the 
English, and endeavour to form some idea of the difference between 
the two languages: Then translate into French the English exer- 
cises, page 62 and the following, the rules of which correspond with 
the French that you are now reading in the Introduction. If you 
have a Key, compare it with the French you have written; and, if 
there be any difference between them, the figures under the words 
point out to you the rule by which your error is to be rectified. It 
will be proper during this time that you should peruse the verbs, that 
the variation in their tenses and persons may by degrees become 
familiar to you. It is by no means necessary that you should know 
how to pronounce the words ; it will be time enough when you have 
gone further into the book. When you have read the French as far 
as page 58, you must get a dictionaryt and read some French book.J 

N.B. Persons making use of this book, who have already some 

* The Author is not so vain as to wish to give instructions to teachers, or to 
persons accustomed to the study of languages, hut to such persons only as are 
at a loss how to begin. 

t Levizac's French and English Dictionary, lvol. l2mo, will answer the 
purpose of any beginner. 

I You might begin with a small Recueil of Contes Moraiix, by Wanostrocht : 
having the English words under the French, it will save you a little time and trou- 


general notions of the French language, must begin at the part called 
the Syntax, page 190, and write the exercises, page 2*71. 

But, says an Englishman, how shall I learn the pronunciation ? 
Your anxiety is commendable, but it is untimely. You do not wish 
to speak before you know how to arrange the words grammatically 

The pronunciation of the French language, which to an English- 
man seems the most difficult part of it, is in fact the easiest. I have 
known many persons who, in seven or eight lessons, have acquired 
as good a pronunciation of that language as it is possible for a 
foreigner to acquire, and there are perhaps few people who, with a 
little attention, would not learn it in twelve or fifteen lessons. If 
your mind is ambitious of surmounting all the difficulties at once, 
read the chapter on pronunciation, page 1 and following ; but I 
should deceive you if I were to tell you that you would make your- 
self perfect in that part by the single assistance of the rules which 
are contained in it ; all that I can say is, that from the repeated expe- 
riments which have been made of them they cannot lead you to a 
bad accent. It is even proper that you should cast your eyes now 
and then over those rules ; they will be of great service to you, when 
you think fit to apply to pronunciation, whether you have a teacher or 
not. But let your attention be now chiefly bent upon the Syntax ; it 
is the most difficult part of the French language ; and when you have 
made some progress in it, then will be the time for you to apply to 
the pronunciation. Knowing the meaning and arrangement of the 
words which you have to pronounce, you will make more proficiency 
in one lesson than otherwise you would make in three. 

Directions are given in the Key to parents not accustomed to 
teach languages, ivho wish to instruct their children ivith the assist- 
ance of this book how they ?nust proceed. 

ble. Then you may read any of the following works, which, I think, you will find 
both instructive and entertaining ; Numa Pompilius, second roi de Rome ; Les 
Incas, ou la destruction de l'empire du Perou ; Gonzalve de Cordoue ; Gil Bias ; 
Belisaire, by Marmontel ; Contes Moraux, by ditto ; Telemaque; Histoire de 
Charles XII., roi du Suede, by Voltaire ; Histoire de Pierre le Grand, by ditto ; 
Contes et Romans, by ditto ; Siecle de Louis XIV., by ditto ; Vie de Louis XV., 
by ditto ; Essai sur les Mceurs et l'Esprit de Nations, by ditto ;* Voyage du 
jeune Anacharsis en Grece, by Barthelemy ;f Voyages en Egypte et en Syne, 
by Volney ; Histoire de Revolutions Romanies de Suede, et de Portugal, by 
Vertot; Les OZuvres de Jouy; viz., L'Hermite de la Chaussee d' Antin ; Ditto 
de la Guiane ; Ditto en Provence ; Guillaume le franc parleur ; Les Comedies 
de Moliere ; or any other book you may have a mind to read. 

* The style of Voltaire is the easiest and the most free from idioms we have. 

f This is a charming work ; but it requires a little knowledge of ancient history, 
mytliology, and geography , to understand it. 



The French language is composed o>$ twenty -five letters, 



pronounced ah like 

a in art. 






















zhay % 








































to err. 








£ail or. 














the same sound as i. 





These are the names by which the letters are called in french ; but in 
that language, as well as in the english, the sound of several of them 
varies according to their position with other letters, as will appear by the 
following- observations.f 

* To give this letter its proper sound, the h must be pronounced aspirate. 

1 The sound of g and j, in english, is formed of dj; so general, judge, are pro- 
nounced djeneral, djudge; leave out the sound of d in french, and you will have the 
proper sound. 

2 There is no word in the english language in which the sounds of the french q 
and u are to be found, and no combination of characters can give an idea of the 
pronunciation of these two letters. The person who has them to pronounce, must 
shut his lips quite close, leaving only a small opening in the middle, as if he were 
going to blow a flute. 

t It is perhaps unnecessary to observe, that in a treatise of this kind, the minutest 
precision must not be expected. There are simple sounds which no combination ot 
characters can exactly express: every person who knows anything of languages 
must be sensible of this. 



in pat. 











see note 2. 



in pall. 



might do, 







see note 2 and 3. 



The French reckon three sorts of vowels. 

The simple, a, e, i, o, u. 

The compound, ai, #o, an, ea, eai, eau, ei, eu, eo, oe, on. 

The nasal, am, an, em, en, im, in, aim, ain, ein, om, on, urn, u/i. 


a, e, i, o, u. 

Each of these letters has two sounds common to both languages ; 

English words in ichich tne same sound is found. 
One short, as a in patte , 

e bHte, marked thus ' 
i fixe, 
o hotte, 
u mur, 

The other long, as a in pate, ~\ 

e bUe, ( 

\ fit, > marked ' 3 

6 h&te, j 

Ci mdr, ) 
N. B. The beauty of trench pronunciation depends upon a clear and distinct arti- 
culation of these five letters. 

To the two sorts of e abovementioned, must be added e mute, as in 
cela, that, pronounced sla. 

demande, requires, dmand. 

des mesures, measures, daymsur. 

This e, as you see, has no sound, but it generally affects the sound or 
the penultima, by rendering it longer, if it be a vowel, or by giving a 
sound to the consonant which, without it, would be silent ; for ex, 
6 in aim'e, mascul. loved, is pronoun, aymay, like 6\ 

i joli, pretty, 2Ao//i, 4 i>short. 

u iu, seen, vu, u) 

e in aimee, femin. loved, is pronoun, aymaye, like 6 \ 

i jolie } pretty, zholee, t. >long 

u vue, seen, vil, ti\ 

petit, mascul. little, is pronoun, pti, see note 4. 

grand, great, gran, 

jtris, taken, pree. 

but petite, femin. little, is pronoun, ptitt. 

grande, great, grand. 

prise, taken, prcez. 

In un bon chien, a good dog, the n has only a AaZ/sound. 

In une bonne chienne, a good bitch, the n has a/u// sound. 3 

N. B. emute is distinguished from the two others, by its not being accented ; it is 
never pronounced at the end of words, but when e begins a word, it is always sounded 
whether it be accented or not. 

3 A vowel with a circumflex is pronounced as long again as it would be without it. 

4 Sound the letter i as sharp as you can, sharper,' if possible, than y in pretty. 

5 To give n its full articulation, you first press the tip of the tongue against the root 
of the lower teeth, then raise it up quickly to the roof of the mouth. In the pronun- 
ciation of the above na.s>*l vowels, the articulation of n must end, when the tip oi' the 
tongue is at the root of the lower teeth, without any motion towards the roof of the 
mouth ; this is what is here meant by a half sound. 



In the monosyllables, je, me, te, le, se, ce, de, ne, que, this e has some- S 
times a weak guttural sound, similar to that of e in daughter, sister, 
because the consonant can not be pronounced without a feeble articu- 
lation of a vowel ; but it is always dropt in conversation and in familiar 
reading, when it can be done without embarrassing" the pronunciation. 
The manner in which this is effected is easy. With the last syllable of 
the preceding word, pronounce the consonant to which e mute belongs, 
and the e, thus unsupported, will remain silent ; ex. 

Quand me ferez-vous le plaisir de me preter ce livre que je vous ai demande ? 

pronounce, kam fraye vool playzeer daym pray tays livr kayzh voozayd manday ! 

But there must not be any pause between the words, and the junction 
must be as smooth as possible. 

Observe only, that a syllable ending in e mute, can not attract the 
consonant of another e mute, without giving to the first e a gentle gut- 
tural sound, like that of e in daughter, so as to render the pronunciation 
easy; ex. 

Je ne puis pas vous le dire, puis que je ne le sais pas. 

pron. zhen puee paw vool deer, pueesk zhen lay say paw. 

But carefully avoid pronouncing it like an accented e, for there is not 
any pronunciation more ridiculous.* 

Among the simple vowels is also reckoned y, which however does 4 
not increase their number, since its sound is the same as that of i. The 
peculiar use of this letter is to divide the syllable in which it is found, 
into two distinct syllables ; it is equivalent to ii ; as, 

pays, country, pron. pay-ee. 

citoyen, citizen, citwoy-eeyen. 

soyons, let us be, swoy-econ. 

joyeux, joyful, zhwoy-eeugh. 

Except in the words derived from the greek and latin, where y is kept 
to shew the etymology of the word, and is pronounced like one i only ; as, 

Egypte, Egypt, ayzheept. 

iyrannie, tyranny, teerannee. 

Uymologie, etymology, ayteemolozhee. 

mythologie, mythology, meetolozhee. 

* In the pronouncing of this e consists much of the neatness and elegance of a true 
french accent. In the southern provinces of France, especially in Guienne and Gascogne, 
they pronounce it like the acute or short £, which gives them that affected pronun- 
ciation, so much ridiculed by the rest of the inhabitants of France, under the name of 
accent gascon. For this reason a foreigner will sooner understand a native of Bordeaux, 
than a native of Paris, and may often understand the former, without being able to 
understand the latter, though if he understands the latter, he will undoubtedly under- 
stand the former. It is the frequent dropping of this e which makes a foreigner believe 
that the French speak fast, for, in reality, the French, taken in general, do not pro- 
nounce their words faster than other people do ; but by dropping this letter, they link 
two, three, or four words together, and so go quicker through a sentence than a fo- 
reigner does, who gives a full sound to every e lie meets with. Foreigners should pay 
particular attention to this, as nothing is more difficult to get rid of than a bad accent. 

B 2 



ai, ao, au, ea, eai, eau, ei, eo, eu, oe, ou. 

This sort of vowel is formed by the association of several simple 
vowels, which produce together, a sound different from that which they 
produce separately. 

\ > sounded like 6 short, i. e. ay ; as, 
eai, J v 

Vai, I have, pronounce zhay. 

je mangeai, I ate, zhmanzhay. 

5 «Mi "^ sounded like e long, i. e. aye; as, 

die, I j'avais, I had, zhavaye. 

aient, > faie, I ma y have. zhaey 

I Us aient, they may have, eel-z-aye. 

. I X e man b ea i s i I was eating, zhmanzhaye. 

eaient, ) Us nageaient, they were swimming-, eelnazhaye. 

ao, found only in aofit, august ; taon, oxfly ; faon, fawn ; paon, peacock, 
pronounced oow, ton, fan, pan, (see nasal vowels.) 


> final, sound like o short, or au, in laurel; as, 

eaw, water o. 

pe<ra, skin, jw. 

8 au, "I followed by a consonant in the same word, sounded like 6 

eau, J long, or au in hautboy ; as, 

eaux, waters, o. 

autant, as much, otan. 

9 ea, the e has no sound, but gives g the soft sound of j, or zA ; as, 

jean, John, zAan. 

mangea, ate, manzha. 

10 ci, pronounced like ef in m'gtt ; or ai in ram ; as, 

reine, queen rain. 

peine, pain, pain. 

1 1 eo, in g-eo, the e has no sound, but softens that of g into zh ; as, 

george, george, zhorzh. 

gedlier, jailer, zhUeeay. 

12 eu, the nearest idea which I can give of eu, is that of e, in to, agree- 
ably to Walker's pronunciation of that word, viz. hur. 

feu, fire, feu. 

peu, little, pen. 

N. B. e has no sound in the monosyllables, 
eu, eus, eut, e&mes, elites, eurent, eusse, had ; pronounce u, il, u, fan, Ht, ur, uss. 

13 oe, pronounced e; the o having no sound ; and the words in which it 
was found formerly being now generally spelled without it ; as, 

cceiw, heart, keur. 

awvres, works, euvr. 

14 ou, pronounced like oo in cook, book, look; as, 

coup, blow, koo. 

bout, end, boo. 

A'} N. B. If one of the vowels is accented, or marked over with two dots("), 

the vowels form distinct syllables, and are pronounced separately ; as, 

fleau, scourge, flay-o. 

na'iveti. ingenuousness, na-ivtay. 



am, an, em, en, im, in, aim, a in, ein, om on, um, un. 

have all the same sound, that of en in encore, or an in want, ob- \ 6 
serving to give the n only a half sound ; See note 5. 

ambition, ambition, anbiseeon. 

empire, empire, anpeer. 

enfant, child, anfan. 

anglais, english, anglaye. 

vengeance, revenge, vanzhance. 

ornement, ornament, ornayman. 

en has the sound of en in when, giving n only a half sound ; See note 5. 1 « 

1. In foreign names ; as, 

mentor, mentor, mentor. 

2. At the end of words ; as, 

examen, examination, egzamen. 

Men, well, beeyen. 

entretien, conversation-, antrayt-yen. 

N. B. ent has no sound at the end of the third person plural of 18 

verbs ; as, 

Us eurent, they had, eelz-ur. 

ilsfurent, they were, eel fur. 

Us aimerent, they loved, eel-z-aymayr. 

have all the same sound, a sound similar to that of in in fine, 19 
giving n only a half sound ; See note 5. 

imparfait, imperfect, ineparfay. 

infini, infinite, inefini. 

cousin, cousin, masc. coozine. 

fin, end, fine, 

faim, hunger, fine. 

pain, bread, pine. 

scin, bosom, sine. 

But if in, either in the first or last syllable of a word, is followed by a 20 
vowel, it is sounded like the english preposition in; as, 

inaccessible, inaccessible, inaksessible . 

inutile, useless, inutil. 

fine, fine, fin. 

cousine, cousin, femin. coozin. 

badine, playful, bad-in. 

. ' I are sounded like on in wont, observing always to give n only a 21 

° 71 ' I half sound : See note 5. 
eon, J 

compter, to count, contay. 

donjon, dungeon, don-zhon. 

pigeon, pigeon, peezhon. 

mangeons, let us eat, man-zhon. 

N. B. The English are apt to open their mouths too much in pronouncing on, by 
which means, instead of sounding it like on in icont, they sound it like an in want. 
They should guard against this. 

um, \ have all the same sound ; but no exact idea can be given of it, 22 
un, > unless it be that of un in fungus ; observing not to give n its 
eun, J full sound; See note b. 

parfum, perfume, parfun. 

chacwn, each, shak-un. 

(ijeun, frtslm<r, azhun. 





oiiffs are a union of several vowels, which, though they produce 

different sounds, are pronounced at the 

same breath; 

ia, sounded like ya in 

yard. ex. 






y e - 














to mew, 










a galley crew, 


iant, 1 


















oe, \ 
oue, J 






°h }g 

mot, toi, 

I, thou, 

mwoa, twoa. 










oudn,\ . 
ouen, J 


















oui, rejoui, 

yes, rejoiced, 

tve, rayzhwee. 

d c shat 

pronouncing this u 
your lips as direct- 
note 2. 

hii, fruit, 

him, fruit, 



lid, frui, no. 4. 


G To remove the embarrassment which learners find in the pronunciation of oi, which 
is sometimes pronounced like the diphthong oi, and sometimes like the compound vowel 
ai, in words which are entirely similar, I have through all this work spelled with oi 
the words which are pronounced woa, and with ai, those which are pronounced ay. 
It will perhaps be argued that this is contrary to the opinion of the french academy. 
I respect the opinion of the french academy, as much as any man can do, when it is 
consonant to reason ; but the opinion of no man, let his rank and talents be ever so 
eminent, nor of any corporation of men, however pompous their appellation may be, 
can be put in competition with reason. Now is it reasonable that two sounds so very 
different should be expressed by one sign ; exposing the learner to innumerable mis- 
takes, when by the mere change of a single letter, another sign can so easily be 
formed, which removes every difficulty ? The following words, for instance, are given 
to a foreigner to pronounce, or even to a native of France, who never heard them pro- 
nounced before : 

Francois, danois, suedois, chino\s, bourgeois, chamois, /oi, paroisse, percoit, fyc. 
Francois, anglois, hollandois, japonois, bougeois, charmois, foible, paroisse, percoit, fyc. 

The stranger is told how to pronounce the words in the first line ; he pronounces 
them well ; he goes on confidently to the second line, naturally thinking that the same 
letters ought to produce the same sound : what must his astonishment be, when he is 
told that oi in the words contained in the second line is pronounced quite differently 
from what it is in the words contained in the first, the first being pronounced troa, and 
the second ay ; and how much greater will his surprise be stili, when he finds that 
even in the same word such as t>oyois, croyois, fyc. (see rule 4) oi has two different 
sounds, the first syllable being pronounced woa and the second ay. And have you 
no means, the stranger will say, of removing this insuperable difficulty? Yes, we 
have, and a very easy one too ; you have only to change o into a in the words which 
are to be pronounced ay, and the whole difficulty will vanish ; but the french aca- 
demy do not approve of it. Oh! never mind the french academy, the stranger will 
say. Nor do the French, it seems, mind it much, for these great censors of the lan- 
guage have the mortification to see that, in almost every book now printed in France, 
this diphthong is spelled contrary to their arrogant and unreasonable decision. In 
vain they will say that ai does not express the exact sound that we wish to express ; 
if it removes a great difficulty, if nothing better is offered, if it is the best representa- 
tive of this sound that we can find, and is a sign which nobody can mistake, we must 
be satisfied with it, till the french academy deign to favour us with a better. — (See 
Dictionnaire Phihsophique, art. A.) 



General Rules. 
The french language admits of two modes of pronunciation : one for 
poetry and oratory, the other for conversation. 

In repeating verses, and in oratorical discourses, the final consonant ^ 
of a word is generally sounded, when the word which follows it begins 
with a vowel, or h mute ; as, 

D'nn pinceau delicat, V artifice agreable, 
Du plus afreux objet,fait un objet aimable. 
Des dons exterieurs Vuniformite lasse, 
Mais V esprit a tovjours une noutelle grace. 

The above lines must be read in the following' manner ; 
Dun paineso daylika lartifice agrayable, 
Dupluz-afreu-z-obzhay fay-t-un-obzhay-t-aymable. 
Day don-z-extayrieur luniformitay lass, 
May layspri-t-a toozhoor-z-un noovayl grass. 

In conversation, the ear alone being consulted, opinions greatly differ. ^ 
Some are for sounding the final consonant of every word, when the word 
which follows it begins with a vowel ; others, and this seems to be the 
opinion of the best informed persons, maintain that the final consonant of 
a word should be sounded on the initial vowel of the next, only when 
the two words are so connected that the second word is. necessary to 
complete the sense ; such as, 

(I SG-v.-d.zh. 

vti-t-om. (7) 

Article and noun ; 

un enfant, a child, 

cet hirer, this winter, 

a son age, at his age, 

les artifices, the artifices, 

des hommes, of men, 

Adjective before the noun ; 

bon ouvrage, good work, 

grand espace, great space, 

petit homme, little man, 

fros oiseau, large bird, 

eaux habits, fine clothes, 

Pronoun with the verb, and verb with the pronoun ; 

il est, he is, i-ll-aye. 

est-il '{ is he ? aye-t-il ! 

sont-elles'} are they? son-t-ell'l 

nous avons, we have, noo-z-avon. 

vous en avez, you have some, voo-z-anavaye 

les ont-Us'i have they got them? lay-z-on-t-eel l 

Preposition with the noun, pronoun, or verb that follows it ; 

without friends 
with her, 
in going, 
to their house, 
after having, 






sans amis, 
avec elle, 
en allant, 
chez eux, 
apres avoir, 

Adverb before the adjective or participle ; 

bien honnete, very honest. beeyen-onayt 

plus habile, more clever, plu-z-ah-bill. 

tres aimable, very lovely, tray-z-aymable 

fort utile, very useful, for-t-utill. 

trop ignorant, too ignorant, iro-p-inyoran. 

N. B. There are a few other instances in which a final consonant 
may be sounded on the following vowel, but they can hardly be reduced 

(7) We sound the final consonant of an adjective upon a noun, but not the final consonant of a noun 
upon an adjective ; so, though 
petit enfant, is pronounced pti-t-anfan. 

enfant aimau'le could not be pronounced anfan-t-aymo,ble, out an/an aymable. 



General Rules. 

to rules, as it chiefly depends on the number of letters of the same sound 
that follow one another. The surest way for a foreigner is to confine 
himself to the general rules which apply to nine-tenths of the words the 
final consonant of which is to be sounded on the following vowel. The 
rest must be learned from the conversation of well informed persons.* 
26 The foregoing instances excepted, the final consonant of words, in 
general, has no sound in french. See the particular rules for consonants 
under their respective heads. 

* As in music, it is the diversity of sounds that produces melody ; so it is with 
languages. The union of the final consonant of some words, to the initial vowel of 
the word which follows them, being done to disencumber the language of too great 
a number of monosyllables, and to render it more melodious by a greater variety of 
sounds ; the rule given by some persons, that every word ending with a consonant 
should be joined to the following word, when it begins with a vowel, is totally erro- 
neous, and produces the very effect which this union is intended to remove. It is true, 
that in reading verses, the final consonant is generally joined to the following vowel, 
to preserve the measure of the verse ; and, in public speeches, the consonants are 
also often sounded at the end of words, to give a stronger impulsion to the air, and 
to be heard at a greater distance ; but in familiar reading, and in conversation, this 
is carefully avoided by all unaffected people. 

If any authority be necessary to support what I advance here, 1 trust that of Vabbe 
d' Olivet, one of the most distinguished members of the french academy, will be suffi- 
cient to convince every man of candour, since it implies the opinion of the most en- 
lightened part of that body. This philosophical grammarian, in his treatise on french 
prosody, (a work which has been, and ever will be the admiration of the learned,) 
before he speaks of the effect which certain nasal terminations have in repeating 
verses, remarks, art. 3. parag. 5 

Je commence par dire que cette observation ne regarde point ceux qui forwent en prose, 
car la prose soujfre les hiatusf pourvu quils ne soient, ni trop rudes, ni irop frequents, 
lis contribuent me me a donner au discours un certain air naturel, et nous voyons en effet 
que la conversation des honnetes gens est pleine d'hiatus volonlaires qui sont tellement 
autorisds par V usage, que si Con parloit autrement, cela seroit d'un pedant, ou d'un provin- 
cial. Par exemple, lorsquun acteur recite ces vers de la premiere scene d'Athalie,Je viens 

celebrer avec vous la fameuse journee, &c. Pensez-vous etre saint ? ilprononce 

comme sil yavoit; celebre-r-avec vous pensez-vou-z-etre. Mais dans la simple 

conversation, I' usage veui qu'on prononoe comme s J il y avoit, celebre avec vous — pensez- 

vou etre, &c. And art. 2, he says On le croira si Von veut ; au moins est-il certain 

qu'au theatre ce n'est pas chose rare quhm acteur, et surtout une actrice dont les talents sont 
admires fasse adopter im mauvais accent, une prononciation irregidiere, d'oii naissent insen- 
siblement des traditions locales qui se perpituent, si personne n'est attend/ a les combatire. 
These are the words of a man, for whose opinions the french academy had the great- 
est deference ; a man who, at their request, had made this subject one of his parti- 
cular studies, and who had consulted upon it, as he himself declares, all the men of 
taste and learning with whom he was acquainted ; and they never were contradicted, 
but by persons, who, being fond of appearing singular, affect in conversation the em- 
phatic tone of the stage, without considering whether they are speaking prose or 
verse, (most of the french plays are in verse,) or by those who, looking upon singu« 
larity as an accomplishment, mimic their ridiculous affectation. 

Dans une nation qui est une par rapport au gouvernement, il ne peut y avoir dans sa ma- 
nure de parler qu'un usage Ugiiime, celui de la cour et des gens de lettres, a qui elle doit des 
encouragements; tout autre usage qui s'en ecarte dans la prononciation, dans les termi- 
naisons, ou de quelqu autre facon que ce puisse etre, ne fait ni une langue, on un idiome 
a part, niun dialecte dela langue nationale ; e'est un patois abandonne a la populace des 
provinces, et chaque province a le sie7i. Girard synori. franc, art. Langue, Langage, $c 
f By hiatus is meant a broken sound. 

1. That of fc as in case, 


2. That of s as in cease, 

c before 

a, o, a, has the 

sound of k. 

ca, ka, 



co, ko, 



cu, kn, 


c before 

e, i, or before 

a, o, u, with i 

has the sound of*; as, 

ca, sa, 



ee, se, 


to yield, 

ci, si, 



CO, so, 

gar con, 


cu, su, 





Particular Rules. 

6 is sounded at the end of proper names ; as, 

job, job, pronounce zhot>. 

Jacob, Jacob, zhakob. 

At the end of common names b is found only in 

plomb, lead, pron. plon. 

radoub, refitting-, radoob. 

This letter has two sounds common to both languages. 



kidot. (u, see note 2.) 
u, with a cedilla, this mark ( r ) under it, 

say day, 

scee. {i, see note 4.) 

rsu. (u, see note 2.) 
c final is generally sounded, and has the sound of A;; as, 
avec, with, avayk. 

public, public, publeek. (u, see note 2.) 

except the following words, in which c final has no sound; 
broc, pore, clerc, tin marc, hlanc, franc, jonc, tronc, almanac, estomac, tabac. 
ajug, pork, clerk, 8 ounces, white, frank, rush, trunk, almanack, stomach, tobacco, 
pron.iro, por, clayr, mar, Man, fran* zhon, iron, almana, aystoma, taba. 
cc, before e, i; the first c has the sound of A:, the second that of s,- as, 
succes, success, suksaye. 

accident, accident, aksecdan. 

Before a, o, u ; cc have only one sound, that of k ; as, 
accabler, to crush, akablay. 

accomplir, to accomplish, akonpleer. 

accuser, to accuse, akusay. (u, see note 2.) 

ch, generally pronounced sh ; as, 

chirurgien, surgeon, sheeruzheyen. 

architecte, architect, arsheetayct. 

ch has the sound of k in the following words ; 

christ, chrHien, choriste, archange, orchestre, chronique, chronologic 

christ, christian, chorister, archangel, orchestre, chronicle, chronology. 

pron. kree, krayiecyen, koreest 3 ar'kanzh, orkaystr, kroneek, kronolozhee. 


d final has no sound ; as, 

froid, cold, ■ frwoy. 

chand, hot, shaw. 

except at the end of a word which is pronounced at the same breath with 
another word beginning with a vowel, then d has the sound of t ; as, 

apprend-il'/ does he learn? apran-teeif 

quand il vient. when he comes, kan-t-ccl vteyen. 

d, or even dd, in the body of a word, is sounded : as, 

adjectif, adjective, adjcctecf. 

addition, addition, addeeseeon. 

* c, in the adjectives blanc and franc, followed by a noun beginning with a vowel, 
has the sound of k: as, Du blanc au noir, pronounce da blan-k-o-noir. Franc /tourdi, 
pron. J ran k-ay i oordee. (?, see note 4.) 



j final is generally sounded ; as, 

chef, chief, shayf. 

nerf, sinew, nayrf. 

bceuf, ox, bugf. 

ceuf, egg, ugf. 

except in clef, key, clay. 

bceuf s, oxen, bfigh. 

ceufs, eggs, Ugh. 

and if pronounced at one breath with a word beginning with a consonant; 
chef d'ceuvre, master-piece, shaydeugvre. 

nerf de bceuf, cow -skin, a rod, nayr d bugf. 

bceuf sale', salt beef, bughsalay. 

ceuffrais, new egg, ughfraye. 

/is sounded in neuf at the end of a sentence ; as, 

j en ai neuf, I have got nine, zhan-ay nugf. (eu, s. rule 12. y 

un habit neuf, a new suit, un-abee nugf. 

joined to a noun beginning with a consonant, /"has no sound ; as, 

neuf litres, nine livres, nugh lecvr. (eu, see rule 12.) 

dix neuf sous, nineteen pence, dees nugh soo. 

joined to a noun beginning with a vowel, f has the sound of v ; as, 
neufe'cus. nine crowns, nugh-v-aykfi. (w, see n. 2.) 

vingt neuf homines, twenty-nine men, vyngt nugf-vom. 


g final has no sound ; as, 

long, long, Ion. (on, see rule 21.) 

SI', SS** Z\ }(«»,seeru.e,0.) 

except in long acces, long fit, long-aksey. 

sang et eau, blood and water, sank-ay o. 

■ de rang en rang, from rank to rank, drank-an ran. 

g before e, i, has the soft sound of zh, or s in pleasure, or z in azure. 

ge, zhay, ghu-ral, general, zhaynayral. 

gi, zhec, gigot, leg of mutton, zheego. 

g before a, o, u, has the hard sound of g in god ; a sound nearly simi- 
lar to that of k ; as, 

ga,ka, garcon, boy, karson. (ow, see rule 21.) 

go, ko, gorge, throat, korzh. 

gu, k, guerir, to cure, kayreer. 

N. B. gu form only one sound, that of g hard, or k ; as, 
guerir, to cure, kayreer. 

guerre, war, kayrr. 

guide, guide, keed. 

except the following words, in which gu have each a distinct sound ; 
aiguille, aiguillon, ayguiser, arguer, cigue, aigu'e, ambigue, ambiguiU. 
needle, sting, to whet, toargue, hemlock, sharp, ambiguous,ambiguity. 
pron.aygueell,aygueellon,aygueesay,arguay, seegti, aygU, anbeegil, ambeegueetay 

gna, sound gny a A 

gne, gnye, \ observing to sound the n as much as possible 

gni, gnyi, j through the nose ; as, 

gno, gnyo, J 

campagnard, countryman, kanpagnyar. 

accompagnt, accompanied, akonpagnay. 

compagnie, company, konpagnee. 

ignorant ignorant, eegnyoran. 





There are two sorts of h both in freneh and in english ; the one aspU 
rate, which requires an effort of the breath ; as, 

Mros, hero, hayrow. 

hasard, hazard. hazar. 

the other mute, which has no sound, and serves only to shew the ety - 
mology of the word j as, 

honneur, honour, onhur. (eu, see rule 12.) 

histoire, history, eestwoyr. 

N. B. These two sorts of h are often embarrassing to the learner ; they are marked 
in dictionaries, but one should always bear some characteristic mark in writing. The 
h mute that occurs through the subjoined exercises will be preceded by an apostrophe. 

ch, pronounced sh ; as, 



sha. (see c.) 

ph, pronounced/; as, 



rh, sounded r ; as, 




rhugm. (u, see note 2.) 

th, sounded t ; as, 



may tod. 

j, pronounced zh, or like s in pleasure, leisure, or z in azure; as, 

jardin, garden, zhardine. (in, see rule 19.) 

jour. day, zhoor. 

k, the same sound in freneh as in english ; as, 

kan. {an, see rule 16.) 

kan, kan, 

Stockholm, Stockholm, 


/ final is generally sounded ; as, • 

sel, salt, sayl. 

fil, thread, feel, (i, see note 4. J 

cheval, horse, shval. 

except baril, chenil, coutil, fusil, fenil, fils, gril, outil,percil, sourcil, sodl. 

barrel,kennel,ticking,gun, hayloft, son, gridiron, tool, p;vrsley,eyebrow,drunk. 

Dron. baree, shnee, kootee, fusee Jnce, fee, gree, ootee,pcrsee, soorsee, soo. 

I. In the pronouns il, Us, some sound the I in all instances ; others 
sound it only when it is followed by a vowel ; opinions being divided, / in 
il, Us, followed by a consonant, may either be pronounced or dropt ; as, 

il a, he has, eel-a. 

il dit, he says, eel dee, or ee dee. {i, s. n. 4.) 

Us ont, they have, eel -z- on, or ee-z-on. 

Us disent, 'hey say, eel deez, or ee deez. 

In conversation / is not sounded in 

queique, some, kayk. 

quelqu'un, somebody, kaykun. 

II, in general are both sounded the same as in english ; as, 

allegorie, allegory, al-laygoree. 

illustre, illustrious, il-luslr. {u, see note 2.) 

But 11 preceded by i in the middle, and at the end of words, must 




be sounded like ill in the word million; as, 

also il in 



















gentil homme, 












{and all words 
ending in ail 

except the following words, in which one I only is sounded ; 

argille, camomille, distille, imbe'cille, mille, ville, pupille, tranquiUe* 

clay, camomile, distil, imbecile, thousand, town, pupil, quiet 
pron. arzheel, kamomeel, deesteel, inebayceel, meel, veel, pupeel, trankeel. 

m, at the end of a word, and in the first syllable of words beginning 
with com, has only the half sound of n. See note 5. 



fine, (in, see rule 19.) 



non. (on, see rule 21.) 



conpleeman. (an, rule 16.) 

m has no sound in 


to damn, 

dawnay ; and derivatives. 







but m has a full sound in 














to indemnify, 










somnanbul. (see note 2.) 

mm, only one sound ; as, 







except in the first syllable of the words beginning with imm ; as, 
immortel, immortal, im-mortayl. 

immense, immense, im-manss. 

What has been said of m may be applied to n. 

ii, at the end of a word, or in the first syllable of words beginning 
with con, has only a half sound. See note 5. 

br . ead > P™ e ' } (in, s. rule 19.) 

wine, tine. J v ' J 

condition, condeeseeon. (on, rule 21.) 




nn, only one sounded. 

except the following words, 
annuel, * 

to know, 


in which nn are both sounded ; 

annotation, an-noiasscon. 

annual, an-nuel ; and derivatives. 

to annul, an-nulay 

innate, in-nay. 

to innovate, in novuy ; and derivatives. 




p final is not sounded, even when it is followed by a vowel ; as 

un hup, a wolf, un loo. (u, see note 2.) 

ce drap est bon, this cloth is good, sdra aye bon. 

except in cap, cap, cap. 

cep, stock of a vine, sayp. 

p in trop and beaucoup, joined to a word beginning with a vowel, is 
sounded ; as, 

trop entete, too obstinate, tro-p-antaytay. 

beaucoup etudU, much studied, bokoo-p-aytudeeay. 

followed by a word beginning with a consonant, p has no sound; as, 
trop stupide, too stupid, iro stupeed. («, see n. 2.) 

beaucoup d'affaires, much business, bolcoo daffayr. 

p is sounded in 

baptismal, sceptique,septembre, septentrion, accepter, excepter, dompter. 
baptismal, sceptick, September, north, to accept, to except, to subdue, 

pron. bapteesmal, saypteeck, sayptanbr, sayptantreeon, aksayptay, eksayptay, domptay. 

but p is not sounded in 

bapteme, compte, exempt, prompt, manuscript, symptbme, sept, sculpteur, temp 
baptism, account, exempt, quick, manuscript, symptom, seven, sculptor, time 
\ixoxi.bataym, cont, egzan, pron, manuscree, sinetom, sayt, skulter, tan. 

pp, one only sounded ; 

appearance, aparanss. 

to belong, apartneer. 


ph, sounded f; as, 



q final is found only in coq and cinq ; 
q is sounded, and has the sound of A: in 

coq, cock, 

coq t\ Vane, idle tale, 

but it is not sounded in 

coq d'inde, turkey-cock, 

q in cinq substantive, is sounded k ; as, 

un cinq de pique, a five of spades, 

a cinq pour cent, at five per cent, 

trois et deux font cinq, three and two are five, troa-z-ay dughfon synk. 

in cinq, prefixed to a noun, and pronounced at the same breath with 
it, q is sounded if the noun begins with a vowel or h mute; as, 

cinq hommesj five men, synk om. (in, s. rule 19.) 

vingt cinq ecus, twenty-five crowns, vyngt synk aykd. 

if the noun to which cinq is prefixed, begins with a consonant, q is not 
sounded : as, 


cok a laivn. 

co dynd. (in, see rule 19.J 

un synk dpeeck 
a synk poor san. 

five boys, 
five ffirls, 

sine karson.\.-. , .„ » 

sinefeell. )W.rulel9.) 

cinq garcons, 

qu has only one sound, that of k; as, 

qui, who, kee. (i, see note 4.) 

quatre, four, kutr. 

qualiU>, quality, kalectay. 

marquis, marquis, markee. 

except the following words, in which qu are pronounced kw : as in 
english : 

aquatique,^quateur, quadrature, quadruple, quadrupede, quadragenaire,' quarto. 

aquatic, equator, quadrature, quadruple, quadruped, forty years old, quarto 
pron. ukwateek, aykicater,kwadratur, kwadrnple, kwadrupayd,kv:adrazhaynayr,kwarto. 

for, because, 




to arrive, 





r is sounded at the end of all words ; as, 

except the words ending* in er or iei\ of more than one syllable, in which 
the r has no sound, but it gives to e the sound of e short, i. e. ay ; as 
aimer, to love, aymay. 

holier, scholar, aykoleeay. 

and in monsieur, sir, moseeugh. 

r is not sounded in notre, voire, quatre, joined to a noun beginning 
with a consonant ; as, 

notre maison, our house, not wayzon. {on, rule 21.) 

voire chapmu, your hat, vot shapo. 

quatre livres, four livres, kat leevr. 

but r is sounded when notre, votre, quatre, are joined to a noun begin- 
ning with a vowel ; as, 

votre ami, our friend, notr-amee. 

votre honneur, your honour, votr-onhur. (eu, see rule 12.) 

quatre ecus, four crowns, hatr-ayM. 

and in notre pire, our father, notr-payr, lord's prayer. 

notre dame, our lady, notr-dam, virgin mary. 

r is always sounded in 

le notre, ours, Inoutr. 

le ventre, yours, Ivowtr. 

rr, only one is sounded ; as, 

arriver, to arrive, areevay. 

arroser, to water, arozay. 

except in the first syllable of the words beginning with irr; as, 
hre'gulier, irregular, ir-rayguleeay. 

irrtprochable, irreproachable, ir-rayproshabl. 

This letter has two sounds common to both languages, the first hard 
or aspirate, like c soft ; as, 

somme, sum, sum. 

the other soft or liquid; like z ; as, 

rose, rose, rote. 

s, at the beginning of a word, or in the body of a word, when it is pre- 
ceded or followed by a consonant, is always pronounced hard or aspirate, 

salut, safety, salu. (u, see note 2.) 

souper, supper, soopay. 

personne, nobody, payrson. 

s, between two vowels in the body of a word, or at the end of a word, 
which is to be pronounced at the same breath with another word begin- 
ning with a vowel, has the sound of z ; as, 

raison, reason, rayzon. (on, see rule 21.) 

plaisir, pleasure, playzeer. 

trois hcures, three hours, troa-z-hur. 

mes en/ants. my children, may-z-anfan. (an, rule 16.) 

in other instances, s final has no sound ; but renders the syllable lo/ig ; 
trouvas tu'i didst thou find? troovaiv tu'i (u, see n. 2.) 

tes amis, thy friends, taye-z-amee. 

revenus, returned, rayvnft. (see note 2.) 

except at the end of greek and latin names which have been adopted 



n the trench language 

; as 




the trojan, 








also in as, 










aitK j s, 


but not in mars, 



flevr de lis, 


de luce, 

fiuhr dlee. 

&9 have only one sound, but always aspirate; as, 

assurer, to assure, asuray. {u, see note 2.) 

ressentir, to resent, rsanteer 

sc before e, i, have only one sound, that of s aspirate; as, 

sceptique, sceptirk, saypteeck. 

science, science, seeanss. 

sc before a, o, it, I, r, have the sound of sic ; as, 

scandale, scandal, skandal. 

gascon, gsscon, kaskon. 

scorbut, scurvy, skorbu. («, see note 2.) 

sculpt eur, sculptor, skultur. 

esclave, slave, aysklav. 

scrupule, scruple, skrupul. {u, see note 2.) 

t has two sounds, both found in satiety, pronounced saciety. 

t at the beginning of words has the same sound in french as in english, 

table, _ table, tabl. 

timidite", timidity, teemeedeetay.' 

in the body of a word t followed by i, has generally the sound of c; 

patience, patience, pawceeanss. 

action, action, akceeon. 

except the following words, in which t retains its own sound ; 

bastion, question, partie, matiere, dtions, 6tiez, sortinns, sort'iez, entier. 
bastion, question, part, matter, were, were, went out, went out, entire 
pron. basleeon, kaysteeon,partee, mateeayr, ayteeon, ayteeaye, sorteeon, sorteeaye, anteeay 

entierement, chre'tien, chrHientS, soutvn, entretien, il retient. 
entirely, christian, Christendom, support, maintenance, he retains, 
pron. anteeayrman, crayteeyen, krayteeantay, sooteeyen, antrayteeyen, il rayteeyen. 

and the words ending in tie, and tier ; as, 

amittf, friendship, ameeteeay. 

chatier, to chastise, shawteeay. 

t final is not sounded ; as, 

tout, all, too. 

il est, it is, eel aye. 

fait, done, fay. 

except in est, ouest, east, west, ayst , icest. 

lest, dot ballast, dower, layst, dot. 

brut, correct, rough, correct, brut, corrayct. 

unJat,unsot, a fop, a fool, mi fat, an sot. 

pact, exact, pact, exact, pact, egzact. 

and when it ends a word which must be pronounced at the same 

breath with another word beginning with a vowel; as, 

est-elle'! is she? aye-t-ell'i 

tout d. fait, quite, toot-afay. (see gen. rule.) 

but never in et, and, (conjunction) ay. 



t is sounded in sept, knit, substantives ; as, 

ww sept, a seven, tin sayi. (a, see note 2.) 

un huit, an eight, un hueet. 

in sept, hint, vingt, cent, joined to a noun, t is sounded when the noun 
which follows it begins with a vowel ; as, 

sept enfants, seven children, sayt-anfan: 

huit amis, eight friends, hueet-amee. (see gen. rule.) 

if the noun begins with a consonant, t has no sound; as, 

sept nacires, seven ships, say nawveer. 

cent chevaux, a hundred horses, san shvd. 

it, only one sounded ; as, 

aitirer, to attract, ateeray. 

frotter, to rub, frotay. 

v has the same sound in french as in english ; as, 

vanity, vanity, vaneetay. 

vivacity, vivacity, veevaceetay 

This letter has three sounds, viz. gz, ks, and z. 

In the first syllable of a word x followed by a vowel, is sounded gz ; as, 

exemple, example, egzanple. 

exister, to exist, egzeestay. 

followed by a consonant, it is sounded ks ; as, 

exces, excess, ayksaye. 

exposer, to expose, ayksposay. 

co is also sounded ks in 

sex, axe, sex, axle, sayks, aks. 

fluxion, fluxion., flukseeon. (w, see note 2.) 

axiome, axiom, akseeom. 

stix, plwenix, stix, pha-nix, steeks, fayneeks. 

index, pollux, index, pollux, inedeks, polluks. 

alexandre, alexander, alayksandr. 

x has the sound of s aspirate in 

six, dix, six, ten, sees, dees, 

dixsept, seventeen, deessayt. 

soixante, sixty, soassant. 

x final generally has no sound ; it only renders the syllable long; as, 
heaux, fine, 66. 

lieux, places, leeugh. 

except when it ends a word which is pronounced at the same breath 
with another word beginning with a vowel, then it is sounded z ; as, 
six amis, six friends, see-z-amee. 

beaux yeux, fine eyes, bd-z-yeugh. (general rule.) 

and when it is followed by ieme, or iemement; as, 

deuxieme, second, dughziem. 

sixiemement, sixthly, seezeemman. 

z has the same sound in french as in english ; as. 
zele, zeal, zayl. 

z final has no sound ; but renders the syllable long. 

vous avez, you hnve, voo-z-ataye 

vous parlez, you speak, voo parlaye. 

except in chez, at one's house, followed by a vowel ; as, 
chez elle t at her house, shay-z-ell. 



By prosody is meant the manner of pronouncing each syllable regu- 
larly, i. e. according to what each syllable taken separately requires. 

It is certain that some diversity must be observed in the pronunciation 
of syllables, otherwise the language would be perfect monotony ; there 
are then divers inflexions of the voice, some which raise the tone, some 
which lower it, and this is what grammarians call prosodical accent* 


I. The penultima vowel of all words ending with e mute, is long ; as, pensle, thought ; 
armee, army ; je lie, I tie ; je me fie, I trust myself; joie, joy ; j'envdie, I send ; je loiie, 
1 praise ; iljoue, he plays ; je nue, I shadow ; la rue, the street ; de la morue, cod-fish, fyc. 

But if, in these words, the e mute were changed into a masculine I, then the penul- 
tima would become short; as tier, to tie ; louer, to praise ; niier, to shadow. 

II. When a vowel ends a syllable, and is followed by another vowel, which is not 
e mute, that syllable is short; as cr'ee, created ; feal, trusty ; action, action ; Mir, to 
hate ; dout, endowed ; titer, to kill. 

III. Every syllable ending with any consonant but s, x, or 2, is short; as, site, sack ; 
lite, lake ; s'el, salt ; fa-entail, fan ; f&im, hunger ; parfum, perfume ; sein, bosom ; soin, 
care ; garchn, boy ; dtp, cape ; nectiir, nectar ; pot, pot ; sort, fate, fyc. 

IV. Every syllable ending with s, x, or z, is long ; dessdcs, sacks ; des slls, salts ; des 
pots, pots ; monfils, my son ; lapaix, peace ; la vo'ix, the voice ; le niz, the nose. 

V. Between two vowels, the last of which is mute, the letter s or x lengthens the 
penultima; as, extdse, extasy ; diocese, diocese; il pise, he weighs; bet'ise, foolish- 
ness ; franchise, candour ; rose, rose ; epouse, spouse; ruse, cunning ; recluse, recluse ; 
atse, glad; these, thesis ; vase, vessel. 

And it then generally happens, that the antepenultima becomes short ; as ils'extasie, 
lie falls into extasy; piste, weighing ; epoiisee, married, §c. for the french prosody 
requires that the penultima be strong, if the final is mute, and that the penultima be 
weak, if the voice rests upon the final. 

VI. An 5 or anx sounded, preceded by a vowel, and followed by aconsonant, always 
renders the syllable short; as, jUspe, jasper; iniisque, mask ; itstre, star; burlesque, 
burlesque; funiste, fatal; piste, track; risque, risk; poste, post; brusque, abrupt; 
juste, just ; b&rbe, beard ; barque, bark ; birceau, cradle ; infirme, infirm. 

But when there are two rr, if the two together form only an indivisible sound, the 
syllable is always long; as, arret, arrest; barre, bar; bisdrre, whimsical; tonnlrre, 
thunder ; falorre, to be hatching, #c. 

VII. When the nasal vowels am, an, em, en, tm, in, aim, ain, etn, om, on, um, 
i;n, are followed by a consonant, which is neither m nor n, and which begins another 
syllable, they are long ; as, dinsi, thus ; jdmbe, leg ; jdmbon, ham ; crdinte, fear ; trem- 
bler, to tremble ; peindre, to paint ; joindre, to join ; t'omber, to fall ; humble, humble, fyc. 

If m or n be doubled, it renders the syllable short to which the first of the doubled 
consonant belongs ; as, homme, man ; femme, ;voman ; tpigrlimme, epigram ; qu'il 
prenne, let him take ; consume, consonant ; perstinne, person, nobody. 


A, the first letter of the alphabet, is long ; as, un petit a, a little a; il ne sait ni a ni 
b, he knows neither a nor b. 

A, the preposition, is short ; as, je suis it Paris, I am at Paris ; j'faris tt Rome, 1 write 
to Rome ; as is also a in the third person singular of the verb avoir, to have ; il it de 
beaux Uvres, he has fine books ; il it He", he has been ; il it parU, he has spoken. 

At the beginning of a word a is long, in acre, sour ; age, age ; dme, soul ; dne, ass ; 
dpre, harsh ; drrhes, earnest money ; as, ace, Sfc. 

* This mark ( " ) is intended to show that the syllable is long ; this other ( u ) that it 
is short; and the doubtful syllables are marked with a grave accent, thus (*). 




These instances excepted a is short, whether it makes a syllable of itself; as in 
dpdtre, apostle ; or is followed by a double consonant, as in ttpprendre, to learn ; or by 
two consonants which are different, as in aitire', altered ; argument, argument. 

At the end of a word a is very short in the preterite and future tenses of verbs ; as, 
il aima, he loved ; il chanta, he sung ; il aimerX, he will love ; il chanterti, he will sing. 
In the articles Ut, the ; ma, my ; ta, thy ; sd, his. In the adverbs ca, here ; la, there ; 
dija, already. A little more stress is laid upon the a, in substantives borrowed from 
foreign languages ; as, sofa, sofa ; duplicata, duplicate, fyc. 

abe, always short ; as, arObe, arabian ; except astrolabe, astrolabe ; crabe, crab. 

able, short in all adjectives ; as, aimtible, amiable ; capable, capable, $c. long in most 
substantives ; as, cable, cable ; fable, fable ; sable, sand ; and in these verbs, on m'ac- 
cdble, I am overwhelmed ; je m'ensdble, I stick in the sand ; il hdble, he brags. 

abre, always long ; as, sabre, sabre ; il se cdbre, he rears ; also in the masculine 
termination ; se cdbrer, to rear ; deldbre', in tatters. 

ac, always short ; as sac, sack ; /#c,lake ; trictrac, back-gammon. See III. Gen. Rul. 

ace, long, in grace, favor ; espdce, space ; lacer, to lace ; dMticer, to unlace. 

These words excepted ; ace is short ; as, gUce, ice, looking-glass ; preface, preface. 

ache, long, in lache, coward ; tdche, task ; reldche, relaxation; je mdche, 1 chew.f 
As also in the masculine terminations mdcher, to chew ; reldcher, to relax, §c. 

In all other instances ache is short ; as, tache, a spot ; moustache, whisker ; vadie, 
cow; Use cache, he conceals himself; ilarrache, he pulls out, 8$c. 

acle, long, in il rdcle, he scrapes ; il dSbdcle, the ice is breaking ; these two words* 
excepted, acle, is doubtful; as^, oracle; miracle, miracle ; obstacle, obstacle. 

acre, long, in acre, tart ; but short in all other words ; as, diacre, deacon ; fiUcre, 
hackney-coach ; acre, an acre ; sacre du roi, the king's coronation. 

ade, always short, as, sMnOde, serenade ; cascade, cascade ; fade, tasteless ; il per- 
suade, he persuades ; il s'ivOde, he makes his escape. 

adre, short in ladre, leprous: but long in cadre, frame; escadre, squadron; even 
when the word ends with e mascul. as, mddre', speckled ; encddrer, to frame. 

afe, aphe, always short ; as, carafe, decanter; Spitaphe, epitaph ; agraffe, clasp. 

afre, affre, long, in dffre, fright ; bafre. gluttony ; short in all other instances ; as, 
balOfre, gash ; safre, ravenous. 

afle, long ; as, rdfle, a royal pair at. dice ; 'j&rdfle, I scratch ; and the same quantity 
is preserved when e final is short ; as, rdfler, to sweep away ; drafter, to scratch slightly. 

age, long in the word age, age ; but so short in all the rest that we dwell a little upon 
the penultima; portage, division; avantage, advantage, fyc. 

agne, always short, except in the verb gdgner, to gain ; je gdgne, 1 gain. 

ague, always short, bague, ring; dague, dagger; vague, wave, vague. 

ai, a false diphthong, which produces only a simple sound. When it has the sound 
of e long, it is doubtful ; as, vrai, true ; essai, essay ; but it is short when the sound 
approaches to that of £ short ; as j'ai, I have ; je chantai, I sang. 

aie, always long ; as, hdie, hedge ; plate, wound ; vrdie, true. See I. Gen. Rule. 

aye, short ; as, vous ayez, you may have ; vous payez, you pay ; vous bigOyez, you 
stammer. See II. General Rule. 

The reason of this difference between aie and aye is, that aie makes only one syl- 
lable, and that y, which is equivalent to it, dividing the word into two syllables, these 
words are pronounced as if they were spelt ai-iez, pai-iez, be'gai-iez, the first syllable 
of which is pronounced like 6 short. (See ai, compound vowel.) 

aigne, always short ; a.s,chataigne, chestnut; je daigne, I deign; il se baigne, he is 
bathing ; on le saigne, they are bleeding him. 

aigre, always short ; as, digre, tart ; maigre, lean; vinMigre, vinegar, fyc. 

ail. General Rule. When a word ends with I liquid, the syllable is short ; as, 
e'ventail, fan ; gouvemail, rudder; the a being the only vowel which is heard in the 
penultima, and the i serving only to soften the sound of the following consonant. 
This is also the case in the three following paragraphs. 

■f Formerly written lasche, tasche, with a mute s, to show that they are long. This 
is now supplied by a circumflex accent, and it should not be omitted over these words, 
as the pronunciation of a word sometimes alters its meaning. 



aille, short in meddille, medal ; and in the following verbs ; je d&tdille, I retail ; 
j , hndille l I enamel ; je travdille, I work ; but it is long in all other words ; as, je raille, 
I jeer ; il bdiUe, he yawns ; il braille, he brawls ; il nmaille, he makes poor verses. 

aillet,, short ; as, mdillet, mallet ; pdillet, pale coloured ; jdillir, to spout ; 
assdillir, to assault. 

aillon, short in mtddillon, medallion ; batdillon, battalion ; nous tmdillons, we ena- 
mel ; de'tdillons, let us detail ; travdillons, let us work. These words excepted, aillon 
is long ; as, hdillon, tattered clothes ; baillon, gag ; nous tdiUons, we cut, fyc. 

aim, ajn. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

aime. This termination is found only in the verb (timer, to love ; which is short 
as, j dime, I love ; tu dimes, thou lovest, fyc, 

aine, long, in haine, hatred ; chuine, chain; gdine, sheath ; je traine, I draw, and 
their derivatives. These instances excepted, aine is short; as, capitdine, captain ; 
fontdine, fountain ; semdine, week ; Idine, wool. 

air, aire. The first is doubtful in the singular; as, Vair, the air; chaw, flesh ; 
ielair, lightning, fyc. The second is long ; as, une pdire, a pair ; la cliaire, the pulpit. 

a is, aix, aise, aisse, all long ; as, paldis, palace ; j'avdis, I had ; j'ttdis, I was ; un 
francdis, a frenchman ; pdix, peace ; fourndise, furnace ; cdisse, chest. 

ait, aite, both short; as, Idit, milk ;, charm ; retrdite, retreat, &;c. except il 
plait, he pleases ; il ndit, it springs ; il repdit, he feeds ; lefdite, the summit. 

aitre, always long ; trditre, traitor ; mditre, master ; and other terminations of the 
same sound, though spelt differently ; as, parditre, or parditre, to appear, fyc. 

ale, alle, always short ; cigdle, cicada ; scanddle, scandal ; une mdlle, a trunk ; 
une bdlle, a ball ; except lidle, sunburning ; pale, pale ; un male, a male ; un rale, a 
rail ; and the derivatives of these words, though the final syllable be masculine ; as, 
hdU, parched by the sun ; rdler, to rattle ; pdlir, to grow pale ; pdleur, paleness. 

am, an. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

ame, always short ; ddme, lady ; rdme, oar, ream, fyc. except in the following words ; 
dme, soul ; infdme, infamous ; blame, blame ; il se pdme, he swoons ; un brdme, a bra- 
min ; and in all the preterite tenses of verbs ; as, nous aimdmes, we loved ; nous 
chantdmes, we sang ; nous parldmes, we spoke ; nousjoudmes, we played, <Sfc. 

ane, anne, always short ; as, cabdne, cottage ; orgdne, organ, Sfc. except dne, ass ; 
crane, skull ; les manes, the manes ; de la mdnne, manna ; une mdnne, a basket. 

ant. See III. General Rule. N. B. In the word comptant there is a difference ; 
when a participle, it is long ; as, je me suis trompi en comptant Vargent, I made a mis- 
take in counting the money ; and it is short when used as a substantive or adverb ; 
as, il a du comptdnt, he has ready money ; payer comptdnt, to pay in ready money. 

ap, always short ; as, cdp, cape. See III. General Rule. 

ape, appe, always short ; pdpe, pope ; trdpe, trap ; grdpe, a bunch ; onfrdppe, some- 
body knocks ; except rape, a rasp ; and rdper, to rasp, in which it is long. 

apre ; cdpre, caper ; dpre, tart ; the only two words of this termination, are long, 

aque, always short, except pdqiies, easter; and Jdques, James. 

ar, always short ; as, cdr, for; nectdr, nectar. See III. General Rule. 

arbe. General Rule. Every syllable which finishes with r, and is followed by 
another syllable beginning with a consonant, is short; as, bdrbe, beard ; bdrque, bark; 
btrceau, cradle ; inf'irme, infirm ; ordre, order, fyc. 

« are, long ; as, barbdre, barbarous ; je prepare, I prepare ; but when the last syllable 
is not mute, are is short ; as, igdre', strayed ; pripdrant, preparing ; barbdrie, barbary. 

arre. General Rule. Whatever vowel precedes two rr, if the two together form 
only one sound, the syllable is long ; as, arret, arrest ; bdrre, bar ; tonn'trre, thunder, fyc. 

ari, arie, always short ; as, mdri, husband ; pdri, wager ; Mdrie, Mary ; barbdrie, 
barbary ; except, hourvdri, uproar; mdrri, sorry ; iqudrri, squared. 

as, commonly long, as there are few words terminated in this manner in which the 
a is not sounded very open, whether the s be pronounced ; as in Pallas, Pallas ; as, 
ace ; or whether it be mute, as in tds, heap ; tu as, thou hast ; tu aimds, thou loveust. 

ase, always long ; as, base, basis ; Pegdse, Pegasus ; emphdse, emphasis ; extdse, 
extasy ; rdser, to shave ; jaser, to chatter. See V. General Rule. 

aspe, General Rule. An s sounded, preceded by a vowel, and followed by a con- 
sonant, always renders the syllable short; as t masque, mask. See VI. General Rule, 



asse, short ; except in the substantives basse, base ; casse, cassia ; cldsse, class ; 
tchdsses, stilts ; passe, pass ; nasse, bow-net ; tasse, cup ; chdsse, shrine ; masse, mass ; 
in the feminine adjectives basse, low, base ; grdsse, fat ; Jdsse, weary ; and in the fol- 
lowing verbs ; il amdsse, he collects ; il enchdsse, he inchases ; il casse, he breaks ; il 
passe, he passes ; il compdsse, he measures ; with their compounds. 

All these words retain their quantity, even when the termination, instead of being 
mute, is masculine ; as, chassis, sash ; cdsser, to break ; passer, to pass. 

Add to these the first and second persons singular, and the third person plural of 
verbs, terminated in asse, Asses, Assent, in the subjunctive ; as, j'aimdsse, I might love ; 
tuaimdsses, thou mightest love ; Us aimdssent, they might love. 

at, long in the substantives bat, a pack-saddle; mat, mast; appdt, bait; degdt, 
havock ; and in the third person singular of the perfect of the subjunctive il aimdt, he 
might love ; il chantdt, he might sing ; il parldt, he might speak, fyc* 

In all other substantives, in adjectives, and in the present of the indicative, at is 
short ; as, avocitt, counsellor ; icldt, splendour ; pldt, flat, a dish ; on se bdt, people fight. 

ate, always short, except in hate, haste ; pate, dough ; il gate, he spoils ; il mate, 
he masts ; il de'mdte, he dismasts ; and in the second person plural of the preterite 
tenses of verbs, terminated in cites; as, vous aimdtes, you loved ; vousparldtes, you spoke. 

atre, short in qutitre, four ; and in bdtre, to beat, with its derivatives, abiitre, to pull 
down ; combtttre, to fight, fyc. 

These instances excepted, atre is always long; as, idoldtre, idolatrous ; theatre, 
theatre ; opinidtre, obstinate ; empldtre, plaster, fyc. 

au, compound vowel. When this vowel forms a syllable which is followed by a 
mute termination, it is long ; as, duge, through ; autre, other ; dune, ell ; pdume, tennis. 

It is also long when in the last syllable of a word it is followed by a consonant ; as, 
hdut, high ; chdud, hot ; chdux, lime : faux, false ; except Pdui, Paul. 

But au is doubtful when it precedes a masculine syllable ; as, dubade, serenade ; 
dudace, audacity ; dutonne, autumn ; dugmenter, to increase ; duteur, author ; and 
when it is final ; &s,joydu, jewel ; cotedu, hillock ; coutedu, knife. 

ave, short in rdve, radish ; cttve, cellar ; on pdve, they are paving ; but oftener long; 
as, entrave, shackles ; grave, grave, serious. 

But when v instead of being followed by e mute, is followed by a masculine sylla- 
ble, the preceding syllable is short ; as, grdvier, gravel ; aggrdver, to aggravate. 

brave preceding its substantive is short ; as, un brdve homme, a well-behaved 
man ; but long when it comes after it ; as, un homme brave, a brave or courageous man. 

avre, always long; as, hdvre, harbour; caddvre, corpse. 

ax, axe, always short ; as, Ajttx, Ajax ; thordx, thorax ; bordx, borax ; dxe, axle ; 
tttxe, tax ; parallkxe, parallax. 


The French distinguish three sorts of e, which express different sounds ; the differ- 
ence of which is perceived iufermete', firmness ; UonnUeU, honesty. 

The first e in each of these words, is long, the second mute, and the third short. 

E mute is also called feminine ; the others are called masculine. 

There is no accent over e mute, the short requires an accute accent, and the long a 
grave, or a circumflex, but it is found sometimes without any of these signs, as ap- 
pears in the first syllable of the word fermeU. 

With respect to e mute, it is sufficient to know that it never begins a word, and 
that it is seldom found in several consecutive syllables ; for if it is found in some 
compound words, such as revenir, to return ; redevenir, to become again ; entreienir, 
to entertain ; at least this never happens at the end of a word ; thus the e which is 
mute or feminine in the penultima of the infinitive of verbs ; as, appeler, to call ; peser. 
to weigh ; mener, to lead ; devoir, to owe ; concevoir, to conceive, becomes masculine^ 
or is changed into the diphthong oi, in the tenses which end with e mute; j'appde. I 
call ; il pise, he weighs ; ii mine, he leads ; Us doivent, they owe ; Us congoivent, fyc. 

For the same reason, though we make e mute in cliapelain, chaplain ; chandelier, 
candlestick ; celui-ci, this ; faime. I love ; je chante, I sing ; we sound it in chap'tlle, 
chapel ; chandille, candle ; cille, that ; aime-je, do I love ? clianti-je, do I sing ? 

For such is the genius of the french language, that the penultima be strong, if the 
final is mute, and that the penultima be weak, if the voice rests upon the final. 

* Formerly spelt with an s mute, to show that they are long ; as, bast, mast, il 
aimast, vous aimastes, &c. This is now supplied by a circumflex accent, b&t, mat, &<;. 



eble, ebre, ec, ece, always short ; as, hicble, wallwort ; funibre, mournful ; bic, 
bill ; niece, niece. 

eche, long and very open in blche, spade; llche, thin slice; grilche, noisy; plche, 
fishing; peche, peach ; il emplche, he prevents ; il deplche, he dispatches ; il prlche, he 
preaches. Short in caliche, calash ; fliche, arrow ; meche, match ; creche, crib ; seche, 
dry, the cuttle-fish; breche, breach ; on peche, people sin. 

ecle, ect, ecte, dre, ede, eder, all short ; as, siicle, age ; respect, respect ; inside, 
insect; cidre, cedar; remide, remedy; cider, to yield ; possider, to possess, 8$c. 

e'e. General Rule. The penultima vowel of all words ending with e mute, is 
long ; as, pensce, thought ; armle, army ; je lie, I tie. See I. General Rule. 

e'e'. General Rule. When a vowel ends a syllable, and is followed by another 
vowel which is not e mute, that syllable is short; as, cr'ee, created ; fiat, trusty; 
action, action; Mir, to hate ; tiler, to kill, §c. See II. General Rule. 

ef, effe ; the first is short ; as, chef, chief; brif, brief, short. The second long; 
as, greffe, graft, the rolls ; je grlffe, I graft. 

effle, long, in nlfle, medlar ; short in trifle, trefoil, club. 

ege, egle. The first long ; as, sacrilege, sacrilegious ; college, college ; siege, seat, 
siege. The other short ; as, regie, rule ; siigle, rye, 8?e. 

EGKE, eigne. The first is doubtful ; as, regne, reign ; duegne, duenna. The other 
is short; as, peigne, comb ; enseigne, sign; quilf eigne, let him pretend. 

egke, EGur, short ; as, nigre, negro ; intigre, upright; begue, a stammerer ; colligue, 
colleague ; il ullegue, he alleges, fyc. 

EJL, eille, short; as, soliil, sun; sotnmeil, sleep; abeille, bee; bout'eille, bottle ; the 
only exceptions are, vilille, old woman; rilillard, old man ; viiillesse, old age. 

EiN, eint. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

eine, short; as, veine, vein; peine, pain; the only exception is rline, queen. 

einte, always long; as, attlinte, stroke ; flinte, feint. 

el, always short; as, sel, salt; cruel, cruel, fyc. See III. General Rule. 

ele, elle, long in zlle, zeal; polle, frying pan; frile, frail ; pile mile, confusedly ; 
grlle, hail; il se i ele, it cracks ; la brtbis bile, the sheep bleats. 

These instances excepted, ele, elle, is always short ; as, modcle, model ; fidele, 
faithful; rebille, rebellious; mart elle, mortal, fyc. 

em, en. See III. and VII. General Rules ; and sound the final consonant in item, 
item; BUhUem, Bethlehem; amen, amen; himen, hymen; examin, examination. 

ejie, doubtful in cremc, cream ; short in Je sime, I sow ; il sime, he sows ; and long 
in all other words; as, baptlme, ba.ptism; diadlme, diadem ; mime, even, fyc. 

.ene, long in chine, oak; cine, the lord's supper; seine, scene; glne, rack; aline, 
awl ; rlne, rein ; frlne, ash-tree ; arlne, area ; pine, the bolt of a lock ; and in the pro- 
per names, Athlnes, Athens; Diogenes, Diogenes; Me'clne, Maecenas, Sfc. but short in 
phenomene, phenomenon; e'bene, ebony; etrenne, new year's gift ; qu'il prinne, let him 
take ; qu'il vienne, let him come ; and in all words in which the consonant is doubled. 

epe. epre, always long; as, gulpe, wasp; crlpe, crape; vlpres, vespers; except 
lepre, leprosy. 

efte, eptre, ectre, always short; as, pre'eipte, precept; il accipte, he accepts; 
sceptre sceptre ; spectre, spectre. 

eque, ecoue, always short ; as. gricque, greek ; bibliotheque, library ; obsiaues, fu- 
neral, fyc. except evlque, bishop : archeveque, archbishop. 

er is short in Jupiter, Jupiter; Lucifer, Lucifer ; Uhir, aether ; cher, dear ; cancer, 
cancer ; pater, the lord's prayer ; mugister, a country schoolmaster ; f rater, a surgeon's 
apprentice; and long in fir, iron; enf er, , hell ; Ugtr, light; mlr, sea; amir, bitter; 
hivlr, winter; but it is doubtful in the infinitive oi verbs when the r is sounded with 
the following vowel, as is always the case in repeating verses. 

erbe, erce, erse, erche, ercle, erde, erdre, all short. See the General Rule 
under arbe. 

erd, ert, doubtful : as, concert, concert; ouvert, open ; desert, desert, wilderness; 
il perd, he loses ; le verd, green, <5fc. 



ere, doubtful; as, chimere, chimera; pere, father; sincere, sincere; il espere, he 
hopes, fyc. but long in the third person plural of the perfect tense of verbs ; as, Us 
alterent, they went ; Us parllrent, they spoke ; Us chantlrent, they sang, 8fc. 

erge, ergue, erle, erme, erne, erpe, all short. See arbe, General Rule. 

err, always long when agreeably to the general rule, the two rr form only one in- 
divisible sound; as in guerre, war; tonnlrre, thunder; nous vtrrons, we shall see; 
short when the two rr are pronounced separately ; as, erreur, error; terreur, terror, 8fc. 

erte, ertre, erve, all short. See arbe. General Rule. 

esse, long in conflsse, confession; prlsse, press; comprlsse, compress; exprlsse, ex- 
press ; clsse, ceasing; on s'emprlsse, they are eager; ilprofisse, he professes. 

These instances excepted, esse is short ; as, tendresse, tenderness ; paresse, laziness ; 
carcsse, caress ; jeunesse, youth, 8fc. 

esque, este, estre. See VI. General Rule. 

et, long in arret, a decree ; benlt, a simpleton ; forlt, forest; genet, broom; pr'et, 
ready ; aprlt, preparation ; acquit, acquisition ; inte'rlt, interest ; il est, he is.* 

These instances excepted, et is short; as, cadet, younger, junior; bidet, pony; ct, 
and; sujet, subject; brocket, pike, fyc. 

ete, long in bete, beast ; fete, feast ; arbalete, a cross-bow ; bolte, box ; templte, 
tempest; quite, quest; conqulte, conquest; enqulte, inquest; requite, request, peti- 
tion ; arrlte, fish-bone ; crlte, crest, a coxcomb ; fete, head ; in all other instances, 
ete is short; and the t is doubled ; as, tablUte, shelf, memorandum-book; houlette, 
crook; unless the etymology forbids doubling it, as, prophete, prophet; poete, poet. 

Honnete is short when placed before a noun ; as, un honnete homme, an honest man ; 
it is long when placed after ; as, un homme honnete, a civil man. 

Vous etes, the second person plural of the present tense of Ure, is either long or 
short, as the poet chooses. 

etre, long in lire, a being, to be ; salpltre, saltpetre ; ancetre, ancestor ; fenltre, 
window; prltre, priest; champetre, rural; hetre, beech; gultres, spatterdashes. 

In all other instances etre is short, and t is doubled, unless the etymology pre- 
vents it; as, diametre, diameter; ilpenetre, he penetrates; littre, letter ; mettre, to put. 

eu, compound vowel, short in the singular, feu, fire ; bleu, blue ; jew, game, sport ; 
vtu, vow ; neveu, nephew, Sfc. 

eve, long in trlve, truce ; la grlve, the sea-shore ; il rive, he dreams ; and the pe- 
nultima of the verb river, remains long in all its tenses ; as, river, to dream ; je rlvai, 
I dreamt; but eve is doubtful in feve, bean; breve, brief, short ; il ackeve, he finishes ; 
il creve, it bursts ; il se leve, he rises ; and the penultima of these verbs is mute, if it 
be followed by a masculine syllable ; as, achever, to finish ; il se levait, he was rising. 

euf, short ; as, veuf, widower ; neuf, new ; un ceuf, an egg ; un bceuf, an ox. 
n. b. The /is pronounced in all these words, in the singular, but not in the plural, 
except in veufs, widowers. 
etjil, short; as, seiiil, threshold ; fauteuil, arm-chair, 8fc. See III. General Rule. 

eule, long in meule, grinding stone, mill-stone. This excepted, eule is short; as, 
sevle. single, alone ; gueule, the name given to the mouth of beasts and fishes. 
eone, long in jeune, fasting ; and short in jeiine, young. 

eur, eure. The first is short in the singular ; odeur, odour ; peur, fear ; majeur, of 
age; and long in the plural odlurs, odours: but the second is doubtful, i. e. 

If eure ends a word pronounced at the same breath with another is short; 
as, la majeure partie, the major part; une heure entiere, a whole hour. If ther*> is no 
word after it, to be pronounced at the same breath with it, it is long; as, cettefilleest 
majeure, that girl is of age ; j 'attends depuis une hlure, I have been waiting for an hour. 

EVRE, doubtful; levre, lip; chevre, goat; Metre, hare; orfevre, gold or silver-smith. 
eux, euse, long; dlux, two ; prScilux, pre'cieuse, precious j crluser, to dig, 8?c. 
ex, always short; as, exemple, example; extirper, to extirpate; sixe, sex, fyc. 

* All these words, as well as those in the two following paragraphs, were formerly 
spelt with a mute s, which is now suppressed, and supplied by a circumflex, except 
in est, the third person singular of the present tense of Ure. in which « is still retained 




An observation uhicn may nave already been made, but ivhich will appear more obvious by 

reading the rules on the three remaining- vowels, is, that the number of short syllables is 

much greater than of long ; therefore, in order to abbreviate this treatise, those terminations 

will be omitted which are short without exception. 

idre, long in hidre, written hydre, for the sake of the etymology, hydra; cidre, cider. 

ie, diphthong, doubtful; as, rnlel, honey ; flel, gall; fler, proud; amitii, friendship; 
sarrlere, quarry; pousslere, dust; mien, mine; tlen, thine; dleu, god. 

ie, dissyllable, long; as, vie, life ; saisie, seizure ; ilpfie, he begs. Seel. Gen. Rule. 
ien, when a dissyllable, the two syllables are short; as, lien, tie ; Parisien, Pari- 
sian ; when a diphthong, the syllable is doubtful ; as, le mien, mine ; rlen, nothing, 8fc. 

ige, doubtful; tlge, stalk; prodlge, prodigy; litlge, litigation ; vestige, footstep; je 
m' oblige, I bind myself; il s'afflige, he afflicts himself. 

But ige is short in the tenses of these verbs which do not end with e mute, as 
sobKger, to bind one's self; afftige', afflicted. 

ile, long in tie, island; hulle, oil ; stile, stile ; tuile, tile ; presqu'lle, peninsula. 

im, in. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

ime, long in abime, abyss ; dime, tythe ; and in the first person plural of the prete- 
rite tense of verbs ; as, nousvimes, we saw; nous rSpondimes, we answered. 
ion, short; as, action, action ; passion, passion. See II. General Rule. 

ire, doubtful, empire, empire; icrlre, to write; il souplre, he sighs; long in the 
third person plural of the perfect tense of verbs ; Us punirent, they punished ; Usfirent, 
short before a masculine termination ; as, soupirer, to sigh ; desirer, to wish, fyc. 

Ise, long ; as, remise, coach-house ; surprise, surprise ; fe'puise, I exhaust ; ilsdisent, 
they say ; qu'ils Usent, let them read. 

isse, always short ; as, saucisse, sausage ; re'gUsse, liquorice ; except in the perfect 
of the subjunctive; 8iS,jefisse, I might do ; Us punissent, they might punish, 8fc. 

it, long only in the third person singular of the perfect of the subjunctive; as, il 
dit, he might say; ilf'it, he might do ; ilpunit, he might punish, fyc* 

ite, long in benite, blessed ; gite, the seat of a hare ; vite, quick ; and in the second 
person of the perfect of verbs; as, vousfites, you did ; vous vites, you saw, 8fc. 

itre, longin^nfre, epistle ; huitre, oyster; regitre, register; but if registre is spelt 
with s, the i is short. 

1VE, long in the adjective feminine, formed from the masculine in if; as, tardive, 
late ; captive, captive ;juive, Jewess, 8fc. 

ivre, long in vivres, victuals; short in vivre, to live ; un livre, a book, 8fc. 


O, always short when it begins a word ; as, Occasion, occasion , odeur, odour, fyc. 
except os, bone ; oser, to dare ; osier, osier ; Iter, to take away ; otage, hostage ; as 
likewise in hote, host, landlord ; though we say hotel, hotel, and hotellerie, an inn. 

obe, long in globe, globe ; and Vbbe, lobe ; in every other instance obe is short; as, 
ribe, robe, gown ; il dirdbe, he robs. 

ode, long in the verb roder, to ramble ; je rode, I ramble ; short in all other instances ; 
as, mMe, mode, fashion; antiptide, antipodes; p6ri6de, period, fyc. 

oge, always short; as, iUge, praise; horUge, clock ; on de'roge, they derogate. 

oi, diphthong, doubtful at the end of a word ; as, mot, me ; rol, king ; fol, faith ; em- 
pleit, employment; short at the beginning; as, m6isson, harvest; moitie", half. 

oie, long; as, joie, joy; soie, silk; qu'ilvoie, let him see, 8fc. 

oient, termination of the third person plural of the imperfect of verbs, is long ; as, 
Us avoient, they had ; Us chantoient, they sang, fyc. whilst the third person singular of 
the same tense spelt oit, is short; as, il avUt, he had ; il chantUt, he sang, 8fc. 

oin. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

oir, oire, the first is doubtful ; as, espbir, hope ; devoir, duty, fyc. the second long; 
as, bbire, to drink ; gloire, glory ; m&mdire, memory, fyc. 

* Formerly written^, dist, punist, with a mute s, now supplied by a circumflex. 



ois, always long; whether it be a diphthong, as in fdis, time ; bourgeois, burgess ; 
Danbis, Dane ; SuMbis, Swede, fyc. or whether it be used instead of the compound 
vowel ai, as j'ttbis, or jttais, I was ; un Francois, or un Francdis, a Frenchman, 8fc. 

oise, oisse, oitre, oivre, all long; as, framboise, raspberry; pardisse, parish; cloi- 
tre, cloister ; pbivre, pepper, 8fc. 

oit, short ; as, il bbit, he drinks ; except il crbit, he grows ; and when it is used in- 
stead of the compound vowel ai ; as, il paroit, or ilpardit, it appears. 

ole, always short ; as, obole, obole ; idble, idol ; boussble, sea compass ; except drble, 
facetious ; pole, pole ; geble, jail ; mole, mole, pier ; role, a list, the part of an actor ; 
controle, control; enjoler, to wheedle, to decoy; enrbler, to enlist, and the tenses de- 
rived from these verbs ; il controle, he controls ; Us enrblent, they enlist, Sfc. 

om, on. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

ome, one, long; as, atbme, atom ; axiome, axiom ; phantbme, phantom ; trims, throne, 
8fC. except Rome, Rome ; and the words in which the consonant is doubled, which 
follow the general rule ; as, sbmme, sum ; pbmmc, apple ; consbnne, consonant. 

ons, always long ; as, nous aimbns, we love ; fbnds, land, funds ; maisbns, houses ; 
pdnts, bridges, §c. See IV. General Rule. 

or, always short; as, castor, beaver; but or, bittern, a blockhead ; enctyr, yet, still ; 
Effort, effort; but when or is followed by s, it is long ; as, hbrs, out; albrs, then; le 
corps, the body ; les tresbrs, the treasures. See IV. General Rule. 

ore, long; as, aurdre, aurora; je ddpldre, I lament ; but observe that the penultima 
of the verbs which have only one r, and which is long in the present of the indicative; 
as, je de'cbre, I dpcorate; il s'dvapbre, it evaporates ; becomes short if the termination 
is masculine; as, de'corer, to decorate; evapbrS, evaporated, and that it remains long 
in tenses in which the r is doubled ; as, il s'e'vapdrrait, it would evaporate, 8fC 

os, ose, long; as, os, bone; prbpos, discourse; a prbpos, timely; dose, dose; chose, 
thing; il ose, he dares. See IV. and V. General Rules. 

osse, long ; as, grdsse, big; fosse, pit; il endbsse, he endorses; even when the final 
is masculine ; as, grbsseur, bigness ; grbssesse, pregnancy ; fossi. ditch. 

ot, long in impbt, tax; tot, soon; ddpbt, deposit; entrepot, store-house; supbt, a sub- 
servient agent; rot, roast meat; prh-bt, provost, sheriff.* 

ote, long in bote, host, landlord ; cbte, coast, rib; maltbte, exaction of taxes ; j'bte, I 
take away ; likewise when the final is masculine ; as, cbte', side ; ote, taken away.-f 

otre. There are only three words of this termination, viz. apotre, apostle ; noire, 
our, ours ; voire, your, yours. 

As to the first it is always long; but the two others are doubtful ; not that their 
measure is arbitrary, for it depends upon the place which they keep in the sentence. 

Notre and Voire are short, when like an article they are prefixed to a substantive, 
i. e. when used for our, your; and long when they themselves are preceded by an 
article, and used as pronouns, i. e. when used for ours, yours ; so we say, je suis voire 
serviteur, I am your servant ; et moi le vbtre, 1 am yours. C'est-ld vbtre opinion, mais 
la nbtre est que, fyc. that is your opinion, but ours is that, 8fc. Lesnbtres sont excellents, 
mais lesvbtres ne talent rien, ours are excellent, but yours are good for nothing. 

If the final be mute, as in this sentence, je suis le voire, after which my ear expects 
nothing more, then the voice wants a support, and not finding it in the final re, it takes 
it in the penultima vo ; but in this other, je suis vbtre serviteur, where after voire I ne- 
cessarily expect a substantive, between which and voire there can be no intermission, 
this substantive is destined to support my voice, and 1 pass quickly over voire. 

Perhaps there is not in the french prosody a principle more extensive than this. A 
doubtful syllable which is made short in the body of the sentence, is made long if it 
comes at the end. 

Sometimes even in conversation as well as in oratory, a long syllable becomes short, 
by the transposition of the word ; for we say, un homme honnite, a civil man ; un 
homme brave, a brave or courageous man; but we say, un honricte homme, an honest 
man; un brUve homme, a weli-behaved man ; these instances have already been men- 
tioned, (See E) but can so important rules be recalled too often ? 

* Formerly spelt with an s mute, impost, rost, suppost. to show that the syllable is 
long, this is now supplied by a circumflex. 

f Formerly spelt hoste, coste, and when a syllable was to be pronounced short, 
the consonant was doubled ; as, hotte. dorser ; cotte, petticoat, fyc. 



oudre, oue, long; as, poiidre, powder; moiidre, to grind; resoudre, to resolve, #c. 
bone, dirt ; joue, cheek ; il lone, he praises, fye. but when ou is followed by a mascu- 
line, instead of a feminine termination, it is short; as, poiidre, powdered; moiilu, 
ground ; roYie, broken on the wheel ; loiie, praised, 8cc. 

ouille, long in rouille, rust ; il dtroiaUe, he gets off the rust ; il embroidlle, he em- 
broils ; il dtbroidlle, he unravels; but ouil is short when it is followed by a masculine 
syllable; as, brouillon, bad paper or writing; broYdUt, daubed; rouille, rusty, fyc. 

oule, long in moide, mould, muscle; la foiile, the crowd; il foide, he presses, he 
tramples ; il route, he rolls ; il s'e'croide, it falls down ; il se soide, he gets drunk. 

oure, ourre, the first is doubtful; as, bravoiire, .bravery ; the second is long; as, de 
la bourre, cow hair; qu'ilcoinre, let him run; but it* ou, instead of being followed by a 
mute, is followed by a masculine syllable, then ou is short, notwithstanding the gene- 
ral rule under arre; as, coiirrier, messenger; botlrrade, thrust, §c. as likewise in the 
future and in the conditional tenses of verbs spelt with rr, in which the two rr are sound- 
ed separately; as, je moxlrrai, I shall die; je coiirrai, I shall run ; je inoiirrais, &c. 

ouse, long; as, Spouse, bride ; qu'elle coiise, let her sew. See V. General Rule. 

oussE, long inje poiisse, I push; short in all other instances; as, je toiisse, I cough; 
coussin, cushion; poiissin, young chick, fyc. 

out, long in aoid, august ; coid, cost ; gout, taste ; moid, must, new wine. 

oute, long in absoide, absolution; joide, tilt; croide, crust; voide, vault; ilcoide, it 
costs ; il broute, it grazes ; jegoide, I taste ; j'ajoide, I add ; but ou is generally short, 
when the syllable which follows it is masculine ; as, ajoidcr, to add ; coYde, cost, §c. 

outre, long in poidre, beam ; and in coidre, coulter, ploughshare ; short in all other 
instances ; as, loYdre, otter ; outre, en oYdre, besides, 8jc. 


uche, long; as, biiche, a log of wood ; ruche, hive ; on dSbiiche, they dislodge, 8fc. 
but u is short, if the final is masculine ; as, bilcher, pile ; debuche, dislodged, fyc. 

ue', diphthong, found only in the word e'ctie'lle, porringer, is short. 

ue, dissyllable, always long ; as, rue, sight ; tortue, tortoise, fyc. Seel. Gen. Rule. 

uge, doubtful when the final is mute; as, deluge, deluge; refuge, refuge; short, 
when the final is masculine ; a.s,jiiger, to judge ; reftigier, to take refuge, fyc. 

ui, diphthong, short before a masculine syllable ; as, biiisson, bush ; cuisine, kitchen ; 
ruisseau, rivulet, 8fc. 

uie, long ; as, pluie, rain ; truue, sow ; il s"ennuie, he grows tired. See I. Gen. Rule 

ULE, long in the verb brider, to burn; je bride, I burn ; tu brides, thou burnest, 8fc. 

um, un. See III. and VII. General Rules. 

umes, long; as, nous fumes, we were; nous piimes, we could; nous regimes, we re- 
ceived ; nous apergiimes, we perceived, fyc. 

ure, always long; as, augiire, omen; verdure, grass, parjiire, perjurer, perjury; on 
assure, they assure ; ilsfiirent, they were; but u is short if the final is masculine ; as, 
aug&rer, to conjecture ; parjurer, to perjure; assiiri, assured. 

use, always long ; as, miise, muse ; excuse, excuse ; ruse, cunning ; see V. General 
Rule , we also say, rus6, cunning; but in the other words in which the final is mas- 
culine, u is short ; as excuser, to excuse ; refuse', refused, tyc. 

uce, usse, the first of these two terminations is confined to nouns, and always short; 
as, ptice, flea; astiice, craft, fyc. the second is confined to verbs, and is always long; 
as, je fusse, I were; je piisse, I might; Us fiissent, they might be ; except Priisse, 
Prussia ; and Russe, a Russian ; substantives in which usse is short. 

UT, short in all substantives; as, le but, the end; un dtbut, a beginning; except in 
fid, a cask ; un off id, a gun carriage ; short in the third person of the perfect tense ot 
the indicative of verbs; as, ilfiit, he was ; il v6cut, he lived ; long in the same person 
and tense in the subjunctive ; as, ilfid, he might be ; il vtcid, he might live, 8cc. 

ute, utes, short in all substantives ; brute, brute, rough, fyc. except jlide, flute ; al- 
ways long in verbs : vous fides, you were ; vous lutes, you read : vous resides, you 
received ; vous apergides, you perceived, fyc. 

It is not perhaps unnecessary to inform such readers as might be discouraged by the 
multiplicity, or by the prolixity of these rules, that it is not requisite, in order to speak 
french with propriety, that they should be observed with a scrupulous nicety, which 
few persons, if any, do, but he certainly speaks best who deviates theleastfrom them 






Acre, tart. 
Aline, awl. 
Battler, to gape. 
Bat, pack-saddle. 
Bdteleur, mountebank. 
Bedute', beauty. 
Btte, beast. 
Boite, box. 
Bond, rebound. 
Chair, flesh. 
Chasse, shrine. 
Clair, clear. 

C'orps, body. 

Cote, rib. 

Cdtc, coast. 

Cuire, to boil or roast. 

Falte, summit. 

Fete, feast. 

Faix, burthen. 

Lefole, the liver. 

Unefois, once. 

Forit, forest. 

Je goute, I taste. 

Grave, grave. 

Hale, scorching of the sun. 

Hote, host, landlord. 

Jeune, fast. 

Lacs, noose. 

L'ame, the soul. 

Legs, legacy. 

Lis, lily. 

Maitre, master. 

Male, male. 

Masse, stock. 

Mat, mast. 

Matin, mastiff. 

Mois, month. 

Mur, ripe. 

II n'est, it is not. 

II ndit, it springs. 

Pate, paste. 

Paiime, palm. 

Picheur, fisherman. 

Pecker, to fish. 

Pecher, peach-tree. 

Pene, bolt. 

Rot, roast meat. 

Sds, sieve. 

Scene, scene. 

La Scene, the communion 

Siir, sure, sure, certain. 

Tache, task. 

Tdcher, to endeavour. 

Tile, head. 

Vers, verse. 

Vers, towards. 

Virre, glass. 

Acre, acre. 

Halcine, breath. 

Bctiller, to give. 

IZ 6<ft, he beats. 

BtLtelier, waterman. 

BotU, booted. 

Bette, beet. 

IZ fcofte, he goes lame. 

Bon, good. 

CAer, dear. 

Chtisse, hunting. 

Clerc, clerk. 

Or, hunting horn. 

Or, a corn. 

■ CUte, petticoat. 

Cuir, leather. 

Faite, done. 

Fait, done, fact. 
Laftii, faith. 
Vnfouet, a rod, a whip, 
Fortt, gimblet. 
line goiitte, a drop. 
Je grave, I engrave. 
H#/Ze, market. 
Hotte, scuttle. 
Jetme, young. 
L#c, lake. 
Lame, blade. 
Laid, ugly. 
Lait, milk. 
Lft, bed. 
Mettre, to put. 
M&lle, mail, trunk. 
Mdsse, mass, mace 
iW#, my. 
Mdtin, morning. 
itM, me. 
Mitr, wall. 

Ntt, clean. 

Pdtte, paw. 
Pomme, apple. 
Picheur, sinner. 
Pecher, to sin. 
Pcchl, sin. 
Peine, punishment. 
R6t, belch. 
&¥, her. 

Siiine, wholesome. 
La Seine, the Seine. 
Siir, sour. 
Ttiche, stain. 
Tdcher, to stain. 
Tete, teat. 

"Per, worm. 
Vtrdy green. 

( 27 


An introduction 


to the 



french. l5 * 


First part. 

The language 
caracteres que 
characters as the 
nonciation de ces lettres. 
uunciation of these 55 

langues ; elles 
in both languages; they 

B, C, D, 

bay, say, 

pay, t, 

franchise est composed 

french 16 is composed of the same 

la langue anglaise 16 , excepte le W; 

des memes lettres ou 

mais la 


two or 











english, except the w ; but 

n' est pas toujours la meme 

is not always 

se prouoncent 
are pronounced in 

F, G, H, I, 

/, zhay, ash, ee, 

S, T, U, V, 

s, tay, f, ray. 








compose*e de neuf sortes 

composed of nine sorts 

commune'ment les parties doraison; ces mots sont 

commonly the parts of speech ; these words are 

am si que 

as well as 

de mots qu' 

of toords ichich 

the same 
en francais : 

french : 

J, K, L, M, 

zhee> hah, /, yn, 

X, Y, Z. 

eeks, eegrayc, zeyd. 

la langue anglaise 16 , est aussi 

is also 

on*" 5 appele 

people call, or are called 41 ' 

Le NOM, 

the noun. 


the pronoun. 


the preposition. 


the article. 

le VERBE, 

the verb. 


the conjunction. 


the adjective. 


the adverb. 


the interjection. 

* The figures at the top of the words indicate the rule to which the different sorts of 
words that compose the language are subject. The learner will do well to refer to these 
rules until they are familiar to him. They will be found at page 32, and in the following 

N. B. The english words are here placed literally under the french. It will require 
very little knowledge of the english language to arrange them in the grammatical order 
which they require. The person who is not capable of doing that, must study his own 
language, before he attempts to learn French. t See note c 2, page 1. 




Of the noun. 
T:>ut mot qui sert a exprimer 1'* idee d'* une substance, soit 

Eiery word luhich serves to express the idea of a substance, either 

reelle, comme, homme, femme, cheval, maison, soldi, lane; ou ideale, 

real, as, man, woman, horse, house, sun, moon; or ideal, 

comme, dieu, del, hoimeur, vice, vertu, s* appele NOM. 

as, god, heaven, honour, vice, virtue, is called a noun. 

De ces mots appetes NOMS, (quelques uns) ne conviennent qu'* 

Of these words called 7iouns, same — f belong only 

a une seule personne, ou a une seule chose; comme, Jean, Jaques, 

to a single person, or to a single thing; as, John, james, 

Voltaire, Shakespeare, Londres, Paris, France, Angleterre, la Seine, 

voltaire, shakespeare, London, paris, france, england, the seine, 

les Alpes,cfc. et ces noms s'* appelent noms propres. 

the alps, §c. and these nouns are called names proper. 16 

D'* autres conviennent a touts les etres de la meme espece ; 
Some others belong to all — + beings of the same kind; 

comme, homme, femme, enfant, cheval, vache,, maison, ville, 

a h man, woman, child, horse, cow, bird, house, city, 

campagne, arbre,$c. et ceux-ci s' appelent noms communs. 

country, tree, 6)C and these are called names common. 16 

Dans cette derniere classe (on comprend) les noms com- 

1»- this last class (we i6 include or are included* 8 ) the nouns com- 
poses d' idees abstraites 1 * 3 ; comme, dieu, del, dme, vice, vertu, 
pounded of ideas abstract : us, god, heaven, soul, vice, virtue, 
amour, desir, honneur, plaisir, et autres semblables. 
love, desire, honour, pleasure, and such like. 

Tl faut considerer dans les* noms, le genre, et le Jiombre. 

It is necessary to consider in — -f noims the gender, and the number. 

I! n'y a en francais que deux genres ; le masculin, et le feminin 

There - are in french only two genders; the masculine, and the feminine. 

Par masculin (on veut 45 dire) le genre ??idle 15 ; comme, homme, 
By masculine (we mean or is meant 43 ) the gender male ; as, man, 

coq, cheval, taureau, chien, chat, belier, bouc, cerf 8cc. 

cock, horse, bull, dog, he cat, ram, he goat, stag, §c. 

Par feminin (or veut 46 dire) le genre femelle 16 ; comme, femme, 

By feminine (we mean or is meant* 8 ) the gender female ; as, woman, 

poule, jument, vache, chienne, chatte, brebis, chevre, biche, 8rc. 
hen, mare, cow, bitch, she cat, ewe, she goat, hind, £fc. 

* When the monosyllahles le, de, ne, se,je, me, te, la, que, are followed by a vowel or 
a h mute, the vowel, e, a, is left out, and an apostrophe, this mark ('), put in its place. 

t The words marked under with a dash, this mark ( — ), are not expressed in english. 



Les noms des autres etres vivants 16 dont le sexe n' est 

The names of the other beings living (of which) the sex 55 is 

pas connu, (ainsi que) des e*tres inanimes 16 qu* (on* 6 appele) 

not known, (as well as) of the beings inanimate which (people call ot are called* 8 ) 

com muniment choses, et qui sont de (ce que) 

commonly things, and which are of (that which or what 40 ) 

les Anglais appelent le genre neutre, appartiennent en francjais 

the english call gender ne,uter, 16 belong in frencfi 

a V un ou a V mitre de ces deux genres. 
to the one or to the other of these two genders. 

(II y a) en francais comme en anglais, deux nombres; le singulier, 

There are in french as in english, two numbers ; the singular, 

quand on ne parle que d' un etre ; comme, un 1 homrne, une 

when we — speak only of one being; as, a man, a 

femme, une 1 maison ; le plurier, quand on parle de plusieurs etres; 
woman, a house; plural,* we* 6 of several beings; 

comme, des 1 hommes, des 1 femmes, des 1 maisons. 

as, some men, some women, some houses. 

Remarquez que le nombre plurier 1 * se forme en francais comme en 

Remark that is formed in as hi 

anglais, en ajoutant s au singulier; une 1 maison, des 1 maisons. 

by adding s to the a house, some houses. 

Excepte premierement ; les noms qui (se terminent) en 5 ou en 
Except, first ; the nouns which (terminate or end) in s or 

x dont le plurier ne diftere point du singulier; ainsi on 4G dit : 

x of which — differs not from the so we say ; 

mon^.?, mes Jils; un pois, des pois ; une noix, des noix, &c. 
my son, my sons ; a pea, some peas ; a nut, some ?iuts, §c. 

Secondement ; les noms dont le singulier (se terminer en u, qui 
Secondly ; the of which ends in u, which 

demandent un x (au lieu) d' une s pour signe du plurier ; comme, 

require an x instead of an s for the sign of the as, 

un couteau, des couteaux ; le 1 jeu, les 1 jeu x ; lieu, lieux, fyc. 

a knife, some knives the game, the games ; place, places, fyc. 

Troisiemement; les noms dont le singulier (se termine) en al, 
Thirdly; cf which ends in al, 

ail, qui changent /, ou il, en ux pour le plurier ; comme, ma\, mav\x 
ail, which cluinge I, or i\,. into ux for as, evil, evils, 

cheval, chevaux; general, generaux; travail, travaux, Sfc. 
horse, horses; general, generals; work, works, 8fc. 

* This word you will generally see in other grammars spelled pluriel; but as it is 
pronounced plurier, the same as singulier, I have thought it proper to spell it as it is 
pronounced, that it might be more easily remembered'. 



Of the article. 

Comme le meme nom peut exprimer des 8 ide'es differentes, on''- 8 

As the same noun may express N. B. ideas different, 16 we 

a adop;e des 8 signes pour designer ehacune de ces idees. 
have adopted N. B. signs to denote each of these ideas. 

Ces signes se nomment en grammaire ARTICLE ; mais comme ils 

These are called in grammar but as they 

varient avec nos id£es, les? grammairiens ne s'accordent pas sur le 

vary with our — grammarians • — agree not on 

nombre, ni sur le nom qu' on doit donner a chaque signe en particulier. 

nor name which we ought to give to each sign in particular. 

Cet accord n'est nullement ne"cessaire, il suffit d' en 24 savoir l'usage. 

This agreement 55 is (by no means) necessary, it suffices to of them know the use, 

(On verra) dans ce traits que j' ai augments le nombre des 

(It will be seen 47 ) in this treatise that I have increased of the 

signes appel^s article, parceque cela m' 85 a paru necessaire 
called because that tome has appeared necessary 

pour diminuer celui 44 des regies ; ainsi, j' appele article des 8 mots 
to diminish that of the rules ; so, I call — N. B. words 

que (les uns) appelent pronoms, que d'autres appelent adjectifs ; 

tvhich some call pronouns, which others adjectives; 

et je les 84 appele ainsi, parceque ces mots sont touts destines au 
and I them call so, because these are all destined to the 

meme usage, et que les monies regies sont communes a touts. 

same use, and that rules common 

(Afin qu') on 46 put retenir ces signes plus aisement ; 

That people might retain these more easily; 

je leur 25 ai donne des 8 noms analogues a la 

I to them have given — N. B. names analogous to the 

fonction qu' ils font dans la phrase; ainsi, j' appele 

office ivhich they perform in the sentence; so, I call 

LE, LA, LES ; DU, de LA, DES ; AU, a LA, AUX, article 

THE ; of or from THE ; to or at the, 

defini 16 , parcequ' on 43 (se sert) de ces signes pour designer que 

definite, because we use — these signs to denote that 

le nom qui les 24 suit, est employe* dans un sens defini 10 - } 

noun which them follows, is used in a sense definite; 

comme, Apportez le 1 pain, la 1 viande, les 1 habits, 
as, bring the bread, the meat, the clothes. 

J' appele DU, de LA, DES, article partitif, 16 parceque ces signes 

J call SOME, partitive, because these 

s'emploient h designer une portion de la substance, dont on 
are used to denote a' portion of the tubstarice, (of which) we* 3 



parle ; comme, Donnez-moi du 1 pain, de la 1 viande, des 1 habits. 
speak; as, give me some bread, some meat, some clothes. 

J' appele UN, UNE, et touts les autres nombres article numeral, 
I call (a, an, one,) and all the other numbers numeral™ 

lorsque ces signes s' emploient a nombrer les objets" dont on 
when these are used to number objects of which we 

parle ; comme, un 1 pain ; une 1 armee. 

speak; as, a, or one loaf; an army or one army . 

J' appele CE, CETTE, CES, article demonstratif," 

this, that; this, that; these, those, demonstrative, 

parceque c' est au moyen de ces signes qu' on 4S indique 

because it is by the means of these that we point out 

le lieu ou est 1' objet dont on parle ; comme, 

the place where is the object of which we speak, or spoken of ; as, 

ce 1 pain, cette 1 viande, ces 1 habits, 

this or that b v ead 9 this or that meat, these or those clothes. 

J' appele MON, MA, MES; TON, TA, TES; SON, SA, SES; 
MY ; thy ; his, or her, or its ; 

NOTRE, NOS ; VOTRE, VOS ; LEUR, LEURS, article possessif* 
OUR ; YOUR ; their ; possessive, 

parceque ces signes s* emploient a designer la possession de 1' objet 
because these are used to denote possession of 

dont on parle; comme, mon 1 pain, ta 1 viande, ses 1 habits. 
of which as, my bread, thy meat, his or her clothes.* 

* Some will perhaps be surprised to find under the head article, words which have 
so long been consecrated to the class of pronouns. Though they certainly partake of the 
nature of pronouns, by denoting the persons, they in reality are articles, used for the 
same purposes, in similar instances, and subject to the same rules as those words gene- 
rally known by the name of article. If it be objected, that when I say My book, the word 
My is a pronoun, since it is the same as if I said, the book of Me. I answer, that as you 
cannot change the nature of these words without substituting an article in their place, 
they are as much articles as pronouns ; and if they have no affinity at all to the syntax of 
pronouns (especially in french) and their affinity to the syntax of articles is so great, 
that the rules which are applicable to one, are applicable to all ; why should not words, 
which have so great an analogy to each other, be set in one point of view, rather than 
send the learner from chapter to chapter for what he may, and ought to find in the same 

" The genuine PRONOUN," says Harris, " always stands by itself, assuming the power 
of a noun, and supplying its place ; the genuine article never stands by itself, but appears 
at all times associated to something else, requiring a noun for its support, as much as 
attributives or adjectives."— Hermes, page 73. 

Also l'abb6 d'Olivet : j'ai dit, en premier lieu que 1'article est un adjectif ; et si je 
n'avois pas craint d'entasser trop de choses a. la fois, j'aurois volontiers ajoute que cet 
adjectif est tire de la classe des pranoms. Quand il precede un substantif on le nomme 
article ; La piece nouvelle sejoue demain ; et quand il precede ou suit un verbe, Je la 
verrai, Voyez-\&, on 1' appele PRONOUN ; mais d'ailleurs n'est-ce pas une chose qui con- 
vient a la plupart des pronoms adjectifs d'etre mis avant le NOM a, Vexclusion de /'article 
et avec la meme propriHe, comme quand je dis, ce papier, cette plume ; mon frere, votre 
sxur, &c. Essais de Grammaire, chap. 2. 




Of the and of the 


Rules general. 16 

l.Nous avons*Vufqu' (il y a) enfrancais We have* seenf - (there are) - - 

deux genres, le 1 mosculin et le 1 fcminin ; two—, — and — ; 

qu' (il y a) deux nombres,| le 1 singulier that ( ) ,j — 

et le 1 plurier ; et nous avons vu§ que 1' and - — ; .'—'.— — § — the 

article est un signe qu* on 46 met avant un 1 - is a sign which we put before - 

nom, pour designer l'id£e qu' on 46 veut expri- -, to denote the idea - toe wish to 

merparcenom; (a present) (souvenez-vous) express by that -; new remember 

que ce 1 signe appele article, doit toujours that this - called - must always 

£tre du 1 MEME GENRE et du HEME NOM- be (of the) same — -- 

bre que le 1 - nom qui le 24 suit ; exemple, as which follows it ; example. 


le pere, 
du pere, 
au pere, 
un pere, 
ce pere, 
mon pere, 
ton pere, 
son pere, 
notre pere, 
votre pere 
leur pere, 
du pain, 




MASC. et FEMIN. — • — . — and 

la mere, les enfants, 
de la mere, des enfants, 
a la mere, aux enfants, 
une mere, 

cette mere, ces enfants, 
ma mere, mes enfants, 
ta mere, tes enfants, 
sa mere, ses enfants, 
notre mere, nos enfants, 
votre mere, vox enfants, 

the father, the mother, the children, 

of the — , of the — , of the — . 

to the — , to the — , to the — . 

a or one — , a or one — . 

(this, that, -,) (this, that -,) (these, 

my — , my — , my — . [tliose -'.) 

thy — , thy — , thy — . 

(his, her-,) (his, her-,) (his, her 

our — , our — , our — . 


— , your — , your — . 
leur mere, leurs enfants, their —, their — , their — . 
aeLA viande, des habits, some b re ad, some meat, some clothes. 

2. Nous(venons de voir) ^[quel'ARTiCLE We (have just seen) that - - 
doit toujours etre du 1 meme genre, et must always be (- —) — — , 
du 3 meme nombre que le 1 nom qui le 24 suit; ( — ) — as ivhich follows it; 

* The englisli words which express the meaning of the french are placed in the margin. 
The words that have been frequently repeated, or which are the same in both languages, 
are left out, and a dash, this marlc ( — ), put in their places, that the learner may have an 
opportunity to exercise his recollection. 

t Page 28. % Page 29. § Page 30. 

j| I have frequently been asked if, having only one word to express both his and her, we 
do not often commit mistakes in the use of that word. No, we never do ; because this sign 
always refers to a noun mentioned before, the gender of which we know ; So, when I say, 
Mon frere a perdu son couteau, My brother has lost his knife ; I know by Son that it is the 
knife belonging to my brother. Ma soeur a perdu son couteau, My sister has lost her knife ; 
I know by this Son that it is the knife belonging to my sister. But suppose a gentleman and 
a lady sat at table, and both let their knives fall ; and a person said to a servant, Ramassez 
son couteau, meaning the knife of the lady, which knife would the servant pick up ? Indeed 
he would not know, but a Frenchman would not express himself thus ; He would say : 
Ramassez le couteau de monsieur, Pick up the gentleman's knife ; or, Ramassez le couteau de 
madame, Pick up the lady's knife, by which all ambiguity would be avoided. 

1 Rulel. 



cependant, comme la 1 langue francaise 16 however as 

demande une 1 certaine MELODIE dans requires a certain melody vi 

la 1 Ifaison des 1 mots, et que la 1 rencontre - union (of the) -, - that - meeting 

de DEUX VOYELLES dans de 10 petits mots of two vowels - some small words 

tels que 1'* ARTICLE, produit Ull Son de's- such as , produces a sound 

agre'able a Y oreille ; lorsque le 1 nom qui —to the ear; when - - - 

Suit T ARTICLE est SINGULIER, et qu' il follows - - is —, - that it 

commence par une 1 voyelle, ou par une 3 begins with a — , o>- with a 
H muette, on 43 emploie - mute, we* 6 use 

l' au lieu de LE, L A ; THE ; — instead of — , — ; 

deH n n du, c?eLA; of, from the ; ; 

a l* ,, „ au, a la; to, at the ; ; 

get „ „ ce ; this or that ; ; 

mon ,, ,, ma; my; ; 

ton „ „ ta; thy; ; 

son „ „ sa; his, her, its ; ; 

sans considerer le genre du nom qui without considering (ofthe)-- 

le^suit; exemple, follows it** ; example, 


L' age, L' idee, L* heure. the age, the idea, the hour. 

de tJ age, de l' idee, de l' heure. of the —, of the — , of the — . 

a l' age, a L* idee, a l' heure. u the —, to the — , to the —. 

cet age, cette idee, cette heure. thisoxthat—, this, that—, this, ihui— . 

mon age, mon idee, mon heure. my — , my — , my — . 

ton age, ton idee, ton heure. thy — , thy —, thy —. 

son age, son idee, son heure. his or her —, his, her —, his, her — 

3. L' article se repete en fran^ais avant — is repeated - — before 

touts les noms, suivant le genre et le all — (agreeably to) — and - 

nombre de chaque nom, quoique ees noms - of each— , though these — 

soient dans la meme phrase, et que 1' are in — same sentence, 

article ne soit pas repe*te* en anglais; ex. —is not repeated in—; ex. 

Le pere, la mere, et les enfants sout ici. • —, — , and — are here. 

Je VOUSP* apporte DU pain, de LA I you 24 bring some bread, some 

Viande, de l' argent, et DES habits. meat, some money, — some clothes. 
II a invite MON frere, MA SCeur, He has— my brother, my sister, 

t MES COUsinS .* and my cousins.* 

* Observe that two of the signs called article cannot be used before the same noun ; so 
we say le bras, the arm ; la main, the hand, LA dame, the lady, une dame, a lady ; MAdame, 
my lady, madam, Mrs. ; des dames, some ladies ; MEsdames, ladies ; une demoiselle, a young 
lady ; des demoiselles, some young ladies ; MEsdemoiselles, ladies ; but we do not say, le 
mon bras ; LA ma main ; la madame ; UNE madame ; des mesdames ; LA mademoiselle ; 
UNE mademoiselle ; des mademoiselles ; because each of these signs fixing the proper 
meaning of the noun, renders another sign superfluous. 

N. B. From this rule must be excepted the words monsieur and messieurs, which, 
though they are compounded of the noun sieur, and of the article mon, mes, will in some 
instances admit of the other articles ; for we say : le monsieur, the gentleman ; UN mon- 
sieur, a gentleman ; ce monsieur, this gentleman, &c. les messieurs, the gentlemen ; ces 
messieurs, these gentlemen ; nos messieurs, our gentlemen. These few singularities will 
be learnt by custom. 






Rules particular. 16 

oil Von^fait usage de I' article. 

Instances (in which) we i5 make use' of the article. 

4. L'article 6tant un signe destine* h 
annoncer l'ide*e du nom qui le 24 suit, ce 
signe serait superflu avant les noms qui, 
n' appartenant qu' a un seul etre, pre"- 
sentent d'eux memes une idee fixe 16 ; 
c'est pour cette raison que les noms de 
personnes et de villes s'emploient, en 
francais comme en anglais, sans article; 
ainsi, nous disons ; 

Xai vu Voltaire, Paris, Londres. 

Je parte de Voltaire, de Paris, de Lond. 

Jeprefere Locke h, Volt. Paris a Lond. 

being a sign intended to 

denote - idea (of the) - - follows if 24 , 

- (would be) superfluous which, 

belonging only to one being, pre- 
sent of themselves a — fixed ; 
it is fay this reason that - names of 
persons - of towns are used, in 
french as in english, without - ; 
so, we say ; 

1 have seen ■ — , — -, London. 

I speak of — , , . 

1 prefer — to — , — to — . 

5. Cette regie qui devrait s'etendre a 
touts les noms dont l'id£e ne peut changer, 
n'est pas general e en francais, comme elle 
1'est en anglais, puisque les noms de 
pays demandent l'article de'fini 16 le, 
la, les ; du, de la, jdes ; au, a la, 
aux, de merae que les noms communs 16 , 
ainsi, (quoi qu') on dise sans article; 

J'ai vu Paris, Londres ; 
il faut dire avec l'article, 

Xai vu le Portugal, la France, 
ilEspagne, HAngleterre. 

Je parte du Portugal, de LA France, 
de h'Espagne, de l 'Jngleterre. 

Je prefere iIAnglcterre au Portugal, 
la France a h'Espagne. 

6. Mais les noms' 6 de pays perdent 
l'article, quand ils viennent apres les 
\erbes qui designent demeurer, aller 9 
venir, lorsque ces verbes sont accompagne*s 
de la proposition en ou de ; car on dit: 

Je viens de France, d 'Italic. 

Je vais en Hollande, en Angleterre. 

J'ai demeure en Espagne, en Portugal. 

Et cette regie meme a encore des 
exceptions qu' on verra dans la derniere 
partie, et que je n' ai pas vouln 
rapporter ici, de peur d'embarrasser les 
commencants.f (II n'ya que) Tusag^ qui 
puisse rendre ces variations familieres. 

This rule which ought to extend to 

all (of which) - - cannot change 

is not general , as it 

is , since - names of 

countries require - — — le, 
la, les ; du, de la, des ; au, a la, 
aux, the same as - names common, 
so, though we 45 say without — ; 
I have seen Paris, London ; 
we mus't bay with , 

1 have seen the — , the — , 

the Spain, the England. 

I speak of the — , of the — , 
of the — , of the — . 

I prefer the — to the — -, 
the — to the — . 

But countries lose 

, when they come after - 

verbs - denote dwelling, going, 
coming, when - — ■ are attended 
by - - en or de ; for we i6 say : 

1 come from — , from Italy. 

1 (gc or am going) to — , to — , 

- have lived in Spain, in — . 

And this rule even has still some 
— which we shall see in the last 
-, - - - have not (been willing) 
to mention -, for fear - emoarrassing ~ 
beginners. 7 (It is only) - custom which 
can render these — — . 


7. Touts les noms communs 15 employes 13 
dans un sens general 18 oli ils n'ont point 
d'article en anglais ; comme, bread is 
good ; oil dans un sens particulier 13 ou 
ils ont 1'article the ; comme, the bread 
which i eat is good, demandent 1' 
article defini 16 le, la, les ; du, de la, 
des; au, a la, aux; ex. 

Sens general 15 ; J' aime le pain, la 
viande, les (pommes de terre.) 

Sens particulier 18 ; J' aime le pain, 
la viande, les {pommes de terre) qve 
vous m 25 avez donnes. 

Sens general ; Je parle du pain, de la 
viande, des (/pommes de terre.) 

Sens particulier ; Je parle du pain, de 
la viande, des (pommes de terre) que 
nous avons achetes. 

Sens general ; Je prefere le fruit au 
pain, a la viande, aux (pommes de terre.) 

Sens particul. Je prefere le fruit que 
fai a souper, au pain, a la viande, et 
aux (pommes de terre) quefavais a diner. 


All - names common 16 used 
in a sense - (in which) they have not 
any — in english; as, bread is 
GOOD ; or in a - -particular (in which) 

- have THE ; as, the bread 

WHICH I EAT is GOOD, require the 

— definite le, la, les ; du, de la, 
des ; au, a la, aux ; ex. 

; I like bread, 

meat, (apples of the earth, i. e. 

potatoes.) ; the — , 

the — , the — , which 
you me* 5 have given. 

; I speak of — , of 

-, of-. 

-—; . — f the—, of 
the — , of the — > which 
we have bought. 

; - prefer fruit to 

— , to — , to — . 

I have at — , to the — , to the — , — 
to the — ivhich I had at dinner. 

8. Si on veut ne designer qu' une 1 por- 
tion de la substance dont on 46 parle, il 
faut employer avant le nom, un des signes 
parlitifs 15 du, de la, des, exprimes 13 
en anglais par some ; mais il est bon d' 
observer que le signe some s'omet tres 
souvent, et que les signes du, de la, 
des, doivent toujours s'exprimer. 

II parait que ce signe est le meme que 
celui 44 de 1'article defini 16 of the, regi 
par le mot portion sous-entendu, et que 
nous avons ete obliges d'admettre iaute 
d'un autre signe pour designer cette idee ; 
ainsi, quand je dis ; 

II m' 25 a donne du pain, de la viande> 
des {pommes de terre;) 

c' est comme si je disais ; 

II m™ a donne une portion du pain, 
de la viande, des (pommes de terre.) 

If we wish to denote only a por- 
tion of (of which) we iS speak, we 

must use before , one (of the) signs 

partitive du, de la, des, expressed 

by SOME ; but it is proper to 

observe that some is left out ve^y 

often, du, de la, 

des, must always be expressed. 

It appears that this — is - same - 

that 4 * of OF THE governed 

by - word portion understood, - which 
we - been obliged to admit (for want) 
of another — to denote this idea ; 
so, when I say : 

He me' 25 has given some -, some — , 
some — ; 
it is as if - said ; 

He me' 25 has - a portion of — , 
of-, of-. 

9. Cette regie a DEUX EXCEPTIONS. I his rule has two exceptions. 

La premiere est que les signes partitifs 16 - first is that partitive 

DU, de LA, des, etant les memes du, de la, des, being - same 

que ceux de Tarticle defini 10 of the; as those of the — definitive of the 





nom employe dans un sens when a noun used in a-— 

quand un nom employe aans un 
partilif- 6 est r£gi par un autre nom, il ne 
faut pas employer du, de la, des, qui 
rendraient l'idee particuliere et designe- 
raient of the ; il faut employer seulement 
de avant le nom ; ainsi, il faut dire; 

II ?n 25 a donn'e un morceau de 


une lime de viande; Non, un morceau du 
pain, une livre de la. viande. 

J'ai-une grande quantite de (pommes 
de terre ;) Non, des pommes de terre. 

N. B. On doit comprendre dans cette 
regie les mots suivants 16 qui prennent de 
avant le nom qui les 24 suit, quand ce nom 
est employe* dans un sens partitif 16 ; 
assez; ex. assez de pain. 

jbeaucoup de viande. 

\beaucoup de gens. 

{tant v'argent. 
tant de pommes de terre. 
j aidant de pain, 
[autant de gens, 
plus de viande. 
moins t? argent. 
Urop de peine. 
\trop v'enfants. 
peu de pain. 
guere v> habits, 
{pas t> argent, 
[point d' amis, 
jamais de repos. 



moins ; 

trop ; 



jamais ; 

— is governed by another — , we 
must not use du, de la, des, which 
(would make) - idea - - (would 
denoU) OF THE ; we must use only 
de before ; so, we must say ; 

He me* 6 has given a piece of — , 
a pound of — ; not, a piece (of the) 
— , of the — . 

J have a great quantity of ~ ; 
not, (of the) — . 

We i6 must include in this 
rule - words following which take de 

before follows them, when - - 

is xised in partitive ; 

Enough ; ex. enough of bread. 

So much, 
So many ; 
As much, 
As many ; 
Less ; 
Too much, 
Too many ; 
Little, few ; 
Little, few ; 

No, not ; 
Never : 

1 much - meat ; 
Smany - people. 
~\so much - money ; 
J so many - potatoes. 
\as much - bread ; 
) as many -people. 

more - meat. 

less - money. 
\too much - trouble 
'too many - children 

little . 

few - clothes. 
f not - money ; 
Xnot -friends. 

never - rest. 

10. La seconde exception est que si le nom 
employe dans un sens partitif 15 est ac- 
compagne d'un adjectif, et que cet adjeetif 
precede le nom, au lieu des signes du, de 
la, des, avant le nom, on met de avant 
Vadjectif, sans considerer le genre ou le 
nombre du nom qui le 24 suit, et ce de avant 
l'adjectif, designe la meme idee que les 
signes du, de la, des, avant le nom; ex. 

Void de bon pain, jfexcellente viande, 
vzjeunes (pommes de terre.) 

Mais si le nom precede l'adjectif,* il 
faut revenir, aux signes du, de la, des, 
et on 46 doit dire; 

Voici du 8 pain frais, 16 de la 8 viande 
excellente, 16 des 8 (pommes de terre) roties. 

— second — is that if - noun 
used in a sense partitive is 

attended by an adjective, and that this - 

precedes , instead (of the) — du, d« 

la, des, before , ive ie use de before 

, without considering or - 

— (of the) - which — ft, 24 - this de - 
, denotes - same idea as - 

— du, de la, des, ; — . 

(Here is) some good — , some , 

some young potatoes. 

But if . — precedes , we 

must return to the — du, de la, des, 
and we iS must say ; 

(Here is) - — new, 

excellent, roasted 

See rules 16 and 17. 



11. Quelquefois plusieurs noms (se 
rencontrent dans la meme phrase, ayant 
une espece de rapport ensemble ; comme, 
quand je dis ; Le livre de pierre ; ces mots 
de pierre ajoutes h livre, servent, outre 1' 
idee de livre, h donner celle de possession. 


Sometimes several — 
meet in - same sentence, having 
a kind of reference together ; as, 
when I say ; The — of Peter ; these 
of Peter added to -, serve, besides •■ 
idea of-, to give that of 

Les Anglais ont plusieurs manieres de The English have several ways of 
placer ces noms en rapport. placing these nouns in reference. 

Quelquefois ils les 24 placent dans Y 
ordre que les idees considerees separe- 
ment se 24 pre'sentent h Y esprit ; comme, 
The book of peter; The pen of the mas- 
ter ; The crown of the king. 

Sometimes they them 2 * place in the 
order that - - considered separately 
themselves present to - mind ; as, 

Quelquefois ils renversent Y ordre des — reverse • — of the 

mots, et placent le nom du possesseur words, name of the possessor 

avant celui 44 de la chose possedee ; before that of - thing possessed ; 

comme, peter's book ; the master's as, ; - — 

pen ; the king's crown. — ,• 

D'autres fois enfin, ils donnent h (l'un) 
de ces noms la propriete d'un adjectif, et 
le 24 placent avant la chose qu'il designe ; 


Les Francais au contraire n' ont qu' 
une maniere de placer ensemble ces 
noms; Ils placent invariablement le pre- 
mier, le nom qui est le svjet du 1 discours, 
et ces deux noms s'unissent ensemble 
par le moyen des signes de, du, de la, 
des, suivant que le nom est ou propre ou 
commun, defini ou partitif ; ainsi, dans 
cet 2 exemple; Peter's book: le sujet du* 
discours £tant a book, et (non pas) peter, 
on doit commencer la phrase par livre, 
et dire : Le livre, Demande, le livre de 
qui ? Reponse, de Pierre. Dans cet autre ; 
The master's pen ; le svjet dv 1 discours 
etant a pen; on doit commencer la phrase 
par pen, et on doit dire ; La plume, D. 
la plume de qui? R. du maitre. 

At other times in short, - give to - 
- - nouns - property of an adjective, - 
it thing which it denotes ; 

The French on the contrary have onxy 
one way of placing together - 
nouns ; They - invariably - first, 

- - which is - subject (of the J discourse, 

- - iwo - are united * 

by ■ means (of the) signs -, -, - -, 
-, according as - - is either proper or 
common, definite or partitive ; so, in 
this ~ ; - - ; the subject (of the) 7 
discourse being - -, and not - 
we iS must begin - sentence by < — , 

- say : The -, Query, - - of 
ihhoml Ans. of Peter. In - other ; 
-__; -.(of the) — 

being a -,we must begin - — 
by -, - we must say ; the pen, Q. 

- - of whom ? A. of the master. 

Et dans ces autres phrases : The street- o her sentences : The — 

door; london-beer ; a gold-watch \ — ; ; ; 



silk-stockings; le sujet du? discours ; - - (of the) — 

etant door, beer, watch, stockings, being — , — , — , — , 

ces mots doivent se placer les premiers, these -must be ■placed -first, 

et on doit dire : we must say : 

La 1 porte DE LA 1 rue. • door of- street. 

De la 8 bierre DE Londres. Some beer of London. 

Une 1 montre n'or. Des 8 has de sole. . %oaich of gold. - stockings of silk. 

12. (II y a) des 8 cas ou V* on lie pour- (There are) - instances (in which)- 

rait pas changer ainsi l'ordre des mots en could not change so -- (of the) ■ in 

anglais, sans changer aussi I'ide'e qu' on english, without - also - - which ice iS 

veut exprimer; par exemple, si, au lieu wish to express; for — , if, instead 

de dire; a wine-glass; a water-pot; of saying; : ; 

on disait, a glass of wine; a pot of we said,-- of -; --of 
water; on 43 exprimerait une idee (tout — ; we should express an - 
h fait) differente 16 ; cependant ces noms quite different ; yet these nouns 
demandent cet ordre en francos, mais require this order in french, but 
au lieu de les 24 unir par les signes de, du, instead of them uniting by - - de, du, 
de la, des, on les 24 unit par la pre- de la, des, we them 2 * unite by - pre- 
position A. Ceci arrive quand on position a. This happens when we 46 

veut designer Yusage, et non la possession wish to denote - use, 

de la chose dont on parle ; ex. - - - (of which) we speak; ex. 

Un verre A vin. Un pot A eau. A E lass fit f°X wine - • pot fit for water. 

Une cuiller A the. Des 8 armes A feu. - spoon fit for tea. - arms fit to fire with 

Un sac A poudre. Un monlin A vent.1t A bag fit for powder. A mill to be 

[turned by the wind.\ 

* When ON comes after the conjunctions ET, si, ou, or any word ending in ou or on, or 
between que and a verb beginning with con or com, the letter L' is generally placed before 
on, to soften the sound of these words which otherwise would be disagreeable ; so we say ; 
C'est unpays ou L'on vit a bon marctii? ; it is a country where people live cheap : On apprend 
vlus facilement les choses que L'on comprend, que celles que L'on ne comprend pas ; people learn 
more easily the things which they understand, than those which they do not understand : 
nil on 'vit, c\c. qu'on comprend, c\c. would be harsh to the ear. But if these words were follow- 
ed by le, la, les, L'must not be added to on, as it would then cause the same discordance 
which it is intended to remove ; so we say ; Si on le savait, Not, Si l'on le savait ; if people 
knew it. On estimerait davantage la science, si on la connaissait, Not, si l'on la connaissait ; 
people would esteem learning more, if they were acquainted with it. 

JV. B. Some authors make frequent use of this l' without any necessity. 

+ This rule is not without some exceptions ; for we say ; un pot DE chambre; a chamber- 
pot. Une fille BE chambre ; a chamber-maid. Un bonnet DE nuit ; a night- cap. Un mou- 
choir de poche ; a pocket-handkerchief. Un cheval DE carosse, a coach-horse, &c. These 
few exceptions will be learnt by reading, and in conversation. 

A r . B. Many of these compound names are expressed by a single word in french ; as 
Coach-man, Cocher ; Foot-man, Laquais ; Fisher-man, Fecheur ; Fish-market, Poissonnerie ; 
Fish-bone, Arete; Water-fall, Cascade ; Counting-house, Comptoir ; Coach-house, Remise; 
Arm-chair, Fauteuil, fyc. These expressions are all found in the dictionaries, and will be 
learnt by reading. 



Quelquefois on 46 Veut designer les Sometimes we* 6 wish to denote - 

qualites des personnes, ou des choses dont qualities {of the) -or (--) things (of which) 

on 46 parle ; comme quand je dis : we* 6 speak • as when I say : 

Un 1 BON mart, Une 1 BELLE femme, A good husband, A fine xooman, 

De 10 JOLIS enfants, Des fruits MURS ; 16 Some ■pretty children, Fruits ripe; 

les mots bon, belle, jolis, murs, qui ser- the words good, fine, pretty, ripe, — 

vent a- de 1 signer la qualite des substances serve to denote- quality (of the) — 

dont je parle, s'appelent ADJECTIFS. (of which) - speak, are called -—. 

13. L'adjectif doit &tre du MEME --must be (of the) same 

GENRE et du MEME NOMBRE que Je nom gender and (--)• number as • 

qu' il qualifie. which it qualifies. 

Lie feminin d' un adjectif se forme en 
ajoutant e muet au masculin ; ex. 

Voila un joli gar^on; il est bien 


Voila une JOLie Jille ; elle est tres bien 


- feminine of an - is formed by 
adding e mute to the- ; ex. 

(That is) a pretty boy ; he is well 

(- •) a pretty girl ; she - very weU 

Excepts les adjectifs qui (se terminent) Except • - that end 

en e muet, qui sont les m&mes pour in e mute, ivhich are the same fo* 

(les deux) genres; ex. both-; ex. 

Un JEUNE homme AIMABLE. 16 - young man amiable. 

Une 1 jeune femme aimable. 16 - - woman -— . 

Excepte aussi les adjectifs qui (se ter- • also -- that end 

minent) en #, lesquels changent a? en se in *> which change x into se 

pour le feminin ; ex. for--; ex. 

Mojlfrere est PARESSEUZ. My brother is lazy. 

Ma sceur est My sister - lazy. 

Le plurier des adjectifs se forme de 
la meme maniere que celui des noras, en 
ajoutant s ou x au singulier; ex. 

Une jolie Jille. 
Un beau chateau. 

De 10 joLiEsJllles. 
De beaux chapeaux. 

- plural (of the) - is formed xn 
- same manner as that (of the) 
adding s or x (to the) — ; ex. 

A pretty girl. Some - -. 

A fine hat. Some fine hats. 

■ 9 by 

14. Quand un adjectif qualifie plusieurs When an - qualifies several 

noms du meme genre, il doit etre du -(of the) same -it must be (--) 

meme genre que ces noms, et plurier ; ex. — as those — , — ,• ex. 

Mon pere et mon fr ere sont OCCUPES. My father - - brother are busy a 

Ma mere et ma soeur sont occupies. My mother - - sister - -. 

15. Si un adjectif qualifie plusieurs 
noms de genres differents, 16 V adjectif 
doit etre masculin 16 et plurier ; ex. 

Mon pere et ma mere sont occupes. 

If- - qualifies several 
- of - different, - - 
must be masculine - - ; ex 




16. En anglais les adjectifs se placent In english ■- are placed 
ordinairement avant le nom ; en fran- generally before -,infrench 
cais ils se placent apres le nom ; ex. 

Un habit rouge. Un chapeau noir 

Une 1 table ronde. Un baton rompu. 

they are placed after - - ; ex, 
A coat red. - hat black. 
A table round. • stick broken. 

17. De cette regie on doit exeepter les 
adjectifs, (beau, bel,belle ;) (bon,bonne ;) 
grand ; (gros, grosse ;) jeune ; joli ; 
mauvais ; mechant ; meilleur ; meme ; 
moindre ; petit ; plusieurs ; tout ; 
(vieux, vieille ;) qui se placent 
ordinairement avant le nom; car on dit: 

Un bon mari. Une belle femme. 

De jolis enfants. Un gros arbre. 
Une petite maison, Un grand jardin. 

Les m&mes mots qui servent h qua- 
lifier les noms, servent aussi au moyen 
des adverbes, h en 2 * comparer les qualites. 

Quand on compare ensemble deux 
substances, la quality d' une de ces 
substances est ou superieure, ou infe'- 
rieur&ou egale a la qualite de Y autre; 
et ceci s* appele comparatif ; ou la 
qualite d' une de ces substances est 
(au dessus de) toutes les autres ; et ceci 
s' appele superlatif. 

18. Le comparatif de superiority se forme 
en mettant plus avant fadjectif ; ex. 

Monfrere est plus grand que vous. 

19. Le comparatif d' inferiorite se forme 
par moins, ou pas si avant fadjectif; ex. 

. Mon frere est moins grand ou ri est 
pas si grand que vous. 

20. Le comparatif d' egalite se forme 
en mettant aussi avant Fadjectif; ex. 

Monfrere est aussi grand que vous. 

21. Le superlatif se forme en ajoutant 
V article aux particules comparatives 16 
plus, moins; ex. 

Mon frere est le plus grand. 
Ma sceur est la moins grande.™ 
Vos enfants sont les plus grands. 13 
Mon meilleur ami. Sa plus belle robe. 

From this — we 46 must except - 

- (fine, handsome ;) good ; 

(great, large, tall;) big; young ; pretty ; 

bad ; wicked ; better ; same ; 

less; {little, small;) several; (all, whole;) 

old ; which are placed 

generally before - - ; for we say : 

- • husband. - - woman. 
Some - children. • big tree. 

- small house. - large garden. 

• same — which serve to qua- 
lify f . a l so (ty t ne J means 

(of the ) • to ( of them) compare . 

When we compare together two 
substances, of one of these 

— is either superior, or infe- 
rior, or equal to of the other ; 

and this is called comparative; or the 
~— of one of these — is 
above all the others ; — this 
is called superlative. 

The — of superiority is formed 

by putting plus before ; ex. 

' - is (more tall or taller J than -. 

The — of inferiority is formed 
by moins or pas si — the — ; ex. 

My — is less tall, or is not 
so tall as — . 

The — of equality is formed 

by putting aussi before ; ex. 

My — is as tall as — 

The — is formed by adding 

the — (to the) 

plus, moins ; ex. 

My — is the most tall, or - tallesf. 

My — is the least tall. 

Your - are - most tall, or - tallest. 

- best friend, tier finest goivn. 


Comme il serait souvent ennuyeux de As it would be often tedious to 

renter les memes noms, on 46 a adopte — the same -, we 46 have adopted 

certains petits mots pour representor ces certain small words to represent these 

noms, et que pour cette raison on 46 a — , . which for this reason we* s have 

appeles PRONOMS ; ainsi, quand je dis : called — ; so, when I say : 

je ou moi ; ces mots je ou moi re- I or me ; these — I or me 

presentent mon nom ; TU, TOI ; NOUS ; name; thou, thee, (we, us;) 

VOUS ; IL, LUI ; ILS, EUX ; ELLE, you; he,him; they, them; (she,her;) 

elles, represented les noms de quel- (they, them,) names of 

ques autres personnes. some other persons. 

On 46 distingue les pronoms en PER- IT r e 45 distinguish the — into per- 
SONNELS, RELATIFS, FOSSESSIFS, DEMON- sonal, relative, possessive, demon- 
6TRATIFS, IND^FINIS. strative, indefinite. 


Les pronoms personnels 16 sont ceux The 16 are such 

de ces mots qui tiennent ordinairement of these - which keep usually 

la place des personnes. - - of — , or are used instead of — . 

On distingue en grammaire trois per- We distinguish in — three 

sonnes. La premiere personne est celle persons. The first person is that 

qui parle; comme, je svis, nous sommes; who speaks ; as, I am, we are ; 

la seconde personne est celle a qui on parle ; . second to whom we speak ; 

comme, TU es, vous Hes; et la troisieme as, thou art, you are ; --third 

personne est celle dont on parle ; comme, ( of whom ) we speak ; as 

IL est, ELLE est ; ILS sont, ELLES sont ; he is, she - ; they are, they - ; 

mais chacune de ces personnes est repre- hut eacn - these — is 

sente'e par plusieurs mots differents 16 . represented by several - different™. 

Les pronoms qui repre'sentent la pre- The — which represent - 
miere personne sont je, moi* ; me, moi* ; first — are I* ; me* ; 
NOUS. (we, us.) 

Ceux qui repre'sentent la seconde sont Those which — the second are 

TU, TOI* ; TE, TOI* ; VOUS. thou* ; thee* ; you. 

Ceux qui repre'sentent Yd. troisieme sont Those which — the third are 

IL, LUI* ; ILS, EUX* ; LE, LUI* ; he* ; they* ; him* ; 

LES, LEUR* ; pour le mas; ELLE, ELLES; them* ; for the — ; she, they ; 

LA, LUI* ; LES, LEUR* ; pour le fem ; her* ; them*"; for the - ; 

mais ces mots ne (s'emploient) pas in- but these -(are used) not 

differemment l'un pour l'autre. indiscriminately the one for the other. 

Pour rendre ce sujet plus clair, To render this subject more clear, 

il me 24 semble necessaire de diviser it (to me u ) seems necessary to divide 

ces pronoms en nominatifs ou agents these — into — or agents 

du verbe, et en objcts du verbe. (of the) verb, and into objects (- -) — . 

* These two words are expressed by the same word in english, but they are not used 
indiscriminately in french, as will appear by the fpllowing rules. 




Par nominatif s ou agents du verbe, je By — or — (of the) -I 

(veux dire) les mots qui dirigent Taction mean - ivords which direct the - 

du verbe ; et par objets du verbe. les mots (of the)-; -by objects (of the) -., 

qui en 24 recoivent T action; ainsi, dans which (of it 34 ) receive - -; so, in 

cette phrase, je vous 24 dime ; je est le this sentence, I you 24 love, I is - 

nominatif ou agent du verbe aime, et 
vous en 24 est 1' objet; et dans cette autre, 
vous 24 m' aimez ; vous est le nomina- 
tif du verbe aimez ; et me en 24 est 1' objet. 

Les pronoms nominatifs 15 sont pour la 
premiere personne, je, moi, singulier ; 
nous, plurier ; pour la seconde personne, 
tu, toi, singulier ; vous, plurier ; 
pour la troisieme au masculin, il, lui, 
singulier ; ils, eux, plurier ; pour 
la troisieme au feminin, elle, singu- 
lier ; elles, plurier ; mais les mots 
je on moi ; tu ou toi ; il ou lui ; ILS 
ou eux, (ne s' emploient pas) indiffe- 
remment 1' un pour 1' autre. 

- or - (of the) - love, - 

you (ofit Zi ) is - -; - - this other, 

you me love ; you is 

(of the) - love ; - me (of it 3 *) is . 

The — nominative 19 are for - 
first — I, singular ; 
we, plural ; - - second — 
thou, singular ; you, plural; 

- - third (in the) masculine, lie, 
singular ; they, plural ; • 

- third (in the) feminine, she, singU' 
lar ; they, plural; but - . 

je or moi ; tu or toi ; il or lui ; ils 
or eux, (are not used) indis- 
cnminately the one for the other. 

22. JE, TU, IL, ILS, s' emploient Je, tu, il, ils, are used 
(toutes les fois qu') il y a dans la phrase whenever there is in - sentence 
un verbe qui peut s'accorder avec ces pro- a - which may agree with — ; 
noms ; ex. je suis, tu es, il est, ils sont. - 1 am, thou art, he is, they are. 

23. MOI, TOI, LUI, EUX, s' em- Moi, toi, lui, eux, are used 
ploient lorsque ces mots sont joints a un when these ■ are joined to an- 
autre substantif pour nominatif du m£me other — for — (of the) same 
verbe, ou lorsque le verbe est sous-enten- _ , or when - - is understood ; 
du ; ex. Qui est la? moi. Ce it est pas ex. Who is there 1 I. It is not 

MOI qui ai fait cela ; c' est lui. Vous I who have done that ; it is he. You 

et Moi 7ious irons. Toi et lui vous res- -I will go. Thou - he shall 

terez. Ce sont EUX qui We 25 f 29 out dit. stay. It is they - me it 29 have told. 

N. B. NOUS, VOUS, ELLE, ELLES, N. B. Nous, vous, elle, elles, 

etant invariablement les m&mes dans touts being invariably - same in all 

les? cas, ne pmsentent aucune difficulte. instances, present no difficulty. 

Les pronoms objets du verbe sont pour 
la premiere personne me, moi, si?ig ; 
nous, plur ; pour la seconde personne 
te, toi, singul ; vous, plur ; pour 
la troisieme personne au masculin, le, 
lui, singul ; les, leur, eux, plur ; 
pour la troisieme personne au feminin 

LA, LUI, ELLE, Singul / LES, LEUR, 

elles, plur; mais ces mots ne s'em- 
ploient pas indifferemment. 

The (of the) — are for 

- first — me, singular ; 
us, plural ; - - — — 

thee, singular ; you, plural ; - 

- third - in the masculine, him, 
him singular ; them, plural ; 

_ (in the) feminine 

her, singular ; them, 

them plural ; but these — are used 

nut indiscriminately. 



Les pronoms objets du verbe se placent The — — (of the) — are 

tantot avant, et tantot apres le verbe ; et sometimes before, - - after - - ; - 

le choix de ces mots depend de la place . choice of depends on - place 

que ces pronoms occupent dans la phrase. - - - keep in - sentence. 


24. Prenez pour regie generate 16 que les 
pronoms objets du verbe, se placent en 
francais avant le verbe qui les 24 regit ; 
dans ces cas me s' exprime par me, 
et thee par te ; ainsi on dit : 

11 me voit. 

II TE VOit. 
II LE VOit. 
II LA VOit. 

U nous voit. 
II vous voit. 
II les voit. 

II ne me voit pas. 
II ne te voit pas. 
II ne le voit pas. 
II ne la voit pas. 
II ne nous voit pas. 
II ne vous voit pas. 
II ne les voit pas. 

me voit-il? 
te voit-il ? 
le voit-il ? 
la voit-il? 
nous voit-il? 
vous voit-il ? 
les voit-il ? 

Ne me voit-il pas ? 
Ne te voit-il pas ? 
Ne le voit-il pas ? 
Ne la voit-il pas ? 
Ne nous voit-il pas? 
Ne vous voit-il pas ? 
Ne les voit-il pas ? 

25. Observez seulement que si le verbe 
qui re'git ces pronoms est compose* d'un des 
verbes auxiliaires 16 avoir ou etre, et d'un 
participe passe 16 , les pronoms se placent 
avant le verbe auxiliaire 16 , non entre le 
verbe auxiliaire etle participe ; ainsi on dit : 

// m' a vu. 
II t' a vu. 
II l' a vu. 
II l' a vue. 
II nous a vus. 
II vous a vus. 
II les a vus. 

11 ne m' a pas vu. 
II ne t' a pas vu. 
II ne l' a pas vu. 
II ne l' a pas vue. 

m' a-t*-il vu ? 
t' a-t-il vu ? 
i! a-t-il vu ? 
l' a-t-il vue ? 
nous a-t-il vus? 
vous a-t-il vus ? 
les a-t-il vus ? 

Ne m* a-i*-il pas vu ? 
Ne t' a-t-il pas vu? 
Ne l' a-t-il pas vu ? 
Ne l' a-t-il pas vue] 

II ne nous a pas vus. Ne nous a-t-il pas vus? 
II ne vous a pas vus. iVevous a-t-il pasvus? 
II ne les a pas vus. Ne les a-t-il pas vus ? 

Take for rule — that - 
(of the) -, are placed in 

- before which - a * governs ; 

- these instances - is expressed - me, 

- — by te j so we say : 

Heine sees. 




- thee -. 




- him -. 




- her -. 




- us 




- you -. 



- them-. 




He me sees not. Me sees he 


- thee - - 


- - 

. i 

- him - -. 


- - 


- her - - 


- - 


- us - - 


- - 


- you - - 


- - 

. 1 

- them - - 


- - 


Observe only that if 

- governs - - is compounded - 

- auxiliary 15 have or be, and - 

participle past 19 , are placed 

before , not between - 

; so we say : 



He me has 


Me has he -1{ 

- thee - 



- -? 

- him - 


Him - 

- -? 

- her - 


Her - 

- -? 

- us 



- -? 

- you - 



- -? 

- them - 


Them - 

- -? 

He me has not se: 

72. Me has he 

" ~1\ 

- thee - 

- - 


- - ? 

- him - 

- -. 

Him - 

- -? 

- her - 

- -. 

Her - 

- -? 

- us 

- -. 


- -? 

- you - 

- -. 

You - 

- -? 

- them - 

- -. 

Them - 

- -? 

* The letter (t) has not any meaning here, it is added only to soften the pronunciation, 
t Proper english, Does he see me, §c. +. Does he not see me ? §c. 

§ Proper english, Has he seen me, §c. || Has he not seen me ? <Sfc. 



26. Cette regie est sujette 13 h. deux This rule is liable to tw* 

exceptions; la premiere™ est que si on 46 — ; -first is that if we 4S 

commande, les pronoms se placent apres command, — are placed after 

le verbe ; alors on 46 exprime me par — ; then we* s express — by 

MOI, et THEE par TOI. moi, and — by toi. 

27. Mais si le verbe defend, les pro- 
noms rentrent dans la regie generate 16 , et 
se placent avant le verbe ; alors me s'ex- 
prime par me, et thee par te ; ex. 

Defense. 27 

Ne me regarde pas. 

Ne te regarde pas. 

IVeNous regardezpas. 

Ne vous regardez pas. 

Ne le regardons pas. 

Ne la regardons pas. 

IVeLEs regardons pas. 

Commandement. 26 


But if forbids, < — 

— return into , - 

are placed before ; then — is 

expressed by me, by te ; ex. 


Look at me, 

— - thyself, 

— -us, 

— - yourself, 
Let us look at him 

— - - - her, 

Me look at not. 
Thyself - - -. 


Yourself - - -. 
Him let us not look -. 



28. Les pronoms ne sont pas toujours 
regis 13 par les verbes ; ils sont souvent 
regis par une preposition qui les 24 unit 
au verbe qui les 24 accompagne ; alors le 
pronom ^tant l'objet de la preposition, et 
non l'objet du verbe, il se place apres la 
preposition ; et me s'exprime par moi ; 
thee par toi ; him par lui ; her 
par elle ; them par eux ; masc. ; par 
elles ; fern. ; ex. 

Viens a moi. Assieds-toi (pres de) moi. 
Nous parlions de toi. Allons avec lui. 
Je ne puis pas y alter sans elle. 
Avez-vous pensehEvx, mas.; Welles/] ? 

29. S'il arrive que plusieurs pronoms 
soient regis par le meme verbe, ils se 
placent ensemble dans l'ordre qui suit ; 

Les pronoms de la premiere personne 
me, nous ; ceux de la seconde te, 
vous ; et celui de la troisieme se, se 
placent avant touts les autres pronoms ; 
le, la, les, se placent avant lui, 
leur, y, en ; lui, leur, avant v, 
en; et y avant en. 

Excepte, lorsqu' on emploie moi, toi, 
au lieu de me, te ; car alors moi, toi, 
se placent apres les autres pronoms. 

Et lorsque moi ou toi rencontrent 
le pronom en, ils se changent en m\ 
t', et se placent avant en. Toutes ces 
variations se font pour la 7 melodie ; ex. 

The — ae not always 
governed by the — ; they are often 

which them™ unites 

(to the) — ■ — them™ attends ; then • 

— being the object of the — , — 

not • — (of the) — , it is placed after • 
• — ■ ; - — is expressed by moi ; 

— by toi ; — by lui ; — 

by elle ; ■ — by eux ; — ; by 
elles, — ; ex. 

Come to me. Sit thyself by me. 

— were speaking - thee. Let us go - him 

J cannot go there without her. 
Have you thought of them 1 

If it happens that several -— 
are governed by - same — , they are 
jAaced together in • order — follows < 

The first — 

me, nous ; those te, 

vous ; - that - - third se ; are 
jdaced before ALL - other — ; 

le, la, les, lui, 

leur, y, en ; lui, leur, — y, 
en ; - y — en. 

Except, when we use moi, toi, 
instead of me, te ; for then moi, toi, 
are placed after - other — . 

And when moi of toi meet 
• — en, - are changed into m' 
t', - are placed — en. All these 

— are made for 7 melody ; ex, 



P^moms avant le v-erbe, regie 24 et 25. Pronoms apres le verbe, regie 26. 



11 ME LE donna, 
II ME LA donna ; 
II ME LES donna ; 
11 M' EN donna ; 
II NOUS LE donna ; 
U NOUS LA donna ; 
// NOUS les donna; 
II NOUS EN donna ; 
11 M' Y a envoye ; 
II ME L' Y a envoye ; 
II ME LES Y a envoyes ; 
II M' y EN a envoye ; 
II NOUS Y a envoyte ; 
11 NOUS l'ya envoy6 ; 
U NOUS les Y a envoy ts; 
II NOUS Y EN a envoye; 

Heme him or it* gave. 

- - her or it* -. 

- - them -. 

- me some -. 

- us him oi- it* -. 

- - her or it* -. 

- - them -. 

- - some -. 

- me there has sent. 
• - it - - -. 

- - them - - -. 

- - - some - -. 

- us - - -. 

- - it - - -. 

- - them - - -. 

- - some - -. 

II TE le donna , 
II TE LA donna , 
11 TE LES donna ; 
II T' EN donna ; 
II VOUS LE donna ; 
II VOUS la donna ; 
11 VOUS LES donna ; 
11 VOUS en donna ; 
11 T' Y a envoy 6 ; 
II TE l' Y a envoye ; 
U TE les Y a envoyes ; 
U T' Y EN a envoye ; 
H VOUS Y a envoye ; 
II VOUS l'yh envoye ; 
II VOUS LES Yd envoyes; 
11 VOUS Y EN a envoys ; 

11 SE LE rappelle ; 
11 SE LA rappelle ; 
11 SE les rappelle ; 
11 S' EN repent ; 
II S' Y applique ; 
11 LE LUI a donne ; 
II LA LUI a donn6e ; 
II LES lui a donna's ; 
II LE LEUR a donne ; 
II LA LEUR a donnee ; 
It LES LEUR a donnas; 
II L' EN avertit ; 
II LES EN avertit ; 
II L' Y envoy a ; 
11 LES Y envoya ; 
II LE LUI Y envoya ; 
11 LA LUI Y envoya ; 
II LES LUI Y envoya; 
II LE LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LA LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LES LEUR Y envoya ; 
II LUI EN envoya ; 
II LEUR EN envoya ; 
II LUI Y en envoya ; 
11 LEUR yen envoya ; 
II Y en envoya ; 


He thee him or it* -. 

- - her or it* -. 

- - them -. 

- thee some -. 

- you him or it -. 

- j her or it* -. 

- - them -. 

- - some -. 

- thee there has sent 

- - it . 

- - them 

- - there some - -. 

- you - - -. 

- - it - - -. 

- - them - - -. 

- - - some - -. 

Donnez-LE-MOI ; 
Donnez-LA-MOI ; 
Donnez-LES-MOI ; 
Donnez-M' en ; 
D<m?iez-NOUS-LE ; 
Donnez-NOUS-LA ; 
Dott??es-NOUS-LES ; 
Donnes-NOUS-EN ; 
Envoyez-Y-MOI ; 
Envoy ez-L'-Y-MOI ; 
Enwygs-LES-Y-MOI ; 
Envoyez-Y-EK-MOI : 
Entw/ez-NOUS-Y ; 
JEfiuoyez-NOUS-L'-Y ; 
Enw^/ez-NOUS-LES-Y ; 
E?u'o?/ez-NOUS-Y-EN ; 


Repr^sente-LE-TOI ; 
Represente-L a-TOI ; 
Represente-LES-TOl ; 
Repr^sente-T en ; 
Repre'sentez-VOXJS-LE ; 
Representez-VO US-la ; 
Representez-YOVS-LES ; 
-Rep?-<?se?itez-VOUS-£N ; 

Transportez-V OUS-Y ; 
Informez- VOUS- Y- EN ; 


He tohimselfit recalls. 

• - her or it* -. 

- - them -. 
himself (o/it^epenfs. 
(to it) applies, 

it (tohimorher) --. 
it, her* (--)- given. 
them (- -) - -. 
it, him (to them)--, 
her or it* (- -) - -. 
them (- -) - -. 
him (of it) warned, 
them (o/ it) -. 
him there sent ; 
them - -. 
- (to him or her) - -. 

it (to them) 
it or her (- -) - -. 
them (- -) - -. 
'to him or her) - -. 


Donnez -LE-LUI ; 
Donnez-LA-LUl ; 
Do?*?iez-LES-LUi ; 
Don/iez-LE-LEUR ■ 
Donnez-LA-LEUR ; 
Avertissez-'U EN ; 
Avert issez-ULS-EN j 
Envoyez-L' Y ; 
Envoy ez-LES-Y ; 
E/itioyez-LE-LUi-Y ; 
Eut;o7/ez-LA-LUi-Y ; 
E?u'o?/ez-LES-Lui-Y ; 
Envoy cz-LE-leur-Y ; 
EVtioyez-LA-LEUR-Y ; 
E?tto?/e2-LES-LEU r- y 
E?iyo7/ez-LUI-EN ; 
E?*w>?/ez-LEUR-EN ; 
Envoy ez-LUI-Y-EN ; 
Erivoyez-Y-Eti ; 

Give it or him* me 

- it or her* -. 

- them -. 

- me some. 

- us, him oi- it. 

- - her or it. 

- - them. 

- - some. 
Send there me,. 

- it - -. 

- them - -. 

- - some -. 

- - it -. 

- - them -. 

- - - (some.) 

Represent it(to thee.) 

- her or it* (- -.) 

- them (- -.) 

- thee (of it.) 

- yourself him or it. 

- - her or it. 

- - them. 

- - (tf it.) 

Carry yourself there. 


- it or her* ( .) 

- them ( .) 

(to them.1 

- it o?- her (- -.) 

Warn him (of it.) 

- them (- -.) 
Send him or it there 

- them -. 

- (to him or her)-, 
-her or it (--) -. 

- it or him (--) 

- her oi* it* (- -) - 

- them (- -) -. 

- (to him) some. 

- (to him) there -. 

See 30th rule. 




30. Comme (il n' y a) en fraiHjais que 
deux genres, le masculin et le feminin, 
les pronoms it, they, them qui 
(se rapportent) aux^ choses, et qui sont 
du genre neutre 16 en anglais, (s' expri- 
ment) par il, elle, ils, elles ; 
le, la, les, de meme que si on par- 
lait des? personnes ; ainsi on dit ; en par- 
lant d'un homme ou d'un habit ; 

Il est bienfalt; 

Je vous le 24 montrerai. 

En parlant d'une fefnrne ou d'une^ewr; 

Elle est belle ; Regardez -la 23 . 

Remarquez que les mots le, la, 
les, projioms, sont pr^cis^ment les 
m6mes que le, la, les, article; mais 
il est aise de ne pas les 84 confondre. le, 
la, les, article est toujours suivi d'un 
ncm ; le, la, les, projiom est toujours 
precede ou suivi d'un verbe ; ainsi, dans 
cette phrase ; 

Void le pere, la mere, et les enfants ; 
le, la, les est article. 

Et dans ces autres ; Je le 24 vois, je 
la 24 vois, je les 24 vois ; 

Voyez-L-E 25 , voyez-LA 2s , voyez-LES* 3 ; 
le, la, les est pronom. 

31. Les pronoms he, she, they, 
him, her, them s emploient quel- 
quefois sans rapport h un nom exprime 
dans la phrase, mais avec rapport aux mots 
man, woman, ou people sous-entendus ; 
alors h Mi iiim s' expriinent par celut ; 
she, her par celle ; they, them, 
par ceux ; ex. 

As (there are) in french only 
two genders, the — and the •—, 
the — -, -, - which 
refer to 7 things, and which are 

(of the) — neuter , are expressed 

by il, elle, ils, elles ; 
le, la, les, the same asifice* 5 
spoke of 7 — ; so we say ; in 
speaking - - man or - - coat ; 

He or it is ivell made. 

I you Zd it or him (wilt shew.) 

woman - - - flower : 

She or it is fine ; look at her or it. 

Remark that — words le, la, 
les, — , are precisely the 
same as le, la, les, — ; bat 
it is easy to not them 2 * confound. Le, 
la, les, — , is always followed by a 
noun ; le, la, les — is always 
preceded or followed by a — ; so, in 
this sentence ; 

(Here is) , - mother, • - children ; 

le, la, les is an article. 

And - these others ; 1 him see, - 
her -, - them • ; 

See him, • her, - them ; 
le, la, les is a — . 

The — HE, SHE, THEY, 

him, her, THEM, are used sometimes 
without reference to a — expressed 
in the — , but with — (to the) words 
MAN, WOMAN, - PEOPLE nnderstood ; 
then he, HIM are expressed by celui j 
she, her by celle ; THEY, THEM, 
by ceux ; ex. 

Celui a qui, c'est a. dire, l'homme He to whom, i. e., - man 

a qui personne ne plait, est plus to whom nobody pleases, is more 

malheureux que celui qui, i. e., que l' unhappy thanhe who, i.e., than t)u 

homme qui ne plait a personne. man who pleases nobody . 

Celle qui, c'est a. dire, la femme She who, i. e., - woman 

qui refuse un mari, n! est pas toujours who refuses a husband, is not ahoay 

sure dten trouver un autre. sure of finding another. 

Ceux qui, c'est a dire, les gens They who, i. e., - people 

qui ]?araissent heureux, ne le- 4 sont pas who appear happy , so are net 

toujours. always. 



Le mot relatif signifie qui a rapport. The • - means which has reference 


Quoique touts les pronoms par leur 
nature soient relatifs, c'est a. dire aient 
du rapport a quelque substantif exprime' 
ou sous-entendu, on 46 a donne a (ceux-ci) 
'e nom de relatifs, (a 1' exclusion) des 
autres, parcequ' ils servent plutot a 
rappeler l'idee des etres dont on 46 a 
parle, qu' a les 24 representer. 

Though all the pronouns by their 
nature be relative, i. e. have 
some reference to some — expressed 
or , — t people* 6 have given to these 
the name of — , exclusively (of the) 
otriers, because they — rather to 
recall - idea (- -) beings of which we have 
spoken, than to them 2 * represent. 

Les pronoms relatifs 1 


anglais who, whom, 


SOnt QUI, QUE, The — relative are qui, que, 
LEQUEL ; en dout, quoi, quel, lequel ; in 
WHOSE, THAT-, english, —, •—, — , — , 

Ces mots semblent ne presenter aucune These — seem -(to present) any 

difficult^, cependant, comme le meme difficulty, yet, as - same 

mot est represents par plusieurs mots word is represented by several — 

differents 16 dans (les deux) langues ; ils — 16 in both languages ; they 

embarrassent souvent les commencants ; embarrass often the beginners ; 

ainsi faites attention aux regies suivantes. so pay — . (to the) — following. 

32. Quand who, that, which, When — , — , — , 

sont le nomin atif d'un verbe, ils s'expri- are the — of a — , they are expressed 

nient par qui ; by qui j 

Quand whom, that, which, sont When — ,—,—,are 

] objet d'un verbe, ils s'expriment par the — of a —, they are expressed by 

QUE* ; que*; 

WHOSE, of WHOM, of WHICH, — , of — , of — 

s'expriment par dont. are expressed by dont. 

N. B. qui, que, dont ne con- 
naissent ni genre ni nombre ; c' est a. 
dire, se disent egalement des? personnes 
et des choses, d'un ou de plusieurs; 
ainsi on (lit; 

Uhomme qui, le cheval qui, le ca- 
rosse qui est a la porte. 

Uhomme que, le cheval que, le ca- 
rosse que nous avons rencontre. 

Uhomme dont, le cheval dont, le 
carosse dont je vous- 5 ai parle. 

N. B. Qui, que, dont, 
know neither — nor — ; that is to 
say, are said both of 7 — 
and of 7 things, of one or - several ; 
50 we say : 

The man who, - horse that, - 
coach which is at - door. 

The — whom, the — that, the 

— which - have met. 

(°f whom,) (o/ which) - 

- (of which) - (to you 25 ) have spoken. 

* Persons not versed in grammatical terms are often at a loss to distinguish the object 
from the nominative, i. e. when to express THAT, which by QUI, and when by QUE. 

To these I will observe, that that, which are the nominative, and expressed by QUI, 
when they are followed immediately by a verb ; as, 

The coach that or WHICH is at the door ; Le carosse qui est a la porte. 

that, which are the object of the verb, and expressed by QUE, when, between them 
and the verb, there is a noun or a pronoun which is the nominative of the verb ; as, 

The coach that or which we have met ; Le carosse que nous avons rencontre. 



33. Quelquefois WHOM, WHICH, Sometimes—,—, 

sont regis par une preposition, et non par are governed by a — , and not 

un verbe ; alors ils s'expriment, a — ; then they are expressed, 

whom par qui, pour (les deux) — by qui, for both 

genres et (les deux) nombres ; — , and both — ; 

WHICH par leqVEL, ZaQUELLE, — by lequel, laquelle, 

lesQUELS, Ze.sQUELLES. lesquels, lesquelles. 

From WHICH par dz/QUEL, de la- From — , by duquel, de la- 

QUELLE, desQUELS, desQUELLES. quelle, desquels, desquelles. 

To, at WHICH par flWQUEL, d la- To, at — by auquel, a la- 

QUELLE, ailXQXJEltS, aw<rQUELLES, quelle, auxquels, auxquelles, (agree- 

suivant le genre et le nombre du nom ably to) the— und the— (of the) - 

auquel ils (se rapportent) ; ainsi on dit ; to which they refer; so we say ; 

Void les gens avec QUlj'ai dint'. (Here are) -people with whom --dine J. 

Le cheval sur lequel je mis vena. • horse on which - am come or - came. 

La chaise dans laquelle fetais. - chaise in which - was. 

Les chevaux AUXQUELS je l q5 ai domie. - horses to which - it* 5 have given. 

34. who, whom, whose s'em- —-, —> — 

ploient quelquefois sans rapport a un are used — without reference to a 

nom exprime, mais par rapport au mot — expressed, but with — (to the) word 

PERSON sous-entendu. Ces mots peu- —understood. These words 

vent alors (se tourner) par what per- may then (be turned) into — 

SON, QUELLE PERSONNE, et s'ex- — > quelle personne, and are ex- 

priment par QUI ; ex. pressed by qui ; ex. 

Qui vous* 5 a dit cela? (e'est k dire,) Who you™ has told that? i.e. 

quelle personne vous- 5 a dit cela ? wtat — 25 - - -? 

Je ne sais qui vous (youlez dire) ; I know not whom — mean, 

(e'est a dire) quelle personne vous i-e-what 

voulez dire). -"*• 

A QUI OU a QUELLE PERSONNE est 1 o whom or - what — belongs 

cette maison ? that house, (or whose house is that ?) 

De QUI on de quelle personne est- 0/ whom or - what — is 

ellefille ? she daughter ? whose daughter - - ? 

Dans les phrases interrogatives 16 , I» — sentences interrogative" 
WHICH demande trois distinctions. — requiresthree distinctions. 

35. Quelquefois WHICH se joint Sometimes — is joined 
comme un adjectif au nom qui le 24 suit, like an -(to the) -which follows it, ** 
e'est a dire sans le secours des* preposi- i. e.> without the help (of the) — ; 
tions ; comme, which man? which as, •' — 

carriage? which horses? alors which — ? ? then — 

s'exprime par quel, quelle, quels, " expressed by quel, quelle, quels, 

quelles, suivant ie genre et le nombre quelles (agreeably to ) and — 

du nom qui le 24 suit; ex. (°f-) — follows tt*; ex. 
De quel homme parlez-vous ? 0/ which man speak you? ^ 

Dans quelle voiture ( meltrai-je) ceci ? ln which — < shal1 2 P M ) ths ? 
a quels chevaux le 2 * fdonnerai-je ?) T ° which horses lt (** 1 give ^ 



36. Quelqiiefois WHICH se joint Sometimes — is joined 

comme un substantif au no'm qui le 84 suit, like — (to the) noun -follows it* 

par le moyen d'une preposition; comme, by -means ; as, 

jriiicu of these men ? which of the '/ 

carriages? ou il s'emploie sans etre suivi — '/ or it is used — being followed 

d'un nom, mais par rapport a un nom by — .but with reference to a—, 

dont on a deja fait mention; comme, It (of which) --already made — ; as, - 

is one of these men ; wnicn is it ? alors ; -is-'/ then 

WHICH s'exprime par /eQUEL, la- which is expressed by lequei, 

QUELLE, leSQXJELS, /eSQUELLES ; laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles ; 

Of, from WHICH par C??ZQUEL, de la- -,- which, by duquel, de la- 

QUELLE, desQUELS, c/esQUELLES ; quelle, desquels, desquelles ; 

To, at WHICH par GWQUEL, a la- -, - which by auquel, a la- 

QUELLE, C?/JQUELS, <2Z/.ZQUELLES, quelle, auxquels, auxquelles, 

(c'est a dire) 1'article d£fini ls le, la, les ; (i. e.) le, la, les ; 

du, de la, des ; au, a la, aux, suivant du,dela,des; au,a la,aux,(aoret>aWi/ ?o) 

le genre et le nombre du nom, s' ajoute (--)—, is added 

aux mots QUEL, QUELLE, QUELS, (tothe) — quel, quelle, quels, 

quelles, comme s'ils etaient eux-memes quelles, 05 if they were themselves 

des 8 noms ; ex. 

duquel de ces hommes parlez-vous? 
lequel est le plus grand ? 
laquelle des voitures prtferez-vous? 
laquelle est la plus belle ? 
lesquels de ces chevaux aurons-nous? 
lesquels sont les meilleurs ? 

37. Quelquefois le relatif which ren- 
ferme le mot that ou those sous-entendu, 
comme, quand, en reponse a cette ques- 
tion ; which horse shall I ride ? Je 
dis, Ride which you will, c'est a dire, 
that which you will ; which dans 
ce sens s'exprime par celui que, mas. ; 
celle que, fern. ; ceux que, masc. 
pi. ; celles que, fern. plur. ; suivant 
le genre et le nombre du nom auquel il 
(se rapporte) ; ex. 

Lequel de ces chevaux monterai-je ? 

Montez celui qu' il vous 2 * plaira ? 

Dans quelle voiture mettrai-je ceci ? 

Mettez-le dans celle QUEje vous ai dit. 

Auxquels des garrons le donnerai-je? 

Donnez-lt 2 * a ceux que vous voudrez. 

- a ^-o- nouns; ex. 

(Of which) - - - speak you '/ 
Which is - vzost tall, or - tallest '/ 
Y\ hich (- -) carriages prefer you '/ 
Which - - most fine, or -finest '/ 
Which of these - (shall have) we '/ 
Which are the best'/ 

Sometimes - relative which im- 
plies the understood, 

as, when, in answer to - question ; 

v I 

say, , i. e., 

• - 

- sense is expressed by celui que, mns. ; 
celle que, fern. ; ceux que, - 

- ; celles que, - - ; (agreeably to) 

'- (of the) — (to which) it 

refers; ex. 

Which (shall ride) 1/ 

Ride which, i. e. that which - please. 
In which carriage (shall put) I this '/ 
Put it in which, i.e. that which - - - 1 old. 
(To which) (. -) boys it* (shall give)U 
Give it to which, i.e. those which -will. 

what, (do meme que) which, de- — , (as well as ) — , 

mande trois distinctions. requires three distinctions. 



38. Quelquefois what se joint com- 
me un adjectif aunom qui le suit; alors il 
s'exprime par quel, quelle, quels, 
quelles de la meme maniere que 
which ; ex. 

De quel homme, de quelle voiture, 
de quels chevaux parlez-vous ? 

Sometimes — is joined like 

(to the) - - follows it 2 * ; then ii 

is expressed by quel, quelle, quels, 
quelles, in the same manner as 

— ; ex. 
0/what — , - what carriage, 

- what horses speak — '! 

39. Quelquefois what s'emploie 
absolument, c'est a dire, sans rapport a 
un nom exprime, mais avec rapport au 
mot thing sous-entendu ; alors what 
peut se tourner par what thing, et 
s'exprime par que, ou par quoi. 

what s'exprime par que, quand il 
est 1' objet d'un verbe ; com me, 

Que dites-vous? que faites-vous? 

what s'exprime par quoi, quand il 
est reg-i par une preposition ; com me, 

De quoi parle-t-il? A quoi pensez-vous? 
Ou employe comme interjection; ex. 

Quoi ! vous rietes pas encore leve. 

40. what s'emploie quelquefois au 
lieu des mots that, which; comme, 
quand on dit; Do what is just; c'est 
& dire, that which is jhst ; alors 
what s'exprime par ce qui, quand 
il est le nominatif d'un verbe, et par ce 
que, quand il en 24 est X objet ; ex. 

FaitescE qui est juste. 

Ge que je vous? 4 dis est vrai. 

Mais quand what dans le sens de 
that which est regi par les propo- 
sitions of, to, (il faut) considerer si la 
proposition vient avant ou apres what; 
car, or what s'exprime par de ce qui, 
nomin. ; par de ce que, objet; ex. 

Parlez de ce qui vous 24 regarde. 

what of, s'exprime par ce dont ; 

Ce dont je parte ne vous regarde pas. 

to what s'exprime par a ce qui, 
a ce que ; comme. 

CAppliquez-vous) a ce qui est utile. 

what to s'exprime par ce a 
quoi ; comme, 

Ce a quoi il s* applique nest pets utile. 

is used 

absolutely, i. e., toithoui reference - 

expressed, but with — (to the) 

understood ; then — 

may be turned into , - 

is expressed by que, or by quoi. 

— is expressed - que, ichen it 
is - object ; as, 

AVI) at say — ?—do — '/ 

— is expressed - quoi, 

- governed - - — ; as, 

Of what speaks - 7 To what thin!: -', 
Or used as an interjection ; ex. 
What ! — are not yet up. 

— is used — in - 

stead (of the) , — ; as, 

when ice w say ; ; that is 

to say, ; then 

— is expressed by ce qui, when 
it is of . — , - - ce 

que, — it (of it 24 ) is ; ex. 

Do that which or what -just. 

That which or what - - say - true. 

But when — in - sense - 

governed by 

-, -, (it is necessary) (to -) whether - 

— comes before or after — ; 

for, is expressed by de ce qui, 

— ; by de ce que, — ,• ex. 

Speak of what, i. e. of that which . 
, is expressed by ce dont ; 

- (of which ) - - or what - speak of-- not 

— Iry ace qui, 

a ce que ; as, 

Apply to that which or what - useful. 

is expressed by ce »\ * 

quoi ; as, 

—to which - applies or what - - to - not -. 


On appele pronoms possessifs 16 cer- We i!i call 


possessive certain 

tains mots qu' on 48 emploie h designer — which are used 48 to denote 
la possession des objets dont on 43 parle. — (of the) . ( of ivkich) we 4a speak 

Les pronoms possessifs 13 sont, 
mien, tien, sien, pour le mctsc. 


n6tre, votre, leur, servent pour 
(les deux) genres. 

N. B. Les pronoms possessifs 16 sont 
toujours precedes 13 de Particle defini 13 
le, la, les ; du, de la, des ; au, a la, 
aux, de meme que s'ils etaient des noms ; 
ainsi on 46 dit ; 

Le mien, la mienne, les miens, les 

Du mien, de la mienne, des miens, 
des miennes. 

Au mien, a la mienne, aux miens, 


Le tien, la tienne les tiens, les 


Du tien, de la tienne, des tiens, 


All TIEN, d la TIENNE, ailX TIENS, 

Le sien, la sienne, les siens, les 


Du sien, de la sienne, des siens, 


Au sien, a la sienne, aux siens, 


Le n6tre, la notre, les n6tres. 
Du notre, de la notre, des notres. 
Le votre, la votre, les votres, Sfc. 
Le leur, la leur, ZesLEURs, Sfc. 

41. Les pronoms possessifs 16 s'accor- 
dent en genre et en nombre avec le nom 
qu'ils representent ; ex. 

Votre cheval est meilleur que le mien ; 
e'est a dire, que mon cheval. 

Ma maison est mieux silu'ee que la 
sienne; e'est a dire, que sa maison. 

Je prefere cette situation a la leur. 

Vous avez pris mes gants, et moi, fai 


Melezvous* 6 de vos affaires, et ne 
vous*i melez pas des notres. 

e 2 

The are, 

Mine, thine, his or hers, for . 

Mine, thine, his or hers, — . 

Ours, yours, theirs, serve for 
both genders. 

N. B. The are 

always preceded by • 

le, la, les ; du, de la, des ; au, a la, 
aux, the same as if they were norms 



To mine. 


Of thine. 

To thine. 

His, Hers. 

O/his, o/hers 

To his, to hers. 


Of ours. 



The agree 

in gender - in number with - — 
which - represent ; ex. 

Your horse is better than mine ; 
i. e., than my — . 

My house - better situated than 
his ; i. e., thari his — . 

jT prefer this situation to theirs. 

- have taken - gloves, - 1 have 
— yours. 

Meddle yourself 2 ** with your — , 
yourself 27 meddle not with ours. 




42. Les Anglais emploient les pro- The English use — 

noms POSSESSIFS 16 MINE, THINE, HIS, — mine, thine, bis, 

HERS, OURS, YOURS, THEIRS, dans hers, ours, yours, theirs, in 

des cas oa les Francois font usage des some- (in which) make use (of the) 

pronoms personnels 16 moi, toi, lui, moi, toi, lui, 

ELLE, NOUS, VOUS, EUX, ELLES ; elle, nous, vous, eux, elles ; 

c'est lorsque ces pronoms (se rencontrent) it is when meet 

avec le verbe To be, etre, employe with - — to be, etre, used 

dans le sens du verbe To belong, in the sense (of the) 

appartenir; car alors mine s'exprime — ; f or then — is expressed 

par a moi; thine, par a toi; by a moi ; — , by a toi ; 

HIS, par & LUI; HERS, par d ELLE; his, by a lui ; hers, by a elle ; 

OURS, par a NOUS; YOURS, par a ours, by a nous ; yours, by a 

vous; theirs, par a eux, masculin ; vous ; theirs, by a eux, — \ 

par d elles, feminin ; ex. 
Ce cheval est-il 52 a vous? 
0?fz, z7 es£ a moi. 

Je pensais qii il etait a votre frere. 
Qui vous 25 a dit q\Z il etait a lui ? 
Ne saves-vous pas que tout ce qui est 

ici est a moi ? 
Je pense que ces livres sont a eux. 
lis ?ie sont pas a eux ; Us sont a nous. 

by a elles, — ; ex. 

This horse is it 52 yours i. e. to you * 

Yes, it is mine i. e. to me. 

J thought - it was to your brother. 

Who - has told that it was his ? 

Know - not that all that wliich is 
here is mine 1 . 

- think — are to them i. e. theirs. 

They are not theirs j - - ours. 

43. Les Anglais font encore usage des 
pronoms possessifs 15 mine, thine, 


dans un autre cas ou les Francais 
emploient l'article possessif mes, tes, 
ses, nos, vos, leurs ; c' est dans 
ces sortes d'idiomes ; A friend of mine ; 
A book of yours; dans ces cas mine 
s'exprime par mes ; thine, par tes , 
his ou hers, par ses ; ours, par 
nos ; yours, par vos; theirs, 
par leurs, qui, suivant les regies sur 
T article, se placent avant le nom ; ex. 

Un de vos amis est venu ici. 

Un de ses enfants est mort. 

Un de nos voisins me 25 V a dit. 

J'ai rencontre un de leurs valets. 

The — make still use (of the) 

mine, thine, 

his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, 
in another instance (in which) - — 

use mes, tes, 

ses, nos, vos, leurs ; it is - 

• kinds of idioms ; A friend of mine ; 

A book of yours ; ---mine 

is expressed by mes ; thine, - tes ; 

his or hers, by ses; ours, - 

nos; yours, -vos; theirs, 

- leurs, -, (agreeably to) - - on 

the — , are placed before - - ; ex. 

One of your friends* is come here. 

One of his children} is dead. 

One of our neighbours% - it has told. 

I have met one of their servants. § 

* Or, a friend of yours. 
tervant of theirs. 

t Or, a child of his. $ Or, a neighbour of ours. § Or, a 




On appele pronoms demonstratifs 16 
certains mots qui servent a indiquer les 
cbjets dont on parle. 

Ces pronoms sont celui, celle ; 
ceux, celles, formes des pronoms 
vcrsonnels 16 ^lui, elle, eux, elles, 
auxquels on ajoute ce. 

44. Les pronoms demonstratifs, de 
meme que les autres pronoms, s'accordent 
en genre et en nombre avec le nom qu' 
ils representent ; ex. 

Ce cheval vaut mieuoc que celui, (c'est 
a dire) le cheval que vous avez vendu. 

Cette maison est mieux situee que celle, 
(c'est a dire) la maison oil je demeure. 

Vos livres sont plus amusants que 
ceux de votre sceur. 

Les rues de Paris ne sont pas si larges, 
ni si commodes que celles de Londres. 

N. B. Les mots this, these ; 
that, those, indiquent une distinction 
locale 16 que les mots celui, celle, 
ceux, celles ne designent pas ; 
(c'est pourquoi) lorsqu' on* 3 veut mar- 
quer cette distinction en franc.ais, (il 
faut) ajouter aux mots celui, celle, 
ceux, celles, la particule adverbiale 18 
ci pour designer un objet proche, et 
la pour designer un objet 6loigrie ; ex. 

Ce cheval-ci vaut mieux que celui-la. 

Cette maison-LA est mieux situee que 

Ces livres-ci sont plus amusants que 


Ces rues-LA sont plus arges que celles -ci. 

We i6 call — demonstrative 
certain — which — to (-point out) - 

— (of which) ice 45 speak. 

These celui, celle ; (this, that ;) 

ceux,celles ; [these, those,) for med(- -) — - 

— lui, elle, eux, elles, 
(to ichich) ice 46 add ce. 

Tlie , the 

same as - other — , agree 

in — and with which 

they represent ; ex. 

Tlxis - is better than that, (i. e.,) 
the horse which - have sold. 

This - is better situated than that, 
i. e., — house (in which) • live. 

- boohs are more entertaining than 
those . 

The streets are not so broad, 

nor so commodious as those - London, 

N. B. The r— this, these ; 

that, those, (point out) 

local 16 which ~ - celui, celle, 
ceux, celles denote not ; 
therefore when we 45 wish 

(to sheiv ) tliat , (it is 

necessary) (to add)(to the) — celui, celle, 

ceux, celles, adverbial 16 

fci, here,) to denote - object near, - 
fla, there,) (far off); ex. 

■This — here is better - that there. 

That - there is better situated tluin 
this here. 

These — here are more — than 
those there. 

Those - there are broader - these here. 

45. CECI, CELA se trouvent auss (Ceci, iftis;)(cela, that ;) are found 

dans la classe des pronoms demonstra- - - class (of the) . 

tifs 10 . Ces mots representent le sub- These 

stantif chose sous-entendu, et peuvent thing undei-stood, - may 

se tourner par CETTE CHOSE-CI, be turned into this thing-, 

CETTE CHOSE-La ; ainsi quand je dis : that thing ; so when - - : 
Ceci est bon ; c'est comme si je disais, 

CETTE CHOSE- CI est boiUie. 

Cela est mauvais ; c'est a dire, cette 
chose-la est mauvaise. 

Thisis good ; itis (the same) as if- said 
this thing - good. 

That - bad ; i. e. that 
thing - -. 



Les pronoms indefinis sont des 8 mots The — indefinite are .» n.b. — 

qui servent (ainsi que) les autres pronoms Hke- other — 

a designer les objets, mais d'une maniere to denote — , but in a — 
indeterminee 13 ; comme quand je dis : indeterminate 16 ; asichen I say : 

On vient ; QUELQu' UN vient; People come ; Somebody comes ; 

Ces mots ON, QUELQu' UN, (bien qu*) These — people, somebody, though 
lis (se rapportent) a quelque personne, they refer to some — , 
ne designent personne en particulier. denote not (any body) m particular. 

Les pronoms indefinis 16 sont (en as- The are (rather 

sez grand nombre,) comme on le 24 verra numerous,) as we** it (shall see 

dans la seconde partie de ce traite* ; mais part of this treatise ; but 

je ne parlerai ici que du pronom On, le I (will speak)here only (of the) • On, 

plus usite de touts. most used of all. 

46. On de*signe qvelqu' un, quelque On denotes somebody, some 

personne, et repr&sente les mots ONE, we, person, - represents one, we, 

they, people, employe's dans un sens in- they,' people, used - a — 

defini ; ainsi, quand je dis: on vient; c'est — ; so, u-hen I say: one comes; it it 
COmme si je disais, QUELQu'lJN Vient. (the same) as- - said, somebody — . 

47. Les Anglais ont une autre maniere The English have another way 
indefinie 16 de s 24 exprimer, au moyen du — to themselves— , (by the) means (■ -) 

pronom indefini 16 it, que les Francois it, which the French 

expriment par On ; ex. express by On j ex. 

On dit ; OXCroit; ON rapporte. Itis said; -is believed;, is reported* 

48. Les expressions passives 10 e*tant The expressions passive being 
contraires au genie de la langue franchise, contrary to the genius of 1 

on y 24 supple*e au moyen du pronom On ; we them supply (by the)- (of the) -On, 

ainsi, au lieu de dire comme les Anglais; so, instead of saying like — ; 

j'AI ETE DIT que des nouvelles ONT ETE I have been told that news has been 

repies ; les Francais disent; received; — say ; 

On m' a dit qu' on a regu des 8 nouvelles. One - - told - - - received™*, news. 

Voila ce qui rend l'usage du pronom (It is )that which renders- .(of the) . 

On si frdquent, que vous trouverez On so frequent, that you (will find) 

(peu de 9NB ) pages ou ce petit mot (ne few pages (in ivhich) this small- 

se 24 pr£sente) a VOS yeilX. (itself will not present) --eyes. 

Remarquez que On est toujours no- Remark that On is always 

minatif du verbe, et que, quoiqu* il nominative (cf the) — , --, though it 

repre'sente souvent les mots we, they, represents often — we, they, 

people, qui sont du nombre plurier 16 , il people, which are ( of the) ,it 

demande toujours le verbe a la troisieme requires always - — in -third 

personne au singulier, comme on le 24 voit _^ nt ^_ as we it** sue 

dans ces exemples ; t } iese t 

On vient; On dit; On croit ; People come; —say , -believe; 

Os pense; On rapporte; On a recti, Sfc. -think; —report ; -have received. 




Le verba est un mot dont l'usage est The verb is - — (of which, j - use - 

de designer 1' existence, ou 1' action des to denote — , or- — (of the) 

etres qui sont le sujet de nos pense*es. beings that are — of our thoughts. 

L' existence ; comme, je suis, Sexiste. The — ; as, I am, I exist. 

L' action; comme, je parte, je chantey - —s as, I speak, I sing, 

je marche, je bois, je mange, fyc. • walk, - drink, - eat, §c. 

Toute action demande un agent, c'est Every — requires -agent, that is 

a dire, un etre pour produire cette action, to say, -being to -produce — , 

et cet agejit s' appele en grammaire le -this — is called in grammar - 

nominatif da verbe. —(of the) — . 

Nous avons vu page 41, qu' (il y a) We have seen -41, that (there are) 

trois personnes, dont la premiere est celle three— ,( of which) -first -that 

qui parle ; la seconde celle a qui on who speaks; — that to whom we 

parle, et la troisieme celle dont on parle. speak, - - third - (of whom) — . 

49. Le verbe doit etre du meme rhe — must be (of the) same 
nombre et de la meme personne que le —-of -same — as - 
nominatif, et ceci s' appele en grammaire — , - this is called in — 

accord du verbe avec son nominatif; ex. agreement (of the) — with its — ; ex 

J'apprends ; TU apprends ; IL apprend ; lleam; thou learnest ; he learns 

ELLE apprend. she learns. 

MON FRERE apprend; MA SQUUR ap- - brother learns; - sister learns. 


Nous apprenons ; vous apprenez. - learn ; - learn, 

ILS OU ELLES apprennent ; MES FRERES 'leam; -brothers 

apprennent ; mes sozurs apprennent. learn; -sisters leam. 

Le nominatif da verbe se place tantdt The — {--^ — h placed sometimes 

avant, et tantot apres le verbe. oefore, — after — . 

50. Dans les phrases qui ne sont pas In - sentences which are not 
interrogatives, le nominatif se place avant interrogative, — is placed before 
le verbe ; ex. — ; «. 

J' apprends Men; tu apprends Men; lleam well; - learnest well ; 

Il apprend Men ; elle apprend Men. - learns - ; - learns—. 

Mon frere apprend Men; ma sojiur well) — 

apprend Men. . 

Nous apprenons Men ; vous appre- - leam - ; - leam 

nez Men. well. 

Ils apprennent Men; elles appren- -hum-; -leam 

nent Men. well. 

Mes freres apprennent Men; mes well; - 

sqpurs apprennent Men. well. 



Mais quand la phrase est interroga- But ivhen , 

live, c' est a dire, quand on fait une i. e.,'- -ask - 

question, (il faut) considdrer si le no- - , (it h necessary) (to-) whether . 

minatif du verbe est un nom ou un — (of the) hohh m .. 

PRONOM. — . 

51. Si, quand on 48 fait une question, If, — we 4 * ask a — , 

le nominatif du verbe est un pronom — (of the) 

'personnel 15 , ou le pronom indeji?ii K on — ,or on 

ou ce, ces pronoms se placent en fran- or ce, these — are placed — 

cais comme en anglais apres le verbe; ex. as ; ex. 

Apprends-JE* bien? Appr ends-TV Men? - Learn 1* well? Learnest thou — ? 
Apprend-U* bien? Apprend-E1.LE Men? Learns he — ? Learns she — ? 

Appreno?is-i$oxjs ? Apprenez-vous Men ? Learn we — ? Learn you — ? 
Apprennent-iLS ? A pprennent- elles Men ? Learn they — ? Learn they — ? 
Que. dU-OW ? Est-CE la tout? What say people? Is that all? 

52. Si, dans une phrase interrogative™, If , in a sentence — , 

le nominatif du verbe est un nom, on — (of the) — -noun,we i6 

place ce nom avant le verbe, de meme — this — before — , the same 

que si la phrase n'etait pas interrogative; as if — was not — ; 

mais pour marquer qu' on fait une ques- but to shew that we ask — , 

Hon, on ajoute apres le verbe un des we add after — one (of the) 

pronoms personnels* il, elle, ils, ou il, elle, ils, 

elles, suivant le genre et le nombre du tf elles, (agreeably to) — and — 

nom qui est le nominatif du verbe; ex. (of the) — which ( fthe) — ; *» 

Voire FRERE apprend-IL* bien ? - brother learns he* well 1 

Votre so3UR apjjrend-ELLE bien ? - sister learns she — 1 

Vos FRERES appreJinent -ILS Men? - brothers learn they — ? 

Vos S03URS apprennent-ELLES bien ? - sisters learn they — '! 



Nous avons vu page 55, que le verbe We have seen . ■-, that - - 

est un mot qui sert a exprimer une action; is serves to express — 

mais comme la meme action peut se faire but as - same — may be performed 

de differentes 13 manieres, on 46 a adopte in — manners, u-e 46 have adopted 

certains mots auxquels on 46 a donne le (to which) - - given - 

nom d' ad verbe, pour exprimer la ,to express - 

maniere dont se fait cette action ; comme, —( in which) is done this — ; as, 
Je marche vite ; Tu marches lentement. - walk fast ; - walkest slowly 
Nous parlous bien ; Tons parlez mal. - speak well ; - speak badly. 

* When the English ask a question, they are obliged to have recourse to the signs do, does, 
did ; as, Do I learn well 1 Doest thou learn well ? Does he learn well 1 Does your brother learn 
well 1 Does your sister learn well 1 Do we learn well 1 Do you learn well 1 Do they leara 
well 1 Do your brothers learn well 1 Do your sisters learn well 1 Did I learn well 1 fyc. ; 
the French, as you see, do not require any signs, and when these signs occur in english, they 
must be left out in trench. 




Les mots VITE, LENTEMENT, BIEN, fast, slowly, well, 

MAL SOnt des 8 ADVERBES. badly are - 8NB - adverbs 

53. L'adverbe, etant (a l'e*gard du) - - being (with respect to the) 

verbe ce que l'adjectif est a 1'eg-ard du . what 10 - - is 

nom, c'est a dire, exprimant quelque — , i. e. expressing some 
tirconstance du verbe, doit se placer im- 
mediatement apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je vis hier voire sceur. 

Elle parte tres bivn fra?icais. 

Elle aime fort W lecture. 

— (of the) — , must be placed 

— after ,• ex. 

- saw yesterday . 

- speaks very well'french. 
' likes much - 7 reading. 

54. Les adverbes se placent souvent en are placed often in 

anglais, indifferemment avant ou apres le — , indiscriminately before or after 

verbe ; comme, i often see him, or i 

see him often, i very seldom speak to 

him, or i speak to him very seldom ; 

en francais, touts ces adverbes doivent 

se placer apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je (me promenej souvent seul. 

Je vais rarement a la ville. 

Je vais toujours a la campagne. 

— ; as, - often - -, or - 

- - often. - very seldom - - 

— , or very seldom ; 

in — , all these — must 
be placed after ; ex. 

- icalk often alone. 

- go seldom to town. 

• go always into - country. 

55. Les adverbes negatifs sont ne-pas ; 
ne-foint ; ne-plus ; ne-jamais ; ne- 
guere ; ne-nullement ; ne se place 
toujours avant le verbe, et pas, point, 
plus, jamais, guere, nullement, com- 
me les autre? adverbes, se placent im- 
mediatement apres le verbe ; ex. 

Je ne Z 24 aime pas or point. 

Je ne veux plus la 2i voir. 

Je ne lui 24 parlerai jamais. 

Je n' y u consens nullement. 

Vous n' y Si avez guere pens'e. 

The — negative are no, not ; 
no, not ; no more ; never ; but 
little ; by no means ; ne is placed 

— before , - pas, point, 

plus, jamais, guere, nullement, 
like - other — , are placed 
immediately after - — ; ex, 

- her* 4 love not. 

- will no more her* 4 see. 

- (to her) 24 (will speak) never. 

- (to it' 24 ) consent (by no means.) 

- (°fit) nave (very little) thought. 



Les prepositions sont des 8 mots 
qui servent a exprimer le rappoit que 
plusieurs mots de la m6me phrase ont 
les uns aux autres; comme quand je dis; 

Je viens de Londres. 

Je vais A Bath avec ma sceur. 

Je passerai ciiez votre mere. 

Je nepartirai pas sans vous-* voir. 

The — are -°N.B. WO rds 
which — to express - relation - 
several - of - same sentence have 
the one (to the) other ; as when I say ; 

- come from London. 

- (am going) to — with - sister, 

- (will call) upon . 

- will not set out without - seeing. 

Les mots de, a, avec, ciiez, sans, - - de, a, avec, chez, sans, 
sont des 8 prepositions qui servent are- otiS 




a exprimer le rapport qu (il y a) entre relation - (there is ) betwem 

le verbe qui les 84 precede, et le substantif them 2 * precedes, 

qui les 84 suit, et k les 24 unir ensemble. - them follows, • to -unite together 

56. Les propositions se placent souvent — are placed often 54, 

en anglais indifFeremment avant ou apres - - indiscriminately - or - 

le substantif qu'elles regissent ; comme, which they govern; as, 

With whom were you ? or, With whom--? or, 

Whom were you with ? Whom • - with? 

Of what do you speak ? or, Of what - - -/ or, 

What do you speak of? What - - - of? 

En fran^ais, les prepositions se placent In — , — are placed 

toujours avant le mot qu'elles re"gissent ; ex. always 5 * ivhich - govern ; ex. 

Avec qui etait-il? de quoi parlez-vous? With whom was-'. 1 Of what speak • 


Nous voyons page 57, que les prepo- We see - 37, that — 

sitions servent a unir plusieurs mots en- — to unite several - together, 

semble pour en former une phrase; les to (of them) form - sentence; - 

conjonctions servent a. unir plu- — to unite several 

sieurs phrases en une, et a. exprimer le sentences.™ one, -to 

rapport qu'elles ont entre elles ; eomme, relation which - - between them ; as 

qu an d j e d i s : when I say : 

J'irai a la ville, ^il fait beau terns. •( shall go) to town, U it is fine weather 

Nous partirons quand vous voudrez. - (shall set out) when - like. 

Je n'irai pas (X moins que) vous ne - (will go) not unless - 

veniez avec moi. come with me. 

Les mots SI, QUAND, k MOINS QUE - - si, quand, a moins que 

sont des 8 conjonctions. are — 8 N B - — . 

Vous verrez dans la derniere partie de - (will see) in • last part • 
cet ouvrage, une liste des conjonctions this work, - list (of the) — 
avec leurs differents usages. with their various uses. 

The learner having read the rules so far, must read them over again if he does not 
understand them well. But as he must now have some general idea of the difference in the 
construction, or arrangement of words in the two languages, he should try at the same time, 
to translate the following exercises into french. This will be the means of impressing the 
rules on his mind. If the exercise on each rule is found too long, he has no need to write 
any more than to be convinced that he understands it, and dwell only on such parts as seem 
to him the most difficult. If his time is not entirely taken up with these exercises, he 
should now peruse the verbs, that he may be able to go on without interruption when he 
comes to the exercises on the verbs, xohich he cannot xorite ivith ease or advantage before he 
has a general knowledge of the conjugations. 

( 59 ) 










The French language, as we have seen before, is like the 
english, composed of NINE different sorts of words, commonly known 
by the names of 




* The lules of syntax are too numerous, too full of exceptions, and exceptions of excep- 
tions to be retained, or even understood all at once by tender or slow minds. The follow- 
ing exercises, upon the fundamental rules only, are intended to give a general idea 01 
the language. The learner may write them whilst he is perusing the verbs, after which 
he may pass to the other exercises, which include every tiling that can be reduced into 
mles in the french language. 



Every word is called a noun which names a being, either real, as 
sun, moon, earth, man, house, tree ; or ideal, as, god, heaven, honour, Sfc. 
Nouns are distinguished into proper and common. 

A noun proper, or proper name, is the christian or family name 
of a person; as, John, James, Voltaire, Shakespear : of a river; as, 
the Thames, the Mersey : of a place ; as, Paris, London: of a county; 
as, Middlesex, Lancashire: of a country; as, England, France, $c. 

Nouns common, or common names, are the names of beings in general, 
of which we know several; as, man, woman, child, house, tree, river, 
city, country, horse, cow, sheep, dog, c^c. 

N. B. In this class are comprised the abstract names of virtue, vice, 
pleasure, pain, love, desire, fear, hatred, glory, honour, and such like. 

Two things are to be considered in nouns ; the gender and the number 

The gender is the distinction between the sexes. 

All nouns in french are either masculine or feminine. 

By masculine is meant the male being ; as, man, horse, bull, dog. 

By feminine is meant the female being ; as, woman, mare, cow, bitch. 

The names of beings whose sex is unknown, and of those inanimate 
beings, called things, which are of the neuter gender in english, are 
either masculine ox feminine in french, as custom has fixed it.* . 

There are two numbers, the singular and the plural. 

A noun is singular when we speak of one being only ; as, a book, un 
livre; a house, une maison ; a tree, un arbre; a ship, un navire, &c. 

A noun is plural when we speak of more than one. 

N. D. The plural is generally formed in french as in english, by 
adding s to the singular; as, des livres, books; des maisons, houses: 
des arbres, trees; des navires, ships, Sfc. 

Except the nouns ending in s or x in the singular, which are the 
same in the plural : as, monjils, my son ; mesjils, my sons ; une brebis, 
a sheep ; des brebis, sheep ; une noix, a nut ; des jwix, nuts ; une voix, 
a voice ; des voix, voices. 

Except also the nouns ending in u, which take x instead of s for the 
sign of the plural number ; as, chapeau, hat ; chapeaux, hats ; jeu, 
game ; jeux, games, Sfc. 

And the nouns ending in al, ail, which change I or il into ux for the 
plural ; as, ma\, evil ; maux, evils ; cheval, horse ; chevawx, horses ; 
genkrdi, general ; generaux, generals ; travaU, labour; travanx, labours. 

* The gender of these nouns is known by the termination ; rules are given in the syntax 
how to discriminate it ; until then, in the introductory exercises, the nouns masculine will 
be marked rtu, the feminine will be marked /. 




The same noun admitting different meanings, as for example ; the 
bread, the wine; some bread, some wine; this bread, that 
wine ; my bread, thy bread, his bread; my wine, fyc. it was 
necessary to adopt some signs which would fix its proper meaning'. 

These signs, called article, are various, and generally receive their 
appellation from the office which they perform in the sentence. They 
are called in this treatise, 

definite, that which defines the object ; as, the bread, the wine. 

partitive, that which denotes a portion of the object; as, some 
bread, some wine. 

numeral, that which numbers the objects ; as, a or one shilling* 

demonstrative, that which points out the object; as, this or that 
bread, these or those clothes. 

possessive, that which expresses the possession of the object ; as, my 
bread, thy bread, ins bread, her bread, our bread, your bread, 
their bread; my wine, thy wine, his wine, fyc* 

The signs called article, are declined in french as follows: 



1 2 

Masculirie. Feminine. 
LE, LA, 


Masc. and Fern. 

Of, from 





To, at 



a LA, 





de LA, 



A, AN, 












MA,* • 






















* See note* page 31, to which might be s.dded all the numbers, and the words 
CHAQUE, each; tout, every; plusif.uus, several; which exclude the article from the 
noun, and have the same property as the words generally known by the name of ARTICI E. 







The signs called article are never used without a noun after them> 
and they must be of the same gender and number as that noun; this, in 
grammar ■, is called agreement of the article with the noun; ex. 








Masculine and Feminine. 

The ^ 






the g 

les Enfants. 

of The % 



of the 



of the g 

des Enfants. 

to The S 



to the 



to the § 

aux Enfants. 

A ? 




* UNE 



The * 




a la 


the | 
of^e | 

les Habits. 

of The | 



of the 



des Habits. 

toTAe .» 



to the 

?. a la 


to die j» 

aux Habits. 








des Habits. 

TAm \ 


P -in. 




these 1 
£Aose J 

ces Habits. 

My $ 




§ MA 


7722/ S 

mes Enfants. 

of My SaeMON 

y ere. 

of my 



of 7722/ grfeMES Enfants. 

to My p d MOV 


to 7/22/ 

W d MA 


to 7722/ h d mes Enfants. 

JVfy u 




g MA 


my P 

mes Habits. 

of My wdeMON 


of my 



of 77*2/ grfeMES Habits. 

to My ?< 

% MO 1 * 


to my 

^ «MA 


to my g d mes Habit s. 

7% u 




* ta 


thy | 

tes Habits. 

i7/s « 




§2 SA 


Am g 

ses Habits. 

J/er P 




• H SA 


Aer S 

ses Habits. 


NOTRE P« m. 


notre Viande. 


nos Habits. 


VOTRE Pfl«rt. 


votre Viande. 


vos Habits. 


leur Pain. 





leurs Habits. 

TAe father, 2Ae mother, tfAe children. TAe good nature o/ 2Ae father, 

pere, mere, enfants. * fco/i naturel m. 

/Ae tenderness q/* £Ae mother, £Ae civility q/ 1 £Ae children. Speak fo £Ae 

* tendresse f. * civilitt f. Parlez 

father, tell it fo £Ae mother, give it to £Ae children. TAe brother, £Ae 

dites-ie donnez-le frere, 

* Before you prefix an article to a noun, never omit to consider, 

1 Wjiether the noun which follows the article is masculine or feminine ; 

2 Whether it is singular or plural. 

If the noun which follows the article is masc. sing: use the signs contained in the 1 

If the noun which follows the article is fern. sing, use the signs contained in the 2 column. 
_ If the noun which follows the article is plural, whether masculine or feminine, use the 
signs contained in the 3 column. 

t Observe also, that if the noun is singular in english, it must be singular in french, and 
if it is plural in english, it must be made plural in french, asrreeablv to the rules, page 60. 


article and NOUN, 
sister, the cousins. The complaisance of the brother, the modesty 

soeur, consuls. * complaisance f. * modestie f 

of the sister, the kindness of the cousins. The horse, the cow, the 
* bonte f. cheval, vache, 

dog's. The bridle of the horse, the horns of the cow, the ears of the 

chiens. * bride f. comes oreilles 

dogs. Bring it to the horse, give it to the cow, leave it to the dogs. 

Apportez-le donnez-le laissez-le 

The nose, the mouth, the eyes. The tip of the nose, the size of 

* nez, m. bouche, f. yeux. * bout m. grandeur f. 

/As mouth, the beauty of the eyes. A glass, « spoon, « knife, a 
becutt f. * verre,m. cuiller, f. co«teaw,m. 

fork. -Sorae wine, sorae beer, sorae glasses. 7%is dinner, £/h's 

fourchette. f. * rm, m. iiere, f. * ^wier, ni. 

table, these dishes. That cheese, that bottle, those apples. My arm, 
table, f. plats. fromage, m. bouteille, f. pommes. t fr''fls, m. 

??7i/ hand, ray feet. H/shat, /m shirt, his stockings. Her apron, 

* main, f. * . plods. t chapeau, m. * chemise, f. * feas. * tabller, m. 

Aer gown, Aer scissarg. Our garden, our house, our fields. Your 

* robe, f. * ciseaux. jardin, m. muison, f. champs. 

umbrella, yowr watch, your gloves. Their coach, their servants, 
parapluie, m. montre, f. gants. carosse, m. domestiques. 

If the noun which follows the article is singular, and begins with a£ 
vowel, or h mute, I whether it is masculine or feminine, use 

la ; as, The a l' Enfant, m. l' Histoire. f. 

c?eLA; of The £deh' Enfant. dei? Histoire. 

a la ; to The * a l' Enfant. a l' Histoire. 

This or T/W - cet Enfant. cette Histoire. 

My § mon Enfant mon Histoire. 

Thy i ton Enfant. ton Histoire. 

His or Her ' son Enfant. son Histoire. 


TAe air. TAe water. My slate. Her writing. H/s school. Her 
2 a//-. eau. 2 ardoise. 2 dcriture. 2 £co/e. 3 

sch :ol. T/m man. TAa£ child. This tree. TAa£ bird. The ornament 

2 'homme, enfant. urbre. oiseau. ornement 

of the mind. The history of the year. The wing of the bird. He 

esprit. 2 'histoire annte. aile II 

sacrificed hi? honour to the interest of the state. She has lost the 
tacviga 'honneur inttrit Hat. Elle a perdu 

affection of her friend. Her obstinacy is the cause of his inconstancy. 

affection 2 ami. oplnlutret6 est l cause f. inconstance. 

L 7 



a l' 




CE ; 







* See note * page 62. t See note * page S3 

- .-i^ iioie - page vz. t oee note w page .x>. 

t The h mute is marked in these exercises with an apostrophe, tins mark ', before it. 


article and NOUN. 
1 The signs called article must be repeated before every noun infrench 
agreeably to the gender and number of each noun, though the nouns are 
in the same sentence, and though the article is not repeated in english ; 

The father, mother and children are (gone out,) 

Le pvre, la mere et les enfants sont sortis, i. e. the father, the fyc. 

Some bread, meat, money and clothes. 

Du pain, de la viande, de l' argent et des habits, i. e. some bread, fyc. 


Bring the bread and butter 3 ; the tea and coffee 3 ; some milk or 

Apportez l painm. et beurre ; m. ih6m. caff 6 : m. l lalt m. ou 

cream 3 ; a cup and saucer 3 ; a knife and fork 3 ; some bread and 

crtme ; f. tasse f. soucoxipe ; f. couteau m. fourchette ; f. 

cheese 3 ; the dishes and plates 3 ; the beans and bacon 3 ; the pepper 
fromage;m. l plat t assiette ; t five f lard ; m. poicrem. 

and salt 3 . My brother and sister 3 are (gone out.) His father and 

sel. m. l frere sccur sont sortis. — * 

mother 3 are dead. She has lost her friends and relations 8 . 
sont morts. Elle a perdu amif 'parent 4 


: The names of persons and places are used in french, as in english, 
without article ; ex. 

I like Voltaire, J'aime Voltaire, 

London. Londres. 

I speak of Voltaire, Je parle de Voltaire, 

of London. de Londres. 

I prefer it to Voltaire, Je le pre fere A Voltaire, 

to London'. A Londres. 

Observe that de and A which are prefixed to Voltaire, Londres, are 

not articles ; they are prepositions used to unite the noun to the verb. 


I have read almost all the 1 works of Voltaire and 4 Rousseau. 

J' ai lu presque toutes azuvres 4 (a) 

I am reading now the 1 adventures of Telemachus the son of Ulysses 
Je — * lis a present aventures Ttlemaque — * fits $ Ulysse 

and Penelope. Have you ever been in London? Yes, I have, /. e., been. 

(a) Penelope. Avez - vous jamais ttt a Oui, j'y ai tie 

Is it as large as Paris ? London is much larger than Paris. 

Est-it aussi grand que est beaucoup plus grand que 

London is the 1 largest city in Europe. Have you seen Naples? No; 

plus grande ville f. de l' vu A 7 o« ; 

I have been at Florence and Rome, but I have not 55 been at Naples. 

ai 6tt a (a) maisje n'ai pas tte 

* A dash, this mark ( — ), under a word shews that the word is not expressed in french 
agreeably to rules which will be seen in the last part of this work. 

t See note t page 62. 

(a) The preposition must be repeated before every noun in french, in the same way as 
the article. J See note * pafe ^3 


article and NOUN. 
But the names of countries and provinces which are used without O 
an article in english, require in frenchjane of the signs le, la, les ; 
du, de la, des ; au, a la, aux, agreeably to the gender and number 
of the noun ; as, 

I like Portugal, J'aime le Portugal, 

France, la France, 

England. l' Angleterre. 

I speak of Portugal, Je parle du Portugal, 

of France, &c. de la France, fyc. 

I prefer it to Portugal, Je le prefcre au Portugal, 

to France, &c. a la France, fyc. 


Italy 5 is the garden of Europe 5 . France 5 is also a fine country ; 
Htalie* est jardin m. i Europe4 France f. est aussi beau pays ; in. 

it lies between Spain 5 , Italy, Switzerland, Germany 5 , Holland 5 , 

elle (est situte) entre Espagne, 5 Suisse, f. 5 Allemagne, Hollande, f. 

and England 5 . Spain, with all the gold of Mexico 5 and Peru 5 , is 
ct Angleterre. 5 avec tout 2 or M£xiqvam. (a) Perou, m. n'est 

not 55 so rich as France. Brazil 5 belongs to Portugal, Mexico to 

pas si riche que 5 Brtsil m. apparlient 5 m. * 

Spain, Canada 5 to England, Martinique 5 and Guadeloupe 5 to France. 
5 Canadn in. 5 Martinique f. Guadeloupe f. 5 

Observe however that the names of countries are used without the O 
article in french, when they come after verbs denoting dwelling or 
movement, such as to be in, to live in, to go to, to come from; 
In these instances, in, to are expressed by en, and from by de ; as, 
He is in France. // est en France, 

in England. en Angleterre. 

He is going to France, i7 va en France, 

to England. en Angleterre. 

He comes from France, II vient de France, 

from England. d' Angleterre. 


My brother lives in Switzerland and my sister in France. I intend 

demeure 6 6 J' (aidessein) 

to go to France and Italy, (as soon) as the war is over. I come 

</' alter 6 6 (a) aussitot que l guerre f. sera finie. Je viens 

from Portugal, and I (am going) to Holland and England. Have you 

6 Je vais 6 6 (a) Avez - vous 

ever been to Spain ? No ; I (am going) to Turkey and to Greece, 

jamais 6lt 6 Kon ; Je vais 6 Turquie 6 Grece, 

whence I (will pass) into Spain. I would rather go to Italy. 

(d' ou) je passerai en 6 J' aimerais mieux aller 8 

* The figures at the top of the words or under the words, indicate the number of the 
paragraph where the rule concerning that word is to he found ; if you do not perfectly 
recollect the rule, never omit to look for it, and read it every time with the example. 

t The parts of the icorld follow the same rules as the names of countries, 



article and NOUN. 
THE ; LE, LA, LES , DU, de LA, DES ; AU, a LA, AUX. 
All common names u&ed in a general sense ; as, bread is good ; or 
in a particular sense ; as, the bread which I eat is good, must have 
before them one of the definite signs le, la, les ; du, de la, des ; au, a 
la, aux, agreeably to (he gender and number of the noun; ex. 
general sense, no article in english before the noun. 
I like bread, J* aime le pain, 

meat, la viande, 

money, l* argent, 

clothes. les habits. 

I speak of bread, Je parte bv pain, 

of meat, of clothes. de la viande, des habits. 

I prefer it to bread, to meat, &c. Je leprefere au pain, a la viande, fyc. 
particular sense, in english the before the noun. 
I like the bread ~\ J'aime le pain \ 

the meat f T , la viande f .» , 

4h >I have. , . >quej ai. 

the money f l' argent (^ J 

the clothes ) les habits J 

I speak of the bread & meat I have. Jeparle du pain etdeLAvia7idequefai. 

I prefer it to the bread & meat he has. Je leprefere a vpain et a la viande qitil a. 


Gold? and silver? are precious, but ?iron and steel? are more useful. 
*<** * ^argent sont precieux, mais fer m. ^acier sont plus utiles. 

The gold and silver of Peru are purer 18 than that of 5 Europe. 
3 5 Perou m. sont (plus purs) que celui 2 

Modesty? and virtue are preferable to beauty and ?riches. I prefer 
modestie f. 3 vertu f. sont prtj Arables 7 beaut6 f. (n)richesse. Je prtfere 

the modesty and virtue of your sister, to the beauty and 3 riches of your 

1 de » (a) 

cousin. Peace? and plenty? make men? happy. (Let us preserve) the 

cousine. paix f. s abondance rendent honmes heureux. conservons 

peace and plenty which we enjoy. Patience and perseverance are 

3 dont nous joui$6(ms. 7 patience f, ' 'perseverance f. sont 

necessary to happiness. I admire the patience and perseverance of 

ntcessairei 7 bonheur. m. J' admire * f. 3 f« 

your brother. Pride? and vanity are generally the cause of the mis- 

*orgueil 7 vanitd f. ordinairement x cause f. x mal- 

fortunes of men. (Let us go) into the garden to see if the fruit is 

heur 7 homme. allons dans l jardin m. — voir si l fruit m. est 

ripe. Which fruit do you 51 like best? Gooseberries or strawber- 

rnur. Quel — aimez - vous lemieuxt 7 groseille ou 7 f raise'! 

ries ? I do not 55 like gooseberries; I like cherries and peaches. 
Je — ti' aime pas 7 J' aime 7 cerise 7 peche. 

Children generally like fruit. I prefer milk? and cheese to fruit. 

enfant 7 en gdniral aiment 7 Je prdfere lait m. 7 fromage m. 7 

* The figures annexed to the words indicate the rule which that word requires. 


article and NOUN. 
OF expressed by DE ; not by chi, de la, des. 
Observe that the preposition of before a noun used in a general 
sense, preceded by another noun, used in a partitive sense, cannot be 
expressed by du, de la, des, which would render the expression particular 
and mean of the, it must be expressed by de only, without any regard 
to gender or number ; as, 

He gave me a pound of bread, II me donna une livre de pain, 
a piece of meat, tin morceau de viande, 

a bag of money, un sac if* argent, 

aheap of clothes. un tas d' habits. 

Not, Une livre du pain; Un morceau de la viande, fyc. which would 
mean a pound of the bread; apiece of the meat, fyc. 

N. B. In this rule must be included the following words, which, 
though they have no sign after them in english, require the connective 
particle de to unite them to the noun which follows them : 

assez, enough; as, 

beaucoup, much, many ; 

combien, how much, how many ; 

tant, so much, so many ; 

autant, as much, as many ; 

plus, more ; 

moins, less; 

trop, too much, too many ; 

pas, point, no, not; 
jamais, never ; 
Not, assez du pain, eye, which would mean enough of the bread, &;c. 

I have bought a pair of boots, and two pairs of shoes. Drink a 

J' ai acheti, x paire f. 8 botte, deux 8 Soulier. Buvez l 

glass of wine 
verre m vin. 


de pain. 


de viande. 


d' argent. 


d' habits. 


de pain. 


de viande. 


d' argent. 


d' habits. 


de pain. 


de viande. 

pas, or point 

, d' argent. 


d' habits. 

Have a little patience 8 . This is (a day) 

of rest. 

Ayez tin peu NB - C est (aujour d'huijour) 8 repos. 

I have many things 8 to do. I have no money 8 , and I have very 

beaucoup chose™- 3 - a faire. Je n'ai pas argent™' 3 - f ai tres 

few friends 8 . You have more property 8 than I have. I have not 55 

peu ami. N - B * avez plus Men N - B - que moi — Je n'ai pas 

(so many) friends 8 as you. Your friends have (as much) interest 8 as 

tant NB - que ont autant credit N - B - que 


les miens. 

little wine 8 and much water 8 . You give me 2 


Vous me 24 donnez 


Give me 


(too much) wine 8 

trop NB - vous — ne me 24 donnez pas assez. N - B * Je ne JJ 

drink wine 8 without putting a (good deal) of water 8 (into it 24 .) 

bois jamais NB - sans y u mettre — beaucoup N - B - . 

you do not 55 give 

me 24 water enough 8 . 


* See note * p. 28. t Observe that guere is used only in negative sentences. 

F 2 


9 If you want to express only a part of the substance of which you are 
speaking ; as some bread, some meat, fyc. use before the noun one of 
the partitive signs du, de la, dfs, agreeably to gender and number. 
These signs are the same as those of the definite article of the ; as, 
He gave me some bread, // me donna du pain, 

some meat, de la viande, 

some money, de l* argent, 

some clothes. des habits, 

i. e. a portion of the bread, of the meat, of the money, of the clothes. 

N. B. The sign some is often understood in english, before such nouns 
as bread, meat, money, fyc, but the sign which represents it in french, 
cannot be omitted ; and it must be repeated before every noun ; as, 
He gave me bread, meat, money, clothes ; i. e. some bread, some meat. 
II me donna du pain, de la viande, de l' argent, des habits. 


The dinner is on the table. Will you have meat 9NB - or fish flNB ? 
diner m. est sur f. Voulez-vous — viande f. ou poisson m.1 

Will you have some beef and cabbage ; some mutton and turnips ? I 

— beufvtx. 3 choux ; plur. mouton m. s navet'{ Je 

(shall eat) some fish and potatoes. Bring* me some salt and pepper. 

mangerai 3 (pommcs de terre.) Apportez-moi sella. 3 poivre.m. 

What will you drink? Will you have beer 9 , or cider 9 ? I (will drink) 
Que voulez-vous boire 1 — bitre, f. ou cidre m. / Je bomri 

some wine and water 3 . Put some bread and cheese, on the table. 

vin m. 2 eau. Mettez pain m. 3 fromage, m. sur f. 

Except, some, any expressed by de ; not by du, de la, des. 

10 The partitive signs du, de la, des, require the noun immediately after 
them ; therefore if a noun used in a partitive sense is preceded by an 
adjective, use de before that adjective, for both genders and numbers, 
instead of du, de la, des, before the noun ; as, 

He gave me very good bread, II me donna de tres bon pain, 

excellent meat, d' excellente viande, 

fine clothes. de beaux habits. 

(This is) ^excellent wine, but (that is) 10 very bad beer. Have you any 

Vbici excellent vin, mais voila tres mauvaise Mere. Avez - vous 10 

good beer in France? No; but we have 10 good wine and good brandy. 

bonnie bitre en Non ; nousavons bon 10 bon?ie(eau devic.) 

Good small beer is better than bad wine. You must have fine 

10 bonne petite biere est meilleure que 10 mauvais devez avoir l0 beau 

fruit in France. Yes ; we have very fine fruit. (Are there) any large trees 

en Qui ; avons w tres beau Y a-t-il 10 grands arbre 

In your garden ? I£o ; (There are only) young trees. Have you not 

dans l jardini Non; (ilny a que) l0 jeunes N* avez-vcus pas 

better pens to lend me? I have good pens, but bad 10 ink. 

l0 metlleures plume a. me 2 * preter 21 / J' ai ^bonnes mais nrnuWise encre % 



article and NOUN. 
How to place two nouns together. 

When two nouns come together, the French always place first the 
noun which is the subject of discourse, with du, de la, des, de, or a, 
before the second noun, agreeably to the sense in which it is used; as, 
Peter's book, 
i. e. the book of Peter. 
Some London beer, 
e. Some beer of London. 

La plume du matt re. 


Le livre de Pierre. 
De la Here de Londres. 

^de, 4th rule, pro- 
per names. 

The master's pen, 
e. the pen of the master. 

The street door, 
e the door of the street. 

A gold watch, 
e. a watch of gold. 

Some silk stockings, 
i. e. Some stockings of silk. 

La porte de la rue. 
line montre d' or. 
Des bas de soie. 


nu, deLA,7thrule, 
particular sense. 

K DE, of, Bih rule, 
general sense. 

Where is William's* hat?? Have you seen Mary's* apron 7 ? 

Oil est Guillaume chapeau m.l Avez- vous vu Marie tablierm.1 

Will you drink a glass of Port* wine 8 ? Nature's 7 voice* proclaims 
Voulez-vous boire verve m. vin '{ Natuve f. voix f. proclaim 

god's* power 7 . Ignorance 7 is the mother of error 7 . Have you seen my 

dieu pouvoir. m. ^Ignorance mtre s erveur. vu 

father's horse 7 ? I (will wait for you 2 *) at the garden gate 7 , or (at the) 

cheval 'i Je (vous 2i attendvai) a javdin m. porte, f. ou au 

corner of my sister's house 7 . Shut the kitchen door 7 , and open the 

coin m. maison. f. Fevmez 7 cuisine f. porte, f. ouvvcz 

parlour 7 window. Bring my gold 3 watch, and clean my silver 8 buckles. 
salle f. 7 fenetre. f. Appovtez l or montve, f. nettoyez x argent boucle. 

Sometimes however the order of the words could not be changed in 

english in the above manner, without changing also their meaning ; for 

ex. A wine glass, An ink bottle, A tea spoon, could not be changed into 

A glass of wine, a bottle of ink, a spoon of tea ; yet the nouns require 

this order in french ; but instead of he between the two nouns, we use A. 

N. B. This is done when the first noun denotes the use of the other; as, 

A wine glass, r. e. a glass used for wine. Un verre a vin. 

A tea spoon, i. e. a spoon used for tea. line cuiller A the. 


Give me the wine 12 bottle, and the water 12 pot. Put some wine 18 

Donnez-moi vin bouteille, f. eau pot. m. Mettez 

glasses on the table. Bring the tea 12 board and the coffee 19 cups. 

verre sur table, f. Apportez the" cabaret m. caff6 tasse. 

There is no powder 8 in my powder 12 bag. (Let us go) and sit 

11 n'y a pas poudre^-^- dans sac. m. Allans — (nous usseoir) 

in the dining 12 room. Have you any fire 12 arms in your house? 

dans diner diamine, f. Avez 9 feu arme maison f. ] 




An adjective is a word joined to a noun, to denote some quality or 
circumstance belonging to that noun ; as, good bread, bad meat, &c. 

kO The adjective must be of the same gender and number as the noun 
which it qualifies. 

An adjective is made feminine by adding e mute to the masculine ; as, 
(That is) a pretty boy. Voila un joli garcon. 

(This is) a pretty girl. Void une JOhieJille. 

He is well dressed. II est Men habillje. 

She is very well dressed, Elle est tres Men HABiLLEe. 

Except the adjectives ending in e mute, which are of both genders ; as, 
Un jeune homme aimable. An amiable young man. 
Une jeune femme aimable. An amiable young woman. 

And the adjectives in x, which change x into se for the feminine; as, 
Monfrere est paresseut. My brother is lazy 

Ma sceur est paresseusc My sister is lazy. 

The plural number of adjectives is formed like that of nouns, by 
adding s or x to the singular ; see nouns, page 60. ex. 

Une JOhiEjille. A pretty girl. Un beau chapeau, A. fine hat. 
De jolies files. Pretty girls. De beauz chapeaux. Fine hats. 
N. B. A past participle used to qualify a noun, or coming after the 
verb to be to express an action or the state of the noun, follows the same 
rules as an adjective; ex. 

My brother is gone out. Monfrere est sorti. 

My sister is gone out. Ma sa3ur est sortic 

Your brother is diligent; your sister is diligent 1 *; your brothers are 

est diligent; * . x sont 

diligent 13 ; your sisters are diligent 13 . Your father is esteemed; your mo- 

* x * estime' ; 

ther is esteemed 13 ; your sons are esteemed; your daughters are esteemed. 
* i fits 13 * x fille 13 * 

That boy is very civil; that girl is very civil; these gentlemen are 

1 tres civil ; x # i messieurs 

very civil; these ladies are very civil 13 . Our man servant is lazy; 

* x dame * valet paresseux ; 

our maid servant is lazy 13 ; our men servants are lazy 13 ; our maid servants 

are lazy 13 . My son is very young ; my daughter is very young ; my 

* tres jeune; x 

sons are very young ; my daughters are very young. Your cousin is 

* l cousine f. 

very amiable; she is officious 13 and complaisant 13 . 

aimable ; elle officieux* complaisant* 

* The masculine singular only of adjectives is here given ; the learner must make the 
adjective of the gender and number which the noun requires, agreeably to the ahove rules. 



If an adjective qualifies several nouns singular of the same gender, 14 
that adjective must be of the same gender as those nouns, and plural , as 
Her father and her uncle are angry. Son pere et son oncle sont fAches. 
Her mother and her aunt are angry. Sa mere et sa tante sont fAchecs. 

But if the nouns are of different genders, the adjective must be oj J.*) 
the masculine gender, and in the plural number ; as, 

Her father and mother are angry. Son pere et sa mere sont f Aches. 

My mother and sister are ready. His daughter and his niece are 

1 et 3 sont pret. 14 1 filie niece 

civil and obliging. Her son and daughter are dead 16 . The horse and 

civil 14 obligeant. 14 x fils 3 mort* cheval ' 

the cow have escaped 15 . The gate and the door were ope?i u . The 

vache (se sont) e'chappe'.* 1 barriire f. porte f. itaient ouvert.* 

man and the woman were gone. I found a glass and a bottle broken. 
etaient parti*. Jetrouvai verre m. bouteillef. casse'.* 

Adjectives are generally placed in english before the noun ; in french 1 O 
they are placed after the noun ; as, 

A red coat. A round table. A new house. 

Un habit rouge. Une table ronde. Une maison neuve. 

Except these adjectives, which are generally placed before the noun ; 1 / 

premier, 1st; second, 2d; and all the adjectives of number. 

beau, bel, ?n.)fine, mauvais, bad. 

belle, fern. J handsome. mechant, wicked. 

bon, m. bonne, f. good. meilleur, better. 

grand, great, large. moindre, less. 

gros, m. grosse, f. big. petit, little, small. 

jeune, young. tout, all, whole. 

joli, pretty. vieux, m. vieille, f. old;f 

A good husband. A handsome woman. A pretty little bird. 

Un bon mari. Une belle femme. Un joli petit oiscau. 

England is a fruitful country. The english™ nation has made several 

b Angleterre est l fertile 16 pays. in. l anglais 13 nation f. a fait plusieursi 

useful 16 discoveries. Your sister is a charming 16 woman. She has the 

utile 13 de'couverte. est l charmant 13 femme. Elle a l 

most engaging 16 manners'. Does she 51 know the french 16 language? 

vlus engageant 13 manieres. f. — suit- elle 51 l francais 13 langueLI 

I have met her near the white 16 house. She lives in a 1 small 11 

Je I 25 ai rencontve'e 25 (pres de) l blanche maison. f. demeure dans l3 

house in a large garden. It is an old 1 " 1 house, and (there is) a bad 11 road 

tnaison f. l J 7 jardin. m. C est 1 vieille il y a chemin m. 

to go (to it) but it is the best 11 situation in this neighbourhood. 

pour y u uller ** mais c est 1 meilleur 13 f. dans 1 

• A participle used to qualify a nouu, follows the same rule as an adjective ; 13 rNR 
t Add to them MEME, same, and plusieurs, several, which also come before the noun. 



The same words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also by i\ e 
means of certain adverbs to compare their qualities. 

1 Q The comparative of superiority, more before the adjective, or n or 
er added to it, is formed in french by plus* before the adjective; as, 
I am more strong, or stronger than you. Je suis plus fort que vous. 

1 Q The comparative of inferiority, less, or not so before the adjec- 
** tive, is formed by MoiNsf, or pas si before the adjective; as, 

I am less strong than you. Je suis moins fort que vous. 

I am not so strong- as you. Je ne suis pas si fort que vous. 

9A The comparative of equality, formed by as before the adjective is 
formed in french by aussi before the adjective; as, 

I am as strong as you. Je suis aussi fort que vous. 

Qy 1 The superlative most or least before the adjective, or st or est 

" •*• added to it, is formed by adding le, la, les, to the comparative words 

plus, moins, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 

My brother is the strongest. Monfrere est le plus fort. 

My sister is the least strong. Ma sceur est la moins forte. 

The country is more pleasant than the town. My horse is younger 

1 campagyie f. est 18 agriable que 1 ville. f. l cheval jeune 18 

and runs faster than yours. That 1 house is larger™ and more 

court vite l8 le votre. maison-la f. grand 13 ia 

convenient than this 44 , but this 44 is better built. You write better 

commode celle-ci, celle-ci (b) bdli. 13 icrivez (b) 

than I do, because you have ^better pens. Vice 7 is less dangerous 

moi — , parceque (b) plume, f. Vice m. 19 dangereui 

than hypocrisy*. She is not so handsome as her sister, but she is more 

2 hypocrisie. Ellen'estpas 19 belle 19 socur, elle est 

amiable. She is as rich as you. She is the handsomest woman in 

aimable. 20 riche 20 " » belle 2l (c) 

the town. Her father is the proudest* 1 man that I have ever known. 

ville. f. orgueilleux 16 que aie (d) jamais connu. 

• Except meilleuR , better; p I RE, worse ; adjectives, | M h &re rative of 

MIEUX, better ; Pis, worse; adverbs, > themselves 

t Except moindre, less; adjective, J 

(b) Beginners are apt to mistake the words MEILLEUR & MIEUX, which are both 
expressed by BETTER. 

Meilleur, better, is the comparative of BON, good, an adjective, and is added to 
nouns ; as, 

My pen is good, yours is better. Ma plume est bonne, la votre est meilleur e. 

Mieux, better, is the comparative of BIEN, well, an adverb, and is added to verbs ; as, 
I write well, but you write better. J' tcris BIEN, mais vous tcrivez MIEUX. 

(c) IN, after a superlative, is expressed in french in the same manner as OF ; ex. 
She is the finest woman in the town. C est la plus belle femme de LA ville. 

(d) QUI, QUE, DONT, after a superlative require the verb in the subjunctive ; as. 
She is the finest woman I riai;ee\erseen. C est la plus belle femme que j' aie jamais vu*. 



A pronoun is a word used to represent a noun ; as when I say, i, 
instead of naming my own name, thou, you, he, she, it, they, 
instead of naming- that of another being. 

There are various sorts of pronouns, generally known by the names of 

personal pronouns are either agents or nominatives of verbs, or they 
are objects. 
The nominat. are, I, THOU, HE, SHE, IT, V/E, YE, YOU, THEY. 
The objects are, ME, THEE, HIM, HER, IT, US, YOU, THEM. 

When i, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, are the nominative^— * 
of a verb, i. e. when there is before or after them, a verb of the same 
number and person that agrees with them, they are, 









HE, IT. 


THEY, mas. 




THEY, fern. 


N. B. The nominative pronouns keep the same place in the sentence 
infrench as in english ; ex. 

/have. Thou hast. He has, &c. Have I? Hast Thou? Has he? fyc. 
J'ai. tu as. il a, fyc. ji-jE? as-tv? A-i-iL? &c. 

J speak. Thou writest. He plays. She sings. We walk. You dance', 

parle. tcris. joue. chante. marchons. dansez. 

They study. Have you done? Is he come? Are they gone 
ttudient. Avez fini ? Est venu ? Sont partis ? 

If i, thou, he, she, we, you, they, have not a verb to agree withJdO 
them, or if they are joined to another substantive,* they are, 











THEY, mas. 




THEY, fern. 

ELLES. ex. 

It is I who have done that. Cest moi qui ai fait cela. 

He and I have done that. Lui et moi nous avons fait cela. 

You and they have done that. Vous et eux vous avez fait cela. 

Who has done that? It is not 55 /; it is he. It was neither 

Qui a fait cela? Ce n'est pas ^ c' est & Ce n6tait ni 

he nor I, it was either you or they. He and J were together. 

83 ni 23 c' itait ou ou ^ ^ 23 [nous itions) ensemble. 

I can do that better than he. You can not do it 24 better than 7". 

82 puis fuire cela (b) que ^ nepouvezpas le™ faire (b) M 

* By substuntive is meant here every word which either names or represents a suostance 




A table shewing how the objective pronouns are expressed, according 
to the place which they keep with the verb. 


to ME. 

to THEE. J 





Before the verb. 
24, 25, 27, rules. 



After the verb. 
26 rule. 


After a preposition. 
28 rule. 




of, from, 
for, with 

to, at, 
in, by 

to US. 

to YOU. 

IT; mas. 

IT; fern. 


to HIM, 
to HER. 

to THEM. 



Whether before or after the verb, 
24, 25, 26, 27 rules. 
















JEUX, m. 

This table shews in one point of view all the rules concerning- t!ie 
objective pronouns. 

These pronouns, as you see in the table above, are sometimes governed 
by verbs, and sometimes by prepositions. 

When the objective pronouns are governed by a verb, they are placed 
invariably before that verb. See rules 24, 25 and 27. 

Except when the verb commands, for then the pronouns must be placed 
after the verb, and moi, toi must be used, instead of me, te. See rule 

If the pronouns are governed by a proposition, they are then independ- 
ent of the verb, and must be placed after the preposition. See rule 28. 

(e) en, Y, are also adverbs of place, used, en for thence ; Y for there, thither, 
and they follow the same rules as the pronouns. 



The order which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

IVhen the pronouns me, thee, us, you, him, her, it, the 
-ire governed by a verb, the pronouns me, te, nous, vous, le, la, les, 
lui, leur, en, y, which represent them, must be placed immediately 
before that verb ; ex. 

II ME Voit. 
II TE VOit. 

//nous voit. 
Il vous voit. 

Il LE VOit. 

Il la voit. 

Il LES VOit. 

me voit-il ? 
te voit-il ? 
nous voit-il? 
vous voit-il ? 
le voit-il ? 
la voit-il ? 
les voit-il ? 


He sees me. 

him, or it 
her, or it. 
Does he see me? 

him, or it? 
her, or it ? 
them ? 

literally he me 
he thee 

he us 


he you 

he him, or it 

> o 


lie her, or it 

he them 





him, or it 


htr, or it 



He does not see me ; Sfc. 

Does he not see me? Sfc. 
Does he not see thee ? Sfc. 

1 see you. I see him. 

II ne me voit pas. 

Ne me voit-il pas ? 
Ne te voit-il pas? 


I see her. I see them. 

he me sees not. 

me sees he not ? 
thee sees he not? 

Do you 51 see me ? 
Do you see ws? Do you see Azwi ? Do you see her ? Do you see 

51 24 51 24 51 24 51 

I do not know 

ne connaispas 24 — 55 2l — 55 

her. I do not know them. Do you 51 not know me ? Do you 

24 — 55 24 — ne connaissez-vous pas ** 7 — 51 

not know us? Do you not know him? Do you not know her ? 

55 24 V ' 55 24? J 55 24 

Do you not know them ? I meet them sometimes, but I do not 5 

— 55 24 '. 1 rencontre 2i quelquefois, — ne 

speak (to them). Have you seen your mother lately? I saw her 

parle pas — leur 24 . Avez vu depuispeu! vis r* 

yesterday. Did she 51 bring you any thing? She brought me a 

hier. — apporta-t-elle ** queique chose? ' app&rta ^ 

new book. Did you 51 tell her that I wished to see her? 

iui 2i que souhuitais — voir /a 24 ? 

ilinn ? I do not 55 know 


livre. m. — dites-vous 

I told her that we (should go) to see her on Sunday. What did 

d>s lui 24 que irions — voir la 2 * — dimanche. Que 

she 51 say to you ? She told me that she (would be) alad to see 7/* 



wait (biee aise) de 





The order which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

the 3i are governed by a verb compounded of the auxiliary verbs 
have, or be, and of a participle past, the pronouns me, te, nous, 
vous, le, la, les, lui, leur, en, y, which represent them, must 
be placed before the auxiliary verb ; not between the auxiliary and 
the participle ; as, 

II m'* a vu. 

II t' a vu. 

II l' a vu. 

II l' a vue. 

II nous a vus. 

II vous a vus. 

II les a vus. 

M ! -fa-t-il vu ? 

t' a-t-il vu ? 

l' a-t-il vu ? 

l' a-t-il vue ? 

nous a-t-ilvus? 

vous a-t-ilvus? 

les a-t-ilvus? 

II ne »i'a pas vu. 

Ne u'a-t-il pas vu ? 


I have seen you. I have seen him. I have seen her. I have 

ai vu ** vu 25 * vue *** 

seen them. Have you seen me ? Have you seen us ? Have you seen 
vus 25 Avez-vous vu 25 * / vus S5 Z vu 

him ? Have you seen her ? Have you seen them ? Where have you 

- 25*7 vue 25*? ms 25? Oil 

seen A/ra? I have met him at the door. He had seen me 

pa 25 * ? rencontrd 23 * a porte. f. avait rue 25# 

(coming out) of the house. He has kept me all this while. I would 

sortir l maison. f. "etenue 25 tout l terns, m. — 

have told him** that I wanted to go. I have told him- 5 that you 

aurais dit lui $ que voulais, — (inen alter.) dit lui \ que 

had forbid me to stop. I have heard you. Had you never 55 

aviez dtfendu 25 de m'arreter. entendus 25 Ne aviez - vous jamais 

seen him before? I had met him once or twice, but I had 

vu le 25 * auparavant? avais rencontre le 25 * une ou deux fois, mais ne amis 

never 55 spoken (to him), and he had never 55 spoken (to me.) I have 

jamais parle — lui 25 ne avait jamais — 25 

written (to him) this morning, but he has not 55 yet answered me. 

£ cr it — lui 25 *■ matin, m. ne a pas encore (fait reponsej K . 

* See note * page ?8 t S*e note # page 43 J See note (f) page 79. 


has seen me. 


him, or it. 

her t or 




Has he seen me ? 

thee ? 

him, or it? 

her, or 



you ? 


has not 

seen me 

; Sfc. 

Has he not 

seen me 

? Sfc. 

iterally he me 

he thee 

he him, or it 


he her, or it 


he us 
he you 
he them 




him, or it 


her, or it 






he me has not seen. 

vu ? me has he not seen ? 



The order which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 


1st Exception. When the objective pronouns me, thee, us, you, &\J 
WiJtf, her, it, them are governed by the imperative of a verb used 
in a commanding sense, i. e. without a negation, the pronouns which 
represent them, are placed immediately after the verb ; 

In these instances me is expressed by moi, and thee by toi. 

But if the imperative is used in a forbidding sense, i. e. if it is H 
attended by a negation, the pronouns must be placed immediately before 
the verb, agreeably to the general rule ; 

Then me is expressed by me, and thee by te ; ex. 

Imperative COMMANDING, 26 rule. Imperative FORBIDDING, 27 rule. 

Look at me Regarde-uoi. Ne me 1 ^ § 

thyself. toi. Ne te j b * » 

Look at us. Regardez-xovs. Ne nous \ dez | 

yourself. vous. Ne vous J & o. 

Let us look at him, or it. Regardons-LE. Ne le 1 £f 

her, or 27. la. IVe la >regardons pas. g 

M'-m. les. Ne les J » 


Speak to me. Do not 55 speak to me. Do not interrupt me. Warm 

Parlez — 26 — ?ie p«s — 27 — 55 interrompez 27 Chauffe 

thyself a little. Do not warm thyself (so much.) Write to Aer. Do 

26 ' MH peit. — 55 2 ' tant. Ecrivez — lui 25 . — 

not write to her. Send it (to him.) Do not send it to A/m. 

« __ s? Enwi/ez-/e 25 — lui. 25 — 55 fe 2? — hu 27 . 

2d Exception. The objective pronouns are not always governed by 
verbs, they are sometimes governed by a preposition which some verbs 
require to be united to the substantive* that folloics them; then the pro- 
noun being the object of the preposition, and not the object of the verb, 
it is placed after the preposition, and we express 


ME, by MOI. 
THEE, by TOI. 
HIM, by LUI. 
HER, by ELLE. 

US, by NOUS. 
YOU, by VOUS. 
THEM, in. by EUX. 
THEM, fern, by ELLES ; ex 

Was he speaking of me? 

Parlai't-il de moi ? 

I will not go with him. 

Je n irai pas avec lui. 

He is come without her. 

II est venu sans elle. 

He applied to them. 

II s'adressa a eux, m. a elles. 



Come to me. I do not 55 care for thee. I went to her, and she 
Viens a ^ — ue me sonde pas de ,28 allai w et 

sent me to him. I will not go with them. I am tired of them. 

envoy a 2 * ^ — 55 irai avec 23 ennttyt d' ** 

Have you thought of me? I always 54 think of you. 
Avez pense" a M toujours pense a w 

* See note * page 73. t This is more fully explained in the third part of this work. 






When several objective pronouns are governed by the same verb 
they must be placed together in the following order : 

Before the verb, 24, 25 rules. After the verb, 26 rule. Whether bef. or aft. the verb ; 
ME 24, 25, 26, 27 rules. 

NOUS,] LE, ] ME, 

VOUS } be f' LE LA ' LES> Y ' EN * LES r e f' M01 T01, TE 

SE, 'J Y, 'J 

Whether before or after the verb, 24, 25, 26, 27 rules. 
LE, ) 

LA, >bef. lui, leur, y, en. 
LES, ) 

bef. en. 

Y, EN. 


Y, bef. en.* 

* Having uniformly observed that the arrangement of several pronouns together is one 
of those rules which learners find the greatest difficulty to attain, I have given examples 
shewing how several pronouns are placed together in all possible instances, by the means 
of which errors may always be rectified. 

before the verb, 24,25 rules. after the verb, 26 rule. 

He gave him or it to me. 

He gave her or it to me. 

He gave them to me. 

He gave me some. 

He gave him or it to us. 

He gave her or it to us 

He gave them to xis. 

He gave us some. 

He sent me there. 

He sent him, her, or it to me 

He sent them to me there. 

He sent me some there. 

He sent lis there. 

He sent him, her, or it to us 

He sent them to us there. 

He sent some to us there. 

He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He gave 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 
He sent 

him or it to thee. 

her or it to thee. 

them to thee. 

thee some. 

him or it to you. 

her or it to you. 

them to you. 

you some. 

thee there. 

him, her, or it to thee 

them to thee there 

some to thee there. 

you there. 

him, her, or it to you 

them to you there. 

some to you there. 


II ME LE donna. 

ll ME LA donna. 

11 ME les donna. 

11 M' EN donna. 

II NOUS le donna. 

II NOUS LA donna. 

11 NOUS les donna. 

11 NOUS EN donna. 

II M' y envoya. 
there. 11 ME l' y envoya. 

11 ME les Y envoya. 

II M' Y EN envoya. 

II NOUS Y envoya. 
there. 11 NOUS l' Y envoya. 

II NOUS LES Y envoya. 

II NOUS Y EN envoya. 


II TE LE donna. 

II TE LA donna. 

II TE les donna. 

II T' en donna. 

II VOUS LE donna. 

II VOUS LA donna. 

11 VOUS les donna. 

11 VOUS EN donna. 

11 T' Y envoya. 
there. II TE l' y envoya. 

II TE LES Y envoya. 

II T' Y en envoya. 

11 VOUS Y envoya. 
there. II VOUS l' y envoya. 

II VOUS LES Y envoya. 

ll VOUS Y EN envoya. 





Donnez-M' en. 


: D<mngz-NOUS-LA. 



Envoy ez-Y-MOI. 

Envoy ez-L' Y-MOI. 


E/woyez- y-en-MOI. 


Envoyez-NOUS-h' y. 



Reprtsente- LE-TOI. 
Represente-T' EN. 
Reprtsentez- VO U S- L E. 
Representez- VOUS- LA. 
Representez- VOUS- en . 

Transportez-VOUS- y . 




He recalls him or it to himself. II SE ee rappele. 

He recalls her or it to himself. 11 SE la rappele. 

He recalls them to himself. 11 SE les rappele. 

He repents of it, of them. 11 S' en repent. 

He applies himself to it to them. It S' Y applique. 




Thti order which several objective pronouns Iceejt together. 

before the verb, 24, 25 rules, after the verb, 26 rule. 

He has given him or it to him, to her. 11 LE lui a donnt. Donnez-EE-LV>i. O 

He has given her or it to him, to her. II LA lui a donnte. Donnez-LA-LUl. < 

He has given them to him, to her. II LES LUI a donn6s. Donnez-LES-LVi. Z. 

He has given him or it to them. II LE LEUR a donn6. jDon?zez-LE-LEUR. 

He has given her or ii ;o them. Il LA LEUR a donn6e. Donnez-LA-LEUR. | 

He has given them to them. Il LES leur a donnes. Donnez-LES-LEVR. 

He -warned him, or her of it. 11 L' en avertit. Avertissez-L,' en. -§ 

He warned them of it. ' ll LES en avertit. Avertissez-EES-'EX. 

He sent him, her or it there. II L' Y envoya. Envoyez-E' Y. 

He sent them there. Il LES Y envoya. Envoy ez-LES-Y. w 

He sent him or it to him, to her there. Il LE lui Y envoya. Envoyez-EE-LVl-Y .* § 

He sent her or it to him, toher there. Il LA LUI Y envoya. Envoyez-EA-LVl-Y . &* 

He sent them to him, to her there. II LES LUI Y envoya. Envoy ez-EES-LV I- Y . "•' 

He sent him or it to them there. II LE leur Y envoya. Envoy ez-LE-LEUR-Y. S" 

He sent her or it to them there. II LA LEUR Y envoya. Envoy ez-LA-LEUR-Y. IT 

He sent them to them there. 11 LES leur y envoya. Envoy ez-EES-LEVR-Y.' 3 

He sent some to him, to her. Il LUI EN envoya. Envoy ez-LU I- EN. S 1 - 

He sent some to them, or them some. 11 LEUR EN envoya. Entw/ez-LEUR-EN. | 

He sent some to him, to her there. Il LUI Y EN envoya. Envoy ez-EXJI-Y-EW. ^ 

He sent some to them there. II LEUR Y en envoya. Enwn/ez-LEUR-Y-EN. « 

He sent some (g) there. II Y EN envoya. Envoy ez-Y -en. 


I have brought you the book which I had promised you. Where 

ai apporte 25 livrera.. que avais promts 25 Oil 

is it? Shew it** me. I (will shew) it 24 you (by and by.) Will you give 

est-il ? Montrez-le 26 montrerai le 29 tantot. Voulez donner 

It does not belong 
II — n' est pas 

you 51 lend it 24 me ? 

preterez-vous le 29 ? 

Lend it 2 * me now. I (will return) it 24 to you (to-morrow). I (will lend) 

Pretez-le ^ aprtsent. rendrai le — >29 demain. preterai 

it 24 you next 16 week 7 . I (shall be) in the country then. I (will send) 

le ** prochaine semaine. f. serai a. campagne f. alors. enverai 

them to you there. You will not find (any body) to bring them 

24 _ 29 y 29 — ne trouverez personne pour apporter ^ 

to me there. I (will take) them to you there myself. Has she given 
— 29 y 29 porterai ^ — M 29 moi-meme. A-t-elle donnt 

him 25 any money ? No ; she has lent him 25 a guinea. Tell her 26 
(f) 9 argent ? Non ; pretc (f) l guinee. f. Dites (f) 

not to lend him u any more, for he will never return it 24 her. 

de ne pas preter (f) (g) 29 davantage, car — ne 55 rendra jamais le (f) 29 

* Lui "Y is grammatical, hut i, i, at the end of a sentence do not sound well, there- 
fore, instead of Y for there, use la, and say lui la instead of LUI Y. 

(f) When a verh governs two suhstantives, either nouns or pronouns, one of them 
has a preposition expressed or understood, hut the preposition is generally understood 
before the pronoun -which represents the person. In these instances him, her, must 
be expressed by LUI, and them by leur, the same as when to is prefixed to them ; ex. 

I will send him money, i. e. money to him; Je LUI enverai de V argent; not L'enverai. 
I have offered them some, i. e. some to them ; Je LEUR EN at offert ; notje LES EN ai oJFert. 

(g) Some y any, implying of it, of them, understood after them, are expressed by en 

it 24 me? 
le 29 ? 

Give it 26 me. I can not give it 24 you, 

Donnez-le 29 ne puis pas donner le 29 

to me. 

a. 28 

I (will lend) it 24 you. When will 

preterai le 29 Quand — 



OK) As there are only two genders infrench, the masculine and the femi- 
nine, the neuter pronouns it, they, THEM must be expressed by il, 


them, masculine or feminine, agreeably to the gender of the noun which 
they represent; so we say: 

Of a man or a tree. 
Il est grand; je le vois. He or it is tall ; I see him, or it. 

Of a woman or a flower; 
Elle est belle ; regardez-LA. She or it is fine ; look at her, or it. (h) 

Of men or trees ; 
Ils sont ici; je les ai mis. They are here ; I have seen them. 

Of women or flowers; 
Elles sont belles; je les admire. They are fine ; I admire them. 


You have a fine hat. It is new. I can not wear it s *. It is 

avez 1 beau chapeau. m. 30 est neuf. ne saurais porter 30 (h) 30 

too small. (Here is) another; try it*\ This watch has cost me 

trap petit. En void un autre ; tssayez 30 (h) l montref.a coule » 

a (good deal) of money 8 , but it is not 55 good ; It does not go well. 
— beaucoup argent , N -»- 30 nest pas bonne; 30 — ne vapasbien. 

Get «7 26 mended. Give it 30 me. (That is) a good house; it 
Faites 30 (h) raccomnwder. Bonnes (h) 26 Voila l bonne maison ; f. 80 

is well built, but it is not well situated. It is too near the road. If 
bleu bdti, 13 3 ° Men sitae 13 . 30 trop pres de route, f. Si 

it was mine, 42 I (would sell) if". Eat some of these grapes ; 

30 ctait (a moi) vendrais 30 (h) Mangez (quelques-uns) l raisins ; m 

they are good. I (would rather have) apples, if they were ripe. 

bon. 13 J' aimerais mieux — 9 pommes, f. 30 ttaient murj 3 

It is not the time for apples. Is it astonishing that they are 

(i) n'est pas terns m. des (i) itonnant qu 30 ne soieut 

not 35 ripe? It (would be) an astonishing thing if they were. 

pas 13 (i) serait ttonnante 16 chose f. qu' 30 le /assent. 

(h) Learners are sometimes embarrassed how to discriminate it the object from it 
the agent or nominative, i. e. when to express it by il, elle, and when by le, la. 

It is the agent, and expressed by il, elle, agreeably to the gender of the noun to 
which it relates, when, if you were speaking of a person, you would use HE or she ; as, 
He or it is come. Il est venu. She or it will fall, elle tombera. 

It is the object, and expressed by le, la. agreeably to the gender of the noun, when, 
if you were speaking of a person, you would use him or her ; as, 

I see him or it. Je le vois. I know her or it. Je la connais. 

(i) It is often used in an impersonal sense, i. e. without reference to any substantive 
mentioned in the sentence ; as, it is glorious, shameful, necessary, &c. 
In these instances, it is always expressed by IL, or by ce. 

Iris expressed by il, if the verb is followed by an adjecti ve without a substantive; as, 
it is glorious, shameful, necessary. IL est glorieux, honteux, ntcessaire, e\c. 

It is expressed by ce, when the verb is followed by a substantive, either with or with- 
out an adjective ; as, 

It is I. it is he. iris she. it is you. it is your brother, it is a shameful tiling 
C'es* moi, e'est Uu. c'estelle. e'est vous. e'est votrefrcre. e'estnue chose ltonteuse. 



//e, she, they, him, her, them, are sometimes used without 31 
relation to any noun expressed before them, but imply the words man, 
woman, or people understood; as, 

He who is honest is esteemed ; i. e. the man who is honest is &c. 

Do you know her wnom I love? i. e. the woman whom I love? 

In this se?ise they are expressed ; 

milfc CELUI. ggji CELLE. ™|F, } % CEUX j as, 

He who is honest is esteemed. celui qui est honnete est estime. 

Do you know her whom I love? Connaissez-vous celle que Jaime? 

„ N ', B :l CELUI ' CELLE ' ceux ' fl7w *^ c re/a*we qui, que, dont which 
attends them must not be separated, as the corresponding words sometimes 
are in english ; they must be placed together ; as, 
Be knows men but little who relies on their promises. 
Celui qui compte sur les promesses des homines ne les commit suere : 
i. e. He who relies on the promises of men knows them but little (k). 

He who can live dishonoured does not deserve to live. He who 
qui pent vivre tUshonort _ 55 tnirite de »i 

betrays a friend is unworthy of friendship. He can not be happy 

tr&it amim. zndigne amitU. ^ ne saurait _ etre heureil 

f^f ^ a Pf iness depends on others. Do not" trust him who 

ao/u n.b. ibonheuvm. depend des autres. - Ne vous fiezpasa ^ 

has deceived you. She (of whom) you speak (will come) (by and by.) 

trom Pi 23 8l dont parlez viendra tantbt. ' ? 

She is not come (of whom*) you (were speaking.) Do you* Know her 

est ■ venue n.b. parliez. — Connaissez-vous « 

(of whom) we (are speaking?) They who prefer ^riches to 'honour 

Pari™*? 31 prtferent richesses *honneur 

are contemptible. They are mistaken who* think that riches make 
mtprisable™. * - se trompent n.b. pensent que 7 rcndent 

men' h ;ippy . Do you* know that gentleman? He is a physician. 
homme heureux. - Connaissez-vous » monsieur'/ (1) Wdecin. 

(T twV S) h i iS 7 ife * ^ is a fine woman ' The V are 10v *ry honest people. 

*oUa femme. (1) belle femme. (I) treshonnetes gens. 

(k) We may also say without changing the order of the words : 

or^l'^Jl 6 C07m ^ t 8U "' e l f H mmes QUI com P te sur leurs Poornesses; 
but tW twnLorif 7 C gWr - e leS hommes QVE DE com P ter sur leurs promesses ; 
but these two modes of expression are" more adapted to oratory than to conversation. 

(1) He she they, coming with the verb be followed by a substantive are eenerallv 

PreS E d is Y a me^anf ** ^ * ""ft they "f* h ™ been -enSed beS Ts! 
ne is a merchant. C'est un negotiant. 

Th* ^ T' C ' est une marcliande de modes. 

They are great rogues. Ce sont de grands fripons. 

N. B. If the substantive which follows the verb denotes trade or profession hf shf 

THEY ' iTL^SSr d by 1L > ELLEj IL V LLES > but th , e •^OTWB s a " ' 

T*,**Lil ^ mi i i, • , Elle est marchande de modes. 






When who, whom, whose, that, which, come after one or several 
substantives which they particularize, they are expressed, 

f THAT, 
^ WHOM, 
f THAT, 
? Of WHICH; 



The man who 
The horse that 
The chaise which 

The man whom 
The horse which 
The coach that 

V homme qui 
Le cheval qui 
La chaise qui 

U homme que 
Le cheval que 
Le carosse que 

U homme dont > ) 


The man of whom ) 
DONT. The horse o/ which \l speak. Le cheval dont V/e parte. 
.The chaise of which) La chaise dontJ 

N. B. qui, que, dont must be placed immediately after the noun 
to which they relate ; as, 

Is the ship arrived which was expected ? 1 i. e. the ship which was 
Le navire qu'o?i attendait est-il 52 arrive? ] expected, is it 6 * arrived? 


Do you 51 know the master who teaches me french'? The scholars 
— Connaissez-vous maitre 82 enseigne 24 francais m. ? tcoliers m. 

whom you have recommended to me are very diligent. (This is) 
82 avez recommandh - 25 sont tres 13 . Void 

the person of whom I (was speaking.) Have you seen the ships that 32 

1 personne f. 38 parlais. vu l navire (m) 

book which 32 is very dear. 

livrem., (m) est tres cher. 

The book which 32 you have bought is very dear. The book of which 

you speak is very dear. That house is sold which 32 you wanted to buy. 

parlez l maison f. vendue N>B * vouliez - acheter 

The ladies you want to see are here. The gentleman is gone who 3S 
dame (n) voulez voir ici. monsieur parti N * B " 

has brought you a letter. He has lost all the money he had. 

apporte 25 a lettre. f. perdu tout 2 argent(vi) avait. 

(are just) (come in ?) You have bought 

viennent d'arriver ? achete 

(m) Persons not versed in grammatical terms, are often at a loss to distinguish the 
object from the nominative, i. e. when to express that, which by qui, and wh'en by QUE, 

To these I will observe, that that, which are the nominative, and expressed by QUI, 
when they are followed immediately by a verb; as, 

The coach that or which is at the door. Le carosse QUI est a la porte. 

That, which are the object of the verb, and expressed by QUE, when, between them 
and the verb, there is a noun or pronoun which is the nominative of the verb ; as, 
The coach that or which we have met. Le carosse que nous avons rencontre". 

(n) The distinctive pronouns whom, that, which are often left out in english ; as, 
The man I saw ; for the man whom 1 saw ; but the corresponding words QUI, que, DONT 
rfcust always be expressed in french ; as, 

The man I saw, i. e. whom I saw. U homme que je vis. 

The wine we drank, i. e. which we drank. Le vin que nous bumes. 

The woman I speak of, i. e. of whom I speak. Lafemme DQNTje parle. 



After any preposition but of, or a preposition synonymous to it, OO 
Whom is expressed by QUI for both genders and numbers. 

'*Masc. SING. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 


From WHICH by daQUEL, de laQXJELLE, des QUELS, des QUELLES; 

To, at WHICH by auQUEL, a ZaQUELLE, auxQUELS, auxQUELLES ; 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; as, 
The man with whom ] V homme avec qui ] 

The horse on which >I came. Le cheval sur lequel he vins. 
The chaise in which J La chaise dans laquelleJ 

The man/rom whom 1 , . ~ ,, L' homme de qui 1 i h 

The horse jfrowi which) ' Le cheval duQUEL J 

The man to whom \ u .. V homme a qui 1 . 7 7 , 

rr,, , . , . , >he gave it. r , ? > ?£ /e donna. 

The horse to which J ° i>e cheval auQUEL J 


You know the lady to whom I have spoken. The study to which 

Connaissez dame & ai parU. 2 6tude f. 33 

he applies is not very useful. The chair on which you sit is 

s'applique est 5S tres utile. chaise f. sur 33 (etes assis) 

broken 13 . The coach in which I came was overturned. The people 
rompu. N - B ' carosse m. dans 3S vins fut renverst. gens m. 

with whom I was were very civil. (This is) the stick with which 
avec 33 itais ttaient civil 13 . Voici baton m. & 

he struck me. Where is the horse to which you have given the corn ? 

frappa ** . Oil 33 avez donn6 2 avoine'f 

Who, whom, whose used absolutely, i. e. without reference to any 04 
noun mentioned before, imply the word person understood. 

Who, whom are then expressed by QUI ; as, 

Who is there? i. e. what person is there? qui est la? 

I know whom you love, i. e. what person, fyc. Je sais qui vous aimez. 

Whose is expressed by de QUI, when it is used for of what person ; 
and by A QUI, when it is used for to what person; as, 

Whose daughter is she? \ esUUe ji lk? 

i. e. (of what person) is she the daughter t J J 

Whose house is that ? U ^ ^ maisQn ? 

i. e. (to what person) does that house belong t) 


Whom did you send? Whom have you found? Whom did you 
34 ai;ez 5l envoyt'f 3i avez trouv6'i 3i avez 

speak to 56 ? I know tt^om you are speaking of 60 . Whose hat 

j>ar/£ a 1' sais w — parlez de ** chapeau m. 

is this? Whose coach is that? I do not know w/^ose it is. 
«st i v »i carosse m. l / — ne sais pas ** ^ 

J^ose son is he? Whose wife is she? JFAose relations are they? 
** )Ms t femme ? ** parent sont-il$ i 

G 2 



In an interrogative sentence which requires three distinctions. 

Which interrogative is either joined to the noun like an adjective, 
i. e. without the help of a preposition ; as, 

which man? which carriage? which horses? 
Or, like a substantive, joined to it by the preposition of ; as, 

which of the men? which of the carriages? which of my horses? 
Or like a pronoun used absolutely after the noun; as, 

It is one of these men ; which is it? 

35 Which interrogative joined like an adjective, i. e. without a prepo- 
. sition, to the noun to which it relates, is 

Masc. sing Fern. Masc. plur. Fern. 




agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 
Which man ] quel homme \ 

Which carriage >will you have? quelle voiture\voulez-vous? 
Which horses J quels chevaux) 

Which interrogative joined by a preposition to the noun to which 
it relates, or coming after it absolutely, i. e. without a noun, is 

Masc. SING. Fern. Masc. pjlur. Fern. 


Of, from WHICH; duQUEL, deZaQUELLE, des QUELS, des QUELLES 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as, " 

Which of these men ) .,, lequel de ces ho?nmes "j 

Which of the coaches } ,___:_.* laquelle des voitures \voulez-vous? 


have ? 

Which of my horses J ' LEsqxiEhsdemes chevaux) 

Which is the tallest? lequel est le plus haut? 

Which is the finest ? laquelle est la plus belle ? 

Which are the best? les quels sont les meilleurs? 

37 Which sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that or 
those understood, this demonstrative word can not be omitted in french, 
and which, as including the two words, is expressed by 
CELU1 que «.l wMch CEUX r QUE m j TH0SE which 

CELLEque/. J ' CELLESque/.J - ' 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates; as, 
Which of these horses shall I ride? Lequel de ces chevaux monterai-je? 
Ride which you will, i. e. that which Montez celui que vous voudrez. 


Which book shall I read ? Which of these books shall I read ? 
3 5 livre m. — 51 lirai-je 51 '/ 36 J 51 '/ 

Read which you please. Which pen shall I make use of 56 ? 
uisez 37 ilvous plaira, 35 plume f. — 5l me servirai-je de'/ 



Which of these pens shall I 51 make use of? Use which you will. 

38 * i — me servirai-je 56 '/ Servez-vous de 37 voudrez. 

Which boy shall I 51 give this to? Which of the boys shall I give 

35 garcon — donnerai-je ceci 56V 36 * l 5i 

this to? Give it to which you like. Which lady is the handsomest? 

58 ! Donnez-le 37 voudrez. 35 dame est belle 21 y 

Which of these ladies is the handsomest? Which ladies do you 

36 1 21 35 51 

speak of 53 ? To which do you 51 give the preference? Which 

parlez-vous 51 '! 36 — donnez-vous 51 ■preference f. / 

fruit do you 51 like best? Which of these fruits do you like best? 

fruit m. — aimez-vous lemieux'f * i — ? 

Which is the ripest? Eat of which you like. Which road shall 

est mur 21 '! Mangez voudrez. route f. — 

we go by 55 ? Which of these roads shall we go by 55 ? Which 

51 irons par'/ l 5i par'/ 

house shall we 51 go to? Which is the best 13 ? Go to which 

maison f. — irons-nous 56 'i vieilleur 'I Allez a 

you choose. Which door must I go through ? Which of these 

voudrez. porte f. faut-il que je passe par 56 'I 

doors must I go through ? Go through which you please. 

par 59 / Passez par il vous plaira. 

WHAT requires the same distinction as which. 

What followed by a noun, or relating to a noun mentioned qq 
before, is expressed in the same manner as which ; 

Masc. sing. Fern. Masc. PI.UR. Fern. 


Of, from WHAT; deQVEL, deQUELLE, deQUELS, tfeQUELLES ; 


agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as, 
What man 1 quel homme \ 

What carriage Will you have? quelle voiture\voulez-vous? 

What horses J quels chevaux J 

It is my opinion, what is yours? Cest mon opinion, quelle est la voire? 


What man has he employed? What language do you 51 like best? 

38 a-t-il employe" ? x langue f. — aimez-vous le mieux ? 

What study do you 51 apply to 50 ? What sort of books do 

% Hude f. — vous 2 * appliquez-vous 5l ? ** sorte f. 8 liwre — 

you M read ? To what use shall I put it 2 * ? What news 

lisez-vous 51 ? s* •usage m. — 5l mettrai-je 51 le? 38 nouvellef. 

are you 51 speaking of? What is your sentiment? What is yours 41 ? 
— parlez-vous 51 56 ? ^ est sentiment in.? 38 le votrc ? 

* WHICH may here be either singular or plural, agreeably to the number that is meant 



Oi) What used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun mentioned,, 
implies the word thing understood, and is expressed by que or by quoi. 

What is expressed by QUE, when it is the object of a verb ; as, 
What are you doing there ? que faites-vous la ? 

I do not know what to say to her. Je ne sais que lui dire. 

What is expressed by QUOI, when it is governed by a preposition, 
or used as an interjection; ex. 

What do you meddle with 56 ? De 59 quoi vous 24 melez-vous 51 ? 

What! you have not done yet. Quoi ! vous n'avez pas encore jini. 


What do you want? What do you think of that? What shall 

39 — 5l cherchez? 39 — 51 pensez de cela? 39 — 

I do with this ? Do you know what this is made of? What 

51 feraide ceci? — 31 savez 39 ceci fait 56 ? 39 

is it good for 55 ? I do not know what you (are talking-) about. 

il bon a ? — 55 sais 39 parlez de 56 . 

What I are you not gone yet 53 ? What I you do not answer me. 

39 55 parti encore ? 39 55 repondez 24 . 

*±U What sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that, and the 
distinctive which ; it is then expressed, 

Nom. What, ce qui ; Always do what is right ; i. e. that which is right. 
Faites toujours ce qui est juste. 

Obj. What, ce que ; What I say is true ; i. e. that which I say is true, 
(rn) ce qvEj'e dis est vrai. 

But with the prepositions of, to, or any preposition that is synony- 
mous to them, it is necessary to consider whether the preposition comes 
before or after what ; for, 

Of what isde ce qui, )I speak of what is true ; i. e. of that which 
de ce que ; J Je parle de ce qui est vrai. 

What of 'is ce dont ; as, What he speaks of is not true ; i. e. that of which 
ce dont il parte n'est pas vrai. 

To what is a ce qui, 1 You do not apply to what is useful; to that which 
a ce que \\Vous ne vous appliquez pas a ce qui est utile. 

What to zsce a quoi ; &s,What you apply to is not useful ; that to which 
ce a quoi vous vous appliquez n'est pas utile. 

Say what is true, and do what is just. What* we do hastily 

Dites 40 est vrai, et faites 40 juste. (m) faisons (a la hate) 

is often imperfect. Shew me what i0 you have done. Pay attention to 

souvent imparfait. Montrez 26 (m) fait. Faites attention 

what™ I say to you. Are you sure of what 40 you say ? It is what you 

(m) dis - 24 Etes ' sur (iu) dites? C'est 40 

may be sure of. I would not 55 trust to what 40 he proposes. What 
pouvez etre 36 ne voudrais pas me fier (m) purpose. ** 




you trust to is very uncertain. He complains of what 40 he has 

vous vous fiez 56 est tres incertain. se plaint (m^) 



I have told you. What they attribute it to has never 55 happened. 

dit 25 40 ' a* n » est jamais arrivi. 

What he complains of is right. They attribute it to what* 

40 se -plaint ^ juste. attribuent le' 24, (m) 


Masc. SING. Fern. 

Masci plur. 



le MIEN, 






Of, from MINE. 

du MIEN, 

de hi MIENNE, 





To, at MINE. 

au MIEN, 

a la MIENNE, 

aux MIENS, 




he TIEN, 







} le SIEN, 







le NOTRE, 

la NOTRE, 






le VOTRE, 

la VOTRE, 






le LEUR, 

la LEUR, 





The possessive pronouns le mien, le tien, le sien, &c. must be of^t i 
the same gender and number as the noun which they represent ; as, 
Your horse is better than hers, i. e. her horse. 
Votre cheval est meilleur que le sien. 
My house is not so fine as his, i. e. his house. 
Ma maison ?i' est pas si belle que la sienne. 
Your histories are prettier than his, i. e. his histories. 
Vos histoires sont plus jolies que les siennes. 

Why do not 55 you 51 eat your cake ? Your brother has eaten his. 

Pourquoi — ne mangez-vous pas l gateau m.? l a mang6 41 

My sister has not eaten hers. I (will eat) mine (by and by). Your 

a 55 41 . mangerai 41 tantot. 1 

lesson is shorter 18 than mine, but (I shall know) mine before you 

legon f. court 13 41 mais saurai 41 avant que 

know yours. It is not 55 your business, it is his. My books are 

sachiez 41 Ce n'est pas l affaire f. , c' est 41 livre m. sont 

finer 18 than yours and his. They are not finer than * mine. Have 

beaux 4l 4i 30 55 18 4l 

you cleaned my boots ? Yours and mine are clean 13 , but his are not. 
dicrotti l botte f. ? 41 41 dicrotti, 4l ne le sont pas. 

The possessive words mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, 
theirs, do not always represent a noun mentioned before them ; they 
often come with the verb be used in the sense of belong, instead of 
the personal pronouns me, thee, him, her, us, you, them ; as 
for example, This book is mine, i.e. belongs to me; in this sense 
mine, TniNE, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, are expressed by 




a moi, a toi, a lui, a elle, a nous, a vous, a eux, m. a elles,/. as, 

This book is mine. 

Ce livre est a moi ; t. e. belongs fo twc. 

is thine. 

es£ a toi ; to thee. 

is Azs. 

est a lui -j to him. 

is hers. 

est a elle ; to her. 

is owrs. 

est a nous ; to us. 

is yours. 

est a vous ; to you. 

is theirs. 

est a eux ; m. a elles ; f to them. 

This stick is mme, 

and this umbrella is his. It 30 is neither 

1 fcdton m. 


1 parapluie m. 42 «' est ni 

yours nor Ae's, it is 


Is this horse 52 i/owrs ? It is not mine ; 

42 n £ 42 .30 


Ce cheval est-il 52 42 f 80 55 42 

it is my cousin's. If it was yours, what would you 51 do (with it) ? 

80 (o) S' 30 itait 42 S9 — feriez - vous 51 en 2i ? 

If it was mine, I (would sell) it 24 . I wish it was ours. 

so 42 vendrais 30 (h) souhcdterais qu* 30 flit 42 . 

4t$ The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, 
theirs, by an idiom peculiar to the english language, are sometimes 
joined to the noun to which they relate by the preposition of ; as a 
friend of mine ; a book of yours ; this possessive pronoun can not 
be expressed by the possessive pronoun in french ; it must be expressed 
by the possessive article mes, tes, ses, nos, vos, leurs, placed before 
the noun, which must always be plural in french ; as, 

A friend of mine. 
of thine. 
of his. 
of hers. 
of ours. 
of yours. 
of theirs. 

un de mes amis ; 
un de tes amis ; 
un de ses amis; 
un de ses amis ; 
un de nos amis ; 
un de vos amis ; 
un de leurs amis 

i. e. one of my 
one of thy 
one of his 
one of her 
one of our 
one of your 
one of their 

> a 

(That is) a child of theirs. I have 

Voila enfant m. 43 


(This is) a relation of mine. He is a cousin of ours. A brother of 

Void 1 parent m. 43 . (1) est 43 

mine has married a sister of his. 

43 a tpouse l 43 

seen to-day a scholar of yours. I (shall dine) to-morrow with 
vu (aajour d'hui) tcolier m. 43 dinerai demain avec 

a friend of ours. I have found a book of yours amongst mine. 
43 trouvi livre m. * ^ parmi 4l 

It 30 is not mine ; it is my brother's. It is a friend's of mine. 

n'est pas & 30 (o) 80 (o) « , 

(o) The possession denoted ir^english by adding s to the noun, is expressed in french 
by a before it ; as, It is my father's. It est a monpere; Not, il est de monpere. 


Masc. SING. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 



the same gender and number as the noun which they represent ; as. 
He has eaten his apple and that of his brother ; i. e. the apple of, &c. 
II a mange sa pomme et celle de son frere. 


She has spoiled her hat and that of her brother. He has torn 

a gatf * chapeaum. ** l de'chire 

my gown and that of my sister. Bring my shoes and those of my 

1 robe f. ** Apportez x smdiers m. ** 

mother. (Look at) these 1 guineas and those which 32 he has given us. 

Regardez (p) guine'es f. ** (m) a donnSes. 2 * 

N. B. The demonstrative words this, these; that, those 
imply a local distinction which celui, celle, ceux, celles do ?wt 
express ; if you wish to make that distinction in french, you must add to 
these pronouns the adverbs ci, here ; and la, there ; thus, 



This horse is better than that ; 

Ce cheval-c\ est meilleur que CELUi-la ; i. e. this horse here — that there. 


That 1 horse is young, and this 4 * is old, but I prefer this 14 to 
(p) cheval-ld. est jeune, N,B - vieux, mais prtfere N,B> 

that**. These 1 girls dance much better than those**. 
n.b. (p) fille-ci dansent beauccup (b) N - B - 

If this, that are not followed by a noun, nor relate to a noun 4:<3 
mentioned, they imply the word thing understood, and are expressed, 
THIS by CECI ; THAT, by GEL A ; as, 

This is good, i. e. this thing is good. ceci est bon. 
That is better, i. e. that thing is better, cela est meilleur, 


Take this. Leave that. Have you seen this. That is very pretty. 

Prenez * 5 Laissez * 5 vu 45 * 5 tres joli. 

(p) The demonstrative words this, that, these, those, have three different proper- 

If this, that, these, those are followed by a noun, they have the property of a 
demonstrative article, and are expressed by ce, cette, ces ; as, 

Thii bread, that meat, those clothes. Ce pain, cette viande, CES habits. See rule 1. 

If this, that, these, those do not point out a noun after them, but represent one 
mentioned before, they are pronouns, and are expressed by CELUI, CELLE, CEUX, celles, 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun which they represent (rule 44.) ; as, 

He has eaten his apple &c that of his brother. II a mange' sa pomme ty celle de confrere. 

If this, that do not point out a noun after them, nor represent one mentioned before, 
they may be considered as substantives, and are expressed this by ceci, that by cela. 
This is good, but that is better. Ceci est bon, mais cela est meilleur. (rule 45.) 






One, we, they, people, used in an indefinite sense, i. c. not 
relating to any particular person, are expressed by On. 

N. B. Observe that On is always the nominative of a verb, and 
though it represents we, they, people, which are plural, it requires the 
verb in the third person singular ; as, 

ne says, i N ^ . o ^ e ga 

rhey say, people say. J 


People are never 55 so happy nor so miserable as they imagine. 

■*° n'est jamais si heureux ni niaiheureux qu" 46 s'imagine. 

They say that we (are going) to have peace. They say so ; but can 

46 dit que nous aliens - avoir 7 paix. f. 46 le 24 ; peut 

one believe it, when they (are making) such preparations for war? ? 

46 croire /e 24 , quand 46 fait tunt de priparatif pour guerre f. '/ 

The following and other like indefinite expressions, are also ex 
pressed in french by On, with the verb in its active sense. 

N. B. The verb is rendered active by leaving out the auxiliary verb 
be, and making the participle into a verb of the same tense and person 
as the auxiliary verb is ; ex. 

It was said. on disait ; i. e. one said. 

It is reported. on rapporte ; one reports. 


It is thought that (there will be) a war. It is said that hostilities 

47 pense qu' il y aura - guerre. 47 dit que 7 hostilith 

have already begun. It is supposed that the two fleets have met. 

ont deja. commence". 4 ? s'imagine que deux flotte se sontrencontrt'es. 

The english passive verbs used indefinitely, require the active signifi- 
cation in french, with On for nominative ; but observe that by adding o?i 
to the sentence, the substantive* which is the nominative of the verb in 
english, becomes its object in french ; as, 

I have been told that news has been received; turn this sentence thus, 

One has told me that one has received news. 

On m 25 a dit qu' on a recu des nouvelles. 


We have been told that you were married. I have been told so 
48 dit que 6tiez marie". *° le ?A 

too, but that is not true. I was advised to do it. J have not 

aussi, cela n'est pas vrai. 48 avait conseilU de faire Ze 24 . ^nea pas 

been permitted to do it. Do you 51 know what is said of you ? 

48 permis de 24 _ sa vez - vous 51 40 ^ dit de **'{ 

What can be said of me? It is said that great news is 

39 peut 4S dire w '.? 47 dit que 10 grandes nouvelles ** 

expected. Have the letters been received which were expected ? 

attend. « lettre « recu M *» attendaitj 

* By substantive is here meant every word which either names or represents a substance. 




A verb is a word which expresses either being or acting. 

Being; as, i am; i exist ; rhou art ; He is ; My brother is ; we are, &c. 

Acting ; as, i speak ; i blame ; i walk j i drink ; i sing, &c. 

Every action requires an agent, i. e. a being to perform that action ; 
this agent, in grammar, is called the nominative of the verb. 

The verb must be of the same number and person as the agent or no- 4i/ 
minative ; this is called agreement of the verb with its nominative ; ex. 


Je chantc 


Elle CHANTe. 
Monfrere CHANTe. 
Ma soeur CHANTe. 

lp. J sing. 

2p. Thou singest. 

3p. He sings. 
She sings. 
My brother sings 
My sister sings. 

lis CHANTe?^. 

Elles chants. 
Mes freres CHANTe?z£. 
Mes sceurs CHAN'mitf. 

I speak. 


Thou playest. 


He walks. 

She dances. 


My brother 


My sister forgets. We blame. 

oublier. blumer. 

You study. They look. My 
itudier. regarder. 

brothers call or (are calling.*) My sisters dispute or (are disputing.*) 
appeler. disputer. 

In a declarative sentence, i. e. when a question is not asked, the 50 
nominative of the verb is placed in french, as in english, before the 
verb; as, 

I sing. Je CHANTe. 

Thou singest. Tu CHANTe*. 

He sings. II CHANTe. 

She sings. Elle CHANTe. 

My brother sings. Monfrere chantc 

My sister sings. Ma sceur chantc 

lis CHAHiTent. 

Elles cuANTent. 
Met freres cu Anient. 
Mes sceurs CHANTe?z£. 

I speak 49 french. 
parlev francais. 


Thou speakest french. 
parler 49 

speaks french. My brother speaks french 

vurler* 9 purler 49 

He speaks french. She 
parser 49 

My sister speaks french. 
parler 49 

We speak french. You speak french. They speak french. My bro- 

parler i9 purler 49 purler 49 

thers speak french. My sisters speak french. They speak it very well. 
parler 49 purler* 9 purler le^tres bien. 

But when the sentence is interrogative, i. e. when a question is 
asked, it is necessary to consider whether the nominative of the verb is a 
noun or a pronoun. 

* These two modes of expression are rendered in the same manner in french. See 
the conjugations, page 112 and following. 


- -j VERB. 

v 1 7/; wto « question » os&ed, tfAe nominative of the verb is one of the 
pronouns je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, elles, on or ce, these, 
pronouns are placed in french, as the corresponding words are in english, 
immediately after the verb; as, 

Do (q) I sing well ? Chante - je bien ? i. e. sing J well ? 

Doest thou sing well ? Chantes - tu bien? singest thou well ? 

Does he sing well? Chante-t*-iL bien ? sin^s 7ae well ? 

Does she sing well? CAomte-t^-ELLE 6ze/i? sings she well ? 

Do we sing well? Chantons-novs bien? sing w;g well? 

Do you sing well? Chantez - vous foe/i? sing you well? 

Do rfAey sing well ? Chantent-ihs bien ? sing they well ? 

Do they sing well? Chante?it-ELLEs bien? sing 2Ae^ well? 


Do I speak 49 french well 53 ? Doest thou speak french well? Does 

(q) 51 purler francais bienf ? (jq) 51 parler 49 53 ? (q) 

he speak french well? Does she speak french well? Do we speak french 
51 parler 49 53 ? 51 parler 49 53 ? 51 parler 49 

well ? Do 2/oif speak french well? Do ^Aey speak french well? 

53 y 3i parler 49 & ? 5l parler 49 53 ? 

o2i If when we ask a question, the nominative of the verb is a noun, 
that noun is placed before the verb in french, the same as when the 
sentence is not interrogative ; but to shew that a question is asked, one 
of the personal pronouns il, elle, ils, elles, agreeably to the gender 
and number of the noun, is placed immediately after the verb ; as, 
Does ray brother sing Mon frere chajite-t-iL bien? i.e. iuy b. sings he? 
Does my sister sing % Ma sceur chante-t-ELLE bien? My s. sings she 
Do my brothers sing ^ Mes freres chanlent-iLs bien ? My b. sing they 
Do my sisters sing Mes sceurs chantcnt- elles bien? my s. sing they 


Does my brother speak 4 * french well 53 ? Does my sister speak french 

(q) 52 parler frangais bien*, ? (q) £2 -parler 4 * 

well ? Do my brothers speak french well ? Do my sisters speak 

53 ? (q) 52 parter 49 53 ? (q) 52 pan**** 

french well ? Does your son go to school now ? Does your daughter 

53 ? (q) 52 va a Vtcole a prtsznt ? 52 

go to school now ? Do your sofOS go to school now ? Do your 

va ? (q) 52 wmt x ? 

daughters go to school now? Do the boys® make any progress? 

52 iwtt ? (q) gar^ons font s progress T>lur. 

Do the gzYfc 82 make any progress ? Is all your family 59 v/ell ? 
filles 9 ? se porte toute famille f. ? 

(q) The auxiliary words do, did, shall, will, should, would, may, might are not ex- 
pressed in french ; their meaning is implied in the termination of the verb. 

* When il, elle, on come after a verb ending with a vowel, - t - is placed 
these pronouns and the verb to soften the pronunciation. 

t Place the adverb bien before fruncais ; thus, birn francais. See 53 ru?e, 




An adverb is a word added to a verb to denote the manner in which 
an action is performed ; as, / walk fast ; He walks slowly ; you write 
well; she writes badly; the words fast, slowly, well, badly, 
which denote the manner in which the action of the verbs walk and 
write is performed, are adverbs. 

The adverb being to the verb what the adjective is to the noun, i. e. OO 
expressing some circumstance of the verb, must be placed immediately 
after the verb which it modifies; as, 

I saw your sister yesterday. Je vis hier voire sceur. 

She speaks trench very well. Elle parte tres bien fran^ais. 

I will come to see her soon. Je viendrai bientot la voir* 

You read french very well. I wish to learn it 24 (very much.) 

Uses 7 francais m. tres bien 53 . souhaite - apprendre 30 fort 53 . 

You will soon 53 know it 24 , if you read the rules attentively 53 . I (will do) 

- bientot saurez 30 , lisez regies atteniivement. ferai 

what you have recommended to me carefidly 53 . We (shall go) into 

40 recommandi — 25 soigneusement. irons it 

the country to-morrow. I hope you (will come) to see us often 53 . 

campagne f. demain 53 . espere que viendrez — voir 2i son vent. 

Some adverbs may be placed in english either before or after the Otc 
verb which they modify ; as, I often see him, or I see. him often. 
I very seldom speak to him, or I speak to him very seldom ; but 
the adverbs which represent them in french, must always be placed after 
the verb ; as, 

I often see him. Je le vois souvent. 

I sometimes meet her. Je la rencontre quelquefois. 

I seldom speak to them. Je leur parte rarement. 

You always 5 * walk alone. I seldom 54 go to town. I generally 

Vous toujours vous promenez seul. rarement vais a la ville. ordinairement 

go into the country. I often 54 think of you. You seldom 5 * come 
vais a campagne f, souvent pense a ffl rarement venez 

to see us now. I sometimes think that you soon 54 (will forget) 
- voir ** a present. quelquefois 54 pense que bientot oubliei-ez 

us. You certainly 54 can not think so. I sincerely 54 wish that 
24 certainement pouvez a5 penser le 24 sincerement souhaite que 

you may succeed. I heartily 54 wish you the same. 

puissiez reussir. de bon cxur souhaite ^ la mime chose. 

* The perspicuity of a sentence often depends on the placing of the adverhs. These 
sentences for example ; J'aime beaucoup a lire, and J'aime u lire beaucoup, though 
formed of the same words, hy changing the place of the adverh beaucoup, express two 
different ideas. J'aime beaucoup d lire ; means, I am fond of reading ; J'aime a lire 
beaucoup ; means, I like to read & great deal. 


" >NE — GUERE. 



The negative adverbs 

no, not, are ne — pas, ne — point 








ne is always placed before the verb, and pas, point, plus, jamals s 
guere, nullement are placed immediately after the verb ; as, 
I do not like that woman. Je vt'aime pas cette femme. 

I have never liked her. Je ne Vai jamais aimee. 

I will not speak to her any more. Je ne lui parlerai plus. 

Do not you 51 know that man ? Have you never seen him before? 

- 55 connaissez 2 'homme ? Avez 51 55 vu 25 auparavant ? 

Were you not in his company yesterday ? I know him but little. 

Hiez 51 55 a l compagnie f. hier 53 ? connais M 55 

I do not wish to see him any more. I by no means consent (to it.) 

- 55 souhaite - 24 55 53 



prepositions are words which serve to connect other words together, 
in order to form a sentence ; as, 

i" am going to London with my father. 

The words to, with, which connect the substantives, London, father 
to the verb go, are called prepositions. 

The prepositions may often be placed in cnglish either before or 
after the substantive which they govern ; as, 

with whom were you, or whom were you with ? of what do you 
speak, or what do you speak of ? In french the prepositions must 
always be placed before the substantive which they govern ; as, 

With whom were you ? ) AyEc . ^. M ? 

or whom were you with ? J 7 

To whom did you speak ? K mez . vous m 

or whom did you speak to? J * r 

O/what are you speaking ? 1 . hz _ vom ? 

or what are you speaking of Y ) * " * 


What country do you come from? What people did you come 
86 pays m. - 5l venez de 50 ? ^ gens f. etes ai veuu 

with? What news do you speak of? Which road shall 
avec 56 ? ^ nouvelles f. 51 parlez de 53 ? 3d chemin m. - 

we go by 58 ? Which of these houses shall we go to? What 

51 irons par ? 36 l maisons f. - 5l irons a* 6 ? 39 

are you laughing at ? It is what you may depend upon. 

51 viez de 56 ? C est 3a pouvez compter sur 56 . 


exercise on the four conjugations er, ir, oir, re ; 

And recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules.* 

verbs in er.f 

affirmatively. I like 49 wine. Thou askest 49 for beer. He 

aimerf 'vin m. demanded - 9 biire f. 

gives 49 me water. We are looking 49 for flowers. You go 49 to see 
donnerf ** 9 eau. (r) chercherf - 9 fleur. allerf - voir 

them. They are looking 49 at us. 1 was helping 49 him* He 

24 (r) regarderf - 24 . (r) aider\ lui 2 *. 

was disturbing me. We were studying our lessons. You were 

troubled ** (r) ttudiet 40 x lecon. 
singing a song. They were playing in the corner. 1 brought 49 

chante^ l chanson, f. jouer dans coin. m. apporter t 

him 24 a book. He admired it 24 much. We invited them to stay, 
(f) livre. m. admirer 30 (h) beaucoup. inviter ** a tester. 

You went away too soon. They arrived in time. — I shall dine 49 

Vous vous en aller - trap tot arriver a terns. (q) diner 

with you. He will send it 24 me. We will accompany you. You 
avec & . (q) envoy er% 29 accompagner ** 

will sup with us. They will b»*ing it 24 to them. 1 should like 49 

souper 28 . apporter - 29 . (q) aimer 

to see it 24 . He would give it you, if you asked him 24 for it 29 . 

a voir le. (q) donner 24 29 , si demandiez (f) - le. 

We should stay with you, if we had time. You would avoid his 

resfer ^ aw'o/is 7 tems. m. Suiter 1 

company, if you knew him. They would pay them, if they had 

compagnie, f. cnnfiaissiez 24 . payer ** , avaient 

money. They would lend them 24 some, if they asked them 24 for it 29 . 

9 argent. preter (f) (g) 29 , demandaient (f) - le. 

interrogatively. Do I speak 49 too fast? Doest thou advise me 

(q) 5l parler trop vite? (q) 3l conseiller 24 

to do it 24 ? Does he converse well ? Do we spend (too much) 

de fdire le? (q) 51 converser Men ? 31 dlpenser trop 

money 8 ? Do you live in town now ? Do they call us ? 

argent v - B ? 5l demeurer a la ville f. d pre" sent ? 51 appeller ** ? 

Was I striking too hard ? Was he speaking french ? /^ere we 

(r) 5l frapper 49 trop fort ? 51 parler francais ? (r) 51 

going too far ? JFere you eating fruit ? Jfere they scolding you ? 

a//er trop Zcfin ? M manger 9 fruit m. ? 51 gronder w ? 

Did I hurt 49 him ? Did he shut the door ? D?d we 

(q) « o/esser 24 ? 51 /ermer x portef.? 31 

* The learner must peruse the verbs before he writes these exercises. 

t Make the same difference in the verbs which are here given, as is marked in italic 
characters in the verb BLAMer, page 112, agreeably to tense, number, and person. 

% See the irregular verb ENVOYer, page 117. 

(r) Do not express the auxiliary words be, am, art, is, are, was, wast, were, when they 
are followed by the present participle in ing. Consider them only as signs which in- 
dicate the tense in which the verb which follows them must be in french. 


recapitulatory exercise o?i the foregoing rules. 

verbs in er. 
gain any thing? Did you invite them? Did they insult you? 

gagner quelque chose ? (q) * inviter » ? insulter Zi 

Shall I begin 49 it 24 again? Will he bring it with him? 

(q) 51 recommencer le — ? (q) apporter M w 

Shall we divide it amongst us? Will you think of me? Will 
partager *» ercire »? penser <i ^ ? 

they take it* along with them? — Should I lend it him 29 , it 

emporter le — avec ■■ ? (q) 51 prefer 24 (f ), 

he asked me for it ? /^bw/d he stay with us, if we asked him ? 

demandait 24 - »? (q) ? -ester awe M , enpriions M 

Should we dance, if it was not so late ? Would you shew it 24 me, 
(q) danser, (i) <ftatt W s j fan j ? ^ q ) montrer 29 , 

if I called at (your house) ? Would they change it, if I sent it 

passim c/ie: vous '{ (q) changer **, si renvoyais 

back to them ? Would they forgive me, if I begged their pardon ? 

— _ 29 v pardonner **, demandais leur 9 * pardon ? 

negatively. I do not blame you. He does not deny it. We 

(q) S5 &/djner« 24 (q) 55 nier 24 

do not breakfast so soon. You do not give me money 8 enough. 

55 dejeuner 49 si t6t. 55 donner 24 argent 1 "*, assez. 

They do not cost (so much.) 1 was not touching it. He was 

55 couter tant. (r) 55 . toucher 49 y 24 . 

not taking it away. We were not disputing. You were not listening 

emporter le 2 * — (r) disputer i9 . £couter 

to me. They were not looking at you. 1 did not speak to 

24 regarder - 24 . (q) 55 parlei A9 

her. She did not look at me. We did not shew it to them. 

24 regarder - 24 montrer ** 

You did not eat any 24 . They did not invite us. — I shall not stay 4 ' 

mangei-* (g) inviter * (q) M mter 

long. He m;z7Z not incommode you. We shall not play to-night. 

long icms. (q) incommoder u jouer ce soir. 

You will not fail to ask for it 24 . They will not shew it 24 you. 

manquer de demander - le. montrer 

I should not like 49 to go there. He would not borrow money 8 , if he 

(q) 55 aimer & aller y u . (q) emprunter argent™- 3 -, s' 

had any 24 . We should not despise others, if we had no pride 8 . 

avait (g) mepriser les autres, si n'avions pas orgueil.™*- 

You would never pardon him, if you knew what he has done. 

55 pardonner lui 24 , saviez 40 fait 

They would not blame me, if they knew the pains I have taken. 

bldmer 2i ) savaient peines (n) prises. 

negatively and interrogatively. Do I not begin 49 right? 

£q) 5i 55 commence! bien ? 

Does she not dance well? Do we not incommode you? Do you 

(q) S1 55 danser bien? 51 5 * incommoder -24 ? M 

* See note *, page 110. 


recapI'iula.tory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
verbs in er. 
not breakfast this morning? Do they not deserve it? — Was I 

5,3 dejeuner l matin m. 1' 51 miriter le u 7 (r) n 

not relating- it right? Was he not shaking the table? Were we not 

5J raconter 24 bien 7 51 remuer table f. 1' • (r) 5l 

walking too fast? Were you not speaking to me? Were they not 

marcher trop vite 7 51 parler _ 24 / 51 

asking you for it 29 ? — Did I not shut the door? Did he not give 

iemander * 24 - le 7 (q) 5l 55 fermer parte f. 7 5l dormer 

her 84 some ? Did we not stay too long ? Did you not encourage 

(f) (g) 29 1' 51 mfer trop long terns 7 51 encouruger 

hem? D/cZ they not accompany you? — Shall I not bring it 24 you? 

24 7 51 accompagner u 7 (q) 51 55 apporter le 29 / 

JFz# he not marry her? Shall we not sing a song? Will you not 

(q) 31 dpouser ** ? 51 chanter chanson f. ? 55 

grant him 24 that favour? Will they not refuse it 24 me? — Would not 

accorder (f) l grace f. ? re/user te 29 ? (q) 55 

that book cost less in London than here ? Would not your father 

52 couter moins d. Londres qu' ici 7 (q) 55 52 

send him to France, if he was older ? Would he not go himself, 
envoy er* » 8 <ft«it <%<? 18 ? (q) sx allerf lui-rneme, 

if he had time ? Would not your sister go with him, if he went ? 
auuit 7temsm.? (q) 52 a//erf " , s' i/ 1/ a/teit ? 

verbs in ir.% 

regular. I am finishing the work I had begun. He is building 

(r) finir 2 ouvrage (n) avais commence*. (r) batir 

a new 16 house. We are demolishing ours. You are embellishing it 24 

neuve malson. f. (r) dimolir 41 embellir 30 

much. They are filling it 24 with furniture. — I was reflecting on 

beaucoup. remplir 30 de meubles. (r) rifle' chir H 

what I have to do. He was languishing in misery. We were 
40 a. faire. languir dans 7 misere. f. (r) 

warning them of the danger. You were not applauding what they 
averiir ** danger, m. 55 applaudir a 40 

have done. Were they not betraying us? — I punished him severely. 

fait. (r) M M trahir u ? punir u sevtrement. 

Did he not accomplish his purpose? Did we not obey your orders ? 

(q) M M accomplir dessein m. ? (q) 51 obtir A l ordre ? 

You did not choose a good colour. They matched them as well as 

(q) 55 choisir bonne couleur. f. assortir ^ aassi bien qu' 

they could. — I will banish him from my house. That will rejoice 
parent. (q) bannir 3i de x 45 rijouir 

us (very much.) We will bless you (as long) as we live. You 

* l beaucoup. Ix'nir 24 taut que vivrons. 

* See the iriegular verb ENVOYBR, page 117. t See ALI.ER, page 116. 

X See page 118 the regular verb i-inir, and make the same difference in these verbs. 




verbs in ir. 

regular, will fill what you can find. That will not impoverish 

emplir 40 pourez trouver. appauvrir 

them much. — I would cure him, if I eould. You would finish 

24 beaucoup. (q) gutrir ** , si pouvais. finir 

at once our misfortunes. We would abolish it, if we could. You 
tout dhtncoup l malheur. ubolir 24 , pouvions. 

would divert them much. Your brothers would succeed better, if 

divertir 24 l rtussir (b) , 

they were more careful. Will this tree 52 blossom this year? Did 

etaient soigneux. (q) 2 arbre m. fleurir l annte f.? (q) 

it 30 blossom last 16 year ? Young- trees seldom 54 blossom two years 

51 fleurir derniere 7 ? Ueunes rarement fleurir deux 

together. Do the fruits ripen well ? Do they 51 not often 54 wither on 

(de suite.) (q) 52 m. murir ? 30 souvent se fle'trir a 

the tret? Do they 51 not commonly 54 (grow rotten) ? (Here are) several 

v (q) 80 ordinairement pourir 'J Void j)l nsieurs 

sorts of fruit ; choose which you like best. Fillf your basket 
sorte f. 8 ; choisirf 37 aimer le mieux. Remplir corbeille f 

(with it.) Enjoy it while it will last. We will supply you 

e/i 28 . Jouir t ere 36 pendant que 30 durer. fournir 24 

with pears and apples, as fast as they will ripen. The children 

- ^poire f. 9 pomme f., uussi vite qu' ^ murir. enfant m. 

««# rejoice (very much,) for they are very 54 fond of fruit, and it 

se rejouir beaucoup, car - beaucoup aimer - 7 fruit, ** 

is growing dearer every day. I hope that they will obey you, for 

- encherir - touts les jours. esplrer qu' obtir 24 , car 

children who disobey their parents seldom 54 succeed; 

7 S2 desobtir d l parent rarement reussir. 

irregular. I am perusing this book. Does it 51 belong to you ? 

(r) parcourir* l livre. m. (q) 30 appartenir* - 24 '! 

It belongs to a friend of mine. Runf fast. Why do not you run 

80 appartenir* 43 Courir vite. Pourqtioi 55 courir 

faster? We are running as hard as we can. For whom are 

vite l3 'J (t) courir 20 vite 20 pouvons. Pour 3i (r) 

you gathering these flowers ? We are gathering them for your 

cueillir 1 fleur ? cueiUir **■ pour 

mother. I witi offer them to her, that she may remember me. 

offrir 21 - -29 , afinqu' se souvenir de & 

Does not your mother hate me? Why should she hate you? 

(q) 52 hair « ? 51 hair 24 ? 

Because she never comes to see us. He maintains that he has not 

Purceque 55 venir — voir 2i . soutenir qu' 55 

done itj but I firmly 54 believe that he lies. Was your sister asleep, 
fait 25 , fermement crois qu' ment-ir. (r) 52 dormir, 

when w r e set out? They came in as we were going out. 

quand partir - ? entrer - comme (r) sortir - 

* Se>e the table of the irregular verbs in ir, p. 120. t 2d person imperative 


recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
verbs in ir. 
irregular. They were running- to us, when we discovered 

accourir vers sa , dicouvrir 

them. I came yesterday to see you, but you were not in. I went out 

24 venir pour ^ , ttiez 55 y u . sortir - 

early in the morning, and I did not return till late. I met 

de bon ~ - matin, m. (q) ne* revenir que* tard. rencontrer 

your father, and he consented to every thing- that I proposed to 

consentir a tout ce que proposer 

him. Did my father offer you any money ? He offered me all 
24 . (q) 52 offrir u 9 argent '/ offrir « tout 

the money that I should want. We went out (as soon) as the 

dont aurais besoin. sortir — aussitot que 

dinner was over. You did not set out so soon as you intended. 

diner m. fut fini. partir - u tot que (aviez dessein.) 

They detained us a good while at the inn. At what time will 

reienir u - long terns el 2 auberge. a 38 heure f. (q) 

you set out to-morrow? We shall set out as soon as we are 

partir - demain ? (q) partir - aussitot que serous 

ready. When will you return ? We shall not return before the 

pret 13 . Quund revenir ? 55 revenir avant 

end of next 16 week. Shall I help you to a glass of wine ? 

fin f. prodiaine 7 semaine. f. servir ^ - verre m. 8 vin ? 

Help yourself first. I will help myself after you. I will 

Servir vous 26 le premier. servir wze 24 apres w 

never consent (to it.) You grow more ceremonious every day. 

55 consentir y 24 . dev.nir ciremonieux touts les jours. 

Why do you not come to see us oftener ? Why does not 

Pourquoi 55 venir - voir 2i souvent 1B ? 

your sister come with you ? When will your brother return from 
52 venir avec w ? 52 revenir de 

nis journey ? Will he not set out as soon as he hears that 

voyage m. ? 55 partir - aussitot qu' apprendra que 

you are going (to be married ?) Will your mother consent to your 

alter vous marier ? 52 consentir 

marriage? Will she not obtain your father's consent? If I were. 

manage ? 55 obtenir u conseutement m. ? 6tais 

in your place, I would not go out so soon. Would my brother 

a place, (q) 55 sortir - si tot. (q) 52 

obtain that place, if he asked for it 24 ? Should the children go 

obtenir l place, f. demunduit - "°(h)? 52 sortir 

out, if it was fine weather? It is too late; they would not 

- , s' il fuisuit beau terns ? (i) trop tard ; 55 

return in time for supper. They would not remember it 24 . 

revenir d. terns pour souper. 55 se souvenir e/t-" . 

They would soon 54 feel the want (of* it.) 
bicntot senlir besoinm. en 2i . 

* Ne que, without pas, expresses not till. 
ii 2 


RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE 071 the foregoing rules. 

verbs in oir.* 

Does that man 53 owe you any thing? He owes me a 
(q) 2 homme devoir 24 quelque chose ? devoir 24 

(great deal) of money. (How much) does he owe you? I do not 

beaucoup 8 argent, m. Combien devoir 24 f 55 

know exactly ; but I can get nothing from him. You should tell 

savoir au juste ; ne pouvoir tirer r'xen de 28 devoir (s) dire 

him 24 that you want it. You should get him arrested. He is 

(f) que avez besoin en 2i . (s) faire ^ arreter. devoir (t) 

to pay me part (of it) in a day or two. If you receive it 84 

- payer 24 une partie 24 en 29 dans jour m. ou deux. recevoir 30 

to-morrow, will you lend me eighteen or twenty pounds ? I 

domain, vouloir preter 24 dix huit ou vingt livres sterling? 

can not 55 lend you (so much.) I can lend you 24 ten or twelve 

pouvoir preter 24 tunt. pouvoir preter vous en 29 dix douze. 

Lend me what you can. Were we not to take a walk this 

Preter 26 40 pourez. Devoir (t) 55 - faire un tour de promenade A 

evening? Yes, we were; but the master will not let me (go out) 

soir m. ? Old, le devoir (t) ; vouloir laisser ^ sortir 

before I have said my lesson. Can you say it 24 now ? I do 

(avant que) aie dit l lecon.f. Pouvoir dire 30 & present? 

not know whether I can say it** or not; but I knew it 24 , when 

savoir si pouvoir dire s0 ou non ; saiais 30 , quand 

J came in. You do not know it 24 yet. I shall know it 24 in a little 8 

suis entfi. savoir 30 encore. savoir 80 en - peu N - B - 

time. I can say it 24 now. I see your sister who is coming 

terns. pouvoir dire 30 a prhent. voir 32 (r) venir 

to help us. We do not see her often, but we sometimes hear 

- aider 24 voir ^ solvent, quelquefois 54 recevoir 

(from her.) You shall see her to-morrow, if you will, for I 

\de sesnouvelles.) voir ** demain, vouloir, car 

know that she intends to call upon you. If you will believe me, 

savoir qu' (a dessein) de passer chez 28 vouloir croire 24 , 

we will go. I think that it will rain soon. If it rains, do 

s'en oiler. penser pleuvoir bientot. pleuvoir, 

you know what we will do ? We will sit down under that large 
savoir 40 ferons ? s'asseoir sous (p) gros l7 

tree, until the rain is over. I can not 55 stay. I do not 

arbre m. Cjusqu' d. ce que) pluie f. soit pass^e. pouvoir rester. 

know what I must do. It will not rain much. It is only a shower. 

savoir 40 devoir faire. pleuvoir Cen'estqa' x ond6e. f. 

* See the table of verbs in oir, page 134, 135. 

(s) Should, denoting duty, or the necessity of doing a thing, is expressed by the con- 
ditional of devoir ; as, You should or ought to do it. Vous df.vriez le faire. 

(t) The present tense of the verb be, am, art, is, ire, and the imperfect teas, icere, 
followed by the infinitive of a verb, are expressed by the same tenses of devoir- ; as, 
I am to go there. Je dois y aller. I was to go there. Je di;vais y uller* 


recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 

verbs in re* 
What aye you doing there ? I am waiting for my brother 

39 (r) S1 faire Id ? (r) attendre - 

He is learning* his lesson in the garden. If you see him, 

(r) apprendre l lee on f. dans jar din. m. voir ai , 

tell him 26 that I am waiting for him here. I hear yon. Why 

dire (f) que attendre 24 ici. entendre 24 . Pourquoi 

do yon interrupt' me so often ? Do you pretend to know that better 
(q) interrompre 24 si souvent? prStendre - savoir 45 (b) 

than I do ? I will not interrupt you (any more.) These people 
que 23 - ? (q) ne interrompre 24 plus 55 1 gens 

sell 10 very bad 1 ? wine. They sell it 24 very dear. I never drink 

vendre tres mauvais vin. m. vendre 30 cher. 55 boire 

wine 8 , when they 46 sell it 24 so dear. Do you hear that man? 
vifi NB -, quand NB - vendre 30 si (q) entendre 2 f 

He is speaking to us. I hear him, but I do not understand what 

(r) purler ~ 24 . entendre 24 , comprendre 40 

he says. I was answering your letter, when I heard that you were 
dire. (r) r£pcndre h lettre, quand (ai appris) que ttiez 

in town. You surprise us quite, for we did not expect you 

en ville. surprendre 24 (tout afuit,) car (q) attendre ' 2i 

so soon. I came down as soon as I heard you. If I return 

** tot. descendre - aussitot que entendre 24 . vendre 

them 24 their goods, will they return me my money ? They would 

(f) marchandise, rendre 24 2 argent ? 

not return you one half (of it.) I would lose the whole rather 

rendre ^ la moit'i6 24 e/i 29 . perdre toutra. plutot 

than submit to such terms. What are you learning now? 

que (de me soumettre) a l Helles conditions. 89 (r) apprendre cl present f 

I am learning mathematicks. Do you understand them well ? I 
apprendre 7 mathe'matiques. entendre 24 bien ? 

understand them pretty well. If you take 9 pains, you will make 
entendre M assez bien. prendre de la peine, faire 

great 1 ' progress in a short 8 time. Does your sister learn ?inusic 
io progres en - peu NB - (q) bi apprendre musique 

still 53 ? No; she is learning french? and geography. Do you read 
encore ? Non ; (r) apprendre francais m. 7 gSographie. f. (q) lire 

french" books now? I am reading MarmontePs tales. I do not 

9 Hire tl present f (r) lire n 7 contes. 

like tales. I like plays. Do you translate any book ? I translate 
aimer 7 ''comedies. traduire quelque ? traduire 

english 10 histories into french. I pity you much. Why do you 
anglais 13 Viistoire f. en francais. plaindrs 21 fori. Pourquci 

pity me? Because you are losing your time, and you displease all 
pluindre 24 f Parceque (r) perdre terns, et que dipilaire (I tout 13 

your friends. I do not fear them. I do not depend upon them. 

1 ami. m. craindre 24 . depend re, d' n . 

* See the table of verbs in re, p. 146, 1'17, 148. 


RECAPITULATORY EXE'ICISE 071 the foregoing rules. 

verbs in re. 

I will do what I think proper. That man is always"" 1 laughing*. 

faire 40 croire a propos. 2 (r) toujours rire. 

Do you know what he is laughing at? He does not know it 84 
savoir 39 (r) rire de M ? 55 savoir le 

himself. Let us drink* your friend's health. What shall we drink? 

Itti-meme, - - boire a u 7sant£.$. 39 (q) boire f 

Brink a glass of wine. I will drink a glass of beer. I will not 
Boire t verre m. 8 (q) boire 8 Mere. 55 

permit you to do that. Promise me not to do it 24 . Well! I 
permettre 24 de faire 43 Promettre i 29 de ne pas faire le. Eh bien ! 

promise it to you. You always promise, but you seldom 54 keep 

promettre ^ - 29 . toujours 5 * promettre, mais rarement tenir 

your word. I do not believe what he says. Why do not you 

parole, 55 croire 40 dire, Pourquoi 55 5l 

believe him? Do you mean to say that he lies? I do not say 
croire 24 ? 51 vouloir — dire qu mentirf 55 dire 

so ; I only 5 * say that people often 54 promise what they 45 do not 

cela; settlement. dire que 4S N « B - souvent promettre 40 N ' B - 53 

intend to perform. What are you sewing there ? I am making a 
avoir dessein de faire. 39 (r) coudre la, ? (r) faire l 

gown for a sister of mine. For which of your sisters are you 

robe f. pour 43 S6 l (r) 

making it 24 ? For the youngest. You are always 54 doing and undoing the 

faire 30 V jeune 21 . toujours faire defaire l 

same thing over again. Put out one of these candles. Putt Ihese 
imme chose f. - - Eteindre t une (p) chandelles. f. Remettre (p) 

books into their places again. Why do you not pay attention to 

livre & J - Pourquoi faire attention 

what I say to you ? Will the master permit us to (go out) 

40 dire - 24? 52 permettre 24 de sortir 

to-day? I do not know; ask it 26 him 29 . He will not live long, 

aujourd'hui? savoir; demander le (f). vivre( 'long terns) 

if he drinks (so much.) Yet, he appears to enjoy good health. 

si boire taut. Cependant, parattre - jouir d'une bonne sant6. f. 

Have you seen my mother? I have seen her, but, I have not spoken 

voir ? voirl 25 , parler 

to her. Has your sister done what she had promised me to do ? 

25 52 faire 40 avait promettre 25 de faire? 

Why has she not done it ? Has your father forbid her to do 

Pourquoi 55 faire 25 ? 52 ddfendre lui* 5 de faire 

it 24 ? Has your brother been where I had told him ? Has he 

le ? 52 tire oil avais dire lui^^ ? 

received the letter which 32 my sister has sent him 25 ? Have you read 

rcccvoir Icltrei. (in) envoy or % (f) ? Href. 

* 1st person imperative, t 2nd person imperative. $ This participle must he feminine 


RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE 071 the foregoing rules. 

it 85 ? Has your father bought the horse which 32 I had recommended 

30 (h)? a2 acheter (m) avals recommander 

to him 25 ? Has he tried it? Has my mother brought any body 

(f) ? tesayer 25 ? 52 amener quelqu' un 

with her ? Are your brothers gone out ? Have your sisters 

avec *> ? 52 sorfir plur. - ? 52 

finished the work they had begun ? They would not have done 

finir ouvrage (n) avaient commencer? 55 /aire 

it so soon, if they had not been compelled (to it.) I have met 

25 si tot, avaient 55 fcrcees y 25 . rencontre? 

a man on (horseback) who has asked me the way to (your house. 

d, cheval demander 25 chemin m. chez vous 28 . 


affirmat. I am getting up. He is washing himself. We 

(r) se lever - (r) se laver ^ 

are dressing ourselves. You are amusing yourselves. They are 
(r) s'habiller ** s'amuser ** 

getting ready to (go out). I was getting up, when you called me. 
s'appreter - & sortir - . (r) se lever - , qimnd appeler 24 

He was warming himself in the parlour. We were % conversing by 

se chauffer ' u dans salle L (r) s'entretenir pres 

the fire. You were (making merry). They were laughing at us. 

du, feu. se divertir. se moquer de 9S . 

interroo. Do I get up too late ? Does that man (run away) ? 
(q) 51 se lever - trop tard f (q) 2 52 s'enfuir f 

Does your bird 52 (grow tame) ? Do we warm ourselves 
(q) oiseau m. s'apprivoiser ? 51 se chauffer 2i 

(too much) ? How do you do ? How does your sister do ? 

trop? Comment 5l se porter? 52 se porter? 

Was I coming too near ? fVas he hiding himself ? Did we 
(r) s'approcher pres ? se cacher 24 ? 51 

expose ourselves (too much) ? Were you inquiring after them ? 

s'exposer ^ trop ? s' informer d' SB f 

negativ. I do not care for him. He does not mistrust them, 
(q) 55 se soucier de ^ (q) 55 se mtfier de ** 

We do not repent (of it 29 ). You do not rise early enough. They 

serepentir en**. se lever assez matin. 

do not meddle with his affairs. I did not stop. He did not 
se meler de l affaire. (q) s'arreter. 55 

undress himself. We did not sit down. You did not awake in 

se dhhabiller ** . s'asseoi* - . s'eveiller d 

time. I did not expect that they 40 would have called me up so soon. 
terns. s'attendre NB - (q) e'veiller ** - si tot. 

t See the reflective verb se blameii, p. Hi. 


RECAPITULATORY EXERCISE 0)1 the foregOl?lg rules, 

interr. and negat. An: I not mistaken ? Does he not apply to 

(r) 61 55 se tromper f (q) 51 5 * s'appliquer 

study? ? Do we not walk to-day ? Why do not you (make 

*vtude? 51 se promener aujourd'hui? Pourquoi 55 51 se 

haste) ? Why do not you (get ready) ? Do you not rejoice (at the) 

depecher ? 51 s'appreter ? 5l se rtjouir des 

good 13 news we have received ? Do you not remember what I 

tf nouveUes f. (n.) refues ? se souvenir de 40 

have told you? No; I do not remember it 29 . I do not recollect it 29 . 
d£ 25 se souvenir en 24 . se rappeler /e* 1 


affir. I have (gone to bed) late. Thou hast soon (fallen asleep). 

* se coucher tard. * bientot s'endormir.f 

He has awoke early. We have (got up) before you. You have 

* s'eveiller de bon matin. * se leverf avant w * 

hurried yourself (too much). They have dressed themselves in haste. 

sep-esserf trop$. * s'habiller\ a la hate. 

inter. Have 1 (gone away) too soon ? Hast thou bathed lately ? 

* 51 s'enallerf trop tdt ? * 5l se baigner depuis peu? 
Has he amused himself well? Have we undressed ourselves 

* 51 s'amuser bien% ? * 51 se dtshabillerf 

too soon ? Have you been well since I saw you ? Have 

tot ? #51 se porter $ depuis que n'ai vu 25 ? * 

they stopped too long? Have they (got ready) in time? 
51 s'arreterf trop long terns ? * 5l s'appreterf a terns ? 

negat. I have not been well to-day. Thou hast not complained (of it). 

* 55 se porter $ * 55 se plaindre en™ 
He has not perceived it much. We have not walked long. 

* 55 sappercevoir en 29 % * 55 S epromener\ long terns. 
You have not rested enough. They have not (sat down) a moment. 

. * 55 se reposeri assez. J #55 s'asseoir t un moment, 

inter and nf.gat. Have I not (made haste) enough? Hast thou 

* 51 53 se depecher t assez % ? * 51 

not (caught cold)? Has she not married too young? Have we 

53 s'enrhumer? * 51 55 se marier i jeune? * si 

not mistaken the way ? Have you not inquired after them ? 

55 se meprendre t de chemin ? * 51 55 s'informer t d' 28 ? 

Have they not applied to you? Have they not (been mistaken) ? 

* 51 55 sWressert w f * 51 55 se tromper t ? 

* In the compound tenses of* tlie verbs that are made reflective, the auxiliary verb 
have can never be expressed by the verb avoir ; it must be expressed by the same 
tense and person of the auxiliary verb etre to be. See the compound tenses of the 
reflective verb B lamer, page 115. 

t This participle must agree in gender and number with the nominative of the ver>> 
See Syntax, Rule 158. 

$ This adverb must be placed before the participle in french. See Syntax, Rule 183. 

the 105 




A VERB, as has been seen, page 91, is a word which expresses 
either being or acting. 

As the same action may be performed in different manners, at different 
times, and by different persons, it was found necessary to modify or vary 
the same word, so as to denote the manner in which an action is done, 
the time in which it is done, and the person or persons by whom it is 
done, and this is what grammarians call conjugation. 

The manners of acting, in grammar called modes or moods, are four; 


The times, in grammar called tenses, are properly three only; past, 
present, and future ; but, in order to express time with more precision, 
these are again divided into other tenses, the use of which will be seen 
in the syntax of verbs. 

The persons who act in a verb are generally three for each number. 

1. The person or persons who speak ; as, i blame; we blame. 

2. The person or persons spoken to ; as, rhou blamest; you blame. 

3. The person, persons, or things spoken of; as, lie, she, My brother, 
My sister blames ; They, My brothers, My sisters blame. 

The modifications or variations by which these moods, tenses, and 
persons are known, differ, according to the different languages. 

In english, the difference is shewn by the means of certain signs pre- 
fixed to the verb ; as, do blame ; did blame ; shall or will blame ; 
should or would blame; may blame, might blame. 

In french, it is made by changing the last syllable of the word ; as, je 
blAm e, tu blAm es, il blAm e, nous blAm ons, vous blAm cz, lis 
blAm ent ; je blAm ais ; je blAm at; je blAmer ai; je blAmer ais, &c* 

This variation in the tenses and persons, simple as it is, because it is 
nearly uniform, is nevertheless found embarrassing by some persons. 

The difficulty lies chiefly in the present and. perfect tenses of the indi- 
cative and subjunctive moods, and in the imperative. 

In order to remove it as much as possible, I have placed in one point 
of view, the tenses which are eiiher similar or partly similar, or formed 
from one another, that, by perceiving at once the similarity or the dif- 
ference, the learner's mind may be more easily impressed with it. 

* The signs by which these inflections or variations are made, not being the same in 
all verbs, the conjugations must also be various. 

The number of them is not exactly fixed, and varies in almost every grammar. Some 
fix it at four, some at six, some at ten, some at eleven, some at twelve. 

It appears tome that their number must either be limited to four, or extended to twelve. 

As amongst such a number of conjugations, out of which there will still be a 
number of irregular verbs, it is very difficult for learners to distinguish of what conju- 
gation a verb is ; and as the infinitive of all the french verbs ends in one of these termi- 
nations BR, lit, oir, re, the only signs by which each different conjugation may be 
discriminated, 1 have thought it more simple to fix their number ht four. 

All verbs which may be conjugated after the same manner as one of these four, are 
called regular. 

Those verbs which can not be conjugated like one of these four, are called irregular, 
and set in an alphabetical order after the regular, so that the learner can never be mis- 
taken as to the manner of conjugating any verb which he may have need of, by paying 
attention to the termination of the infinitive only, 




To have. AVoir. 



Aie, sing. Ayez, plur* 

Let us have. 



Z have 

Thou hast. 
g .He has. 

J't ai».J 
Tw as 86 . 
II a. 

Nous 25 AV cms 26 . 
Fcws av ez 26 . 
J/s out 28 . 



*+ /Fe have. 
g Yom have. 
,CD They have. 

g< /had. 
•g Thou hadst. 
£ tfe had. 
» JTe had. 
g Yow had. 
? They had. 

^ I had. 
8 2%ow hadst. 
<? He had. 
J JFe had. 
w You had. 


* They had. I/s 

Hd I shall or will have. J' 
3" 2%om shalt, wilt have. Tu 
3 jEfe shall, will have. J/ 
o /^e shall, will have. Nous 95 
W. You shall, will have. Vous 
? They shall, will have. lis 

**i /should, wld. have. J y 

f Thou shd. wld. have. Tu 

g .We shd. wld. have. II aurait 26 . 

&: JFe shd. wld. have. Nous 25 aurions. 

g Yew shd. wld. have. F"cws auriez. 

~ J%cy shd. wld. have. Us auraient 6 

ger UNDy or present participle. 
Having. Ayant. 

av ais°. 

av ais.§ 

av ait 2s . 

Nous 25 av ions, 

Vous av iez. 

lis av aiejii 6 . 

J't eus 18 . 
Tw eus.|| 
II eut 26 . 

Nous 25 euraes. 
Vous eutes 86 . 
eurent 18 . 

8 aurai s . 
auras 86 , 
auront 20 . 

8 aurais G . 



J' aie 6 . § 

Tu aies. ^ 

II ait 26 . g 

Nous ayons*. a 
Vous ayez. 

J7s aient 6 . 


eusse 2 . 


eusses 23 . 


eut 26 . 






eussent 18 . 


eu. Had. 

Have I? 

Hast thou? 
Has he? 
Has she? . 
Has my brother? 
Has my sister? 

The same verb conjugated Interrogatively. 

Ai-je 5 

ot\ 9 
KS-tu® ? 

A-U7 51 ? 

A-i-elle 51 ? 

won frere a-t-il® ? 

Ma sosur Si-i-elle 52 ? 

AVOnS-7iO?/S 51 ? 

Avez-vous 51 ? 
ont-ils 51 ? 
ont-eWes 51 ? 
Mes freres ont-ils® ? 
Mes soeurs ont-elles 52 ? 


* The plural is generally used instead of the singular, though speaking to a single person, 

t See note * page 28. $ These figures refer to the pronunciation, see page 4. 

$ See note 6, page 6. || See, syntax of verbs, the distinction between avais and eus 


The- same verb avoir conjugated negatively. 


NOt to HAVE Ne pas AVOIR. 


Have not. jv^aie, or n 9 ayez \ m „ + 

Let us not have. n 9 



had not. 

I have not. 
Thou hast not. 
He has not. 
We | 

You >have not. 
They J 





They J 














He (shld. wld. 

We (not have. 




had not. 

shall, will 
not have. 

Je ri ai 5 
Tu ri as 
II ri& 
Nous 7?.' avons 26 
Yous fi avez 
lis ri ont Si 

Je n! avais 6 
Tu n 9 avais 
II ri avait 28 
Nous 7^ , avions 
Vous n* aviez 
lis ri avaient 6 

Je ri eus 26 
Tu ri eus 
II n 9 eut 23 
Nous ri eumes 
Vous ri eutes 




Je n'aie 6 


Tu 7i'aies 


11 7i'ait 26 


Nous ?i'ayons 



Vous 7i'ayez 


lis zi'aient 18 



eurem 1 

aurai 5 





Nous 7i aurons 

Vous n 9 aurez 

lis n 9 auront 28 

Je ri aurais G 
Tu ri aurais 
II n' aurait 
Nous ri aurions 
Vous ri auriez 
lis ri auraient 6 


Je ra'eusse ' 


Tu w'eusses 


11 7i'eut 26 
Nous ?i'eussions 



Vous ?t'eussiez 


lis /i'eussent 1 ^ 

L pas. 

K j)at. 


Have I 

Hast thou 
Has he 

Has she 

Not having. jv' ayant pas. pas eu. Not had. 

The same verb conjugated negatively and interrogatively. 


N m-je il 

N 9 HS-tu 51 

n 9 a-t-z7 51 

N* a-t-e//e| 


avez- vous 

ont-ils 51 


n' ont-elles 51 
Has not my brother? won frere ria-t-il 52 pas? Mes f'reres n 9 ont-ils pas ? 
Has not my sister? Ma soeur n'n-t-cllc® pas? lies augurs n'ont-elies pas? 

See note * page 28. 

t Sec the i 
n 2 

egative adverbs, rule 55, i>; , .;> (; VL 



To be. ETre. 



sois, sing. 

soyez, p 


Let us 

i be. 




^ Jam. 

Je 3 tsuis 2 *. 

Je 3 sois 83 . 


3 Thou art. 

Tu es M . 

Tu sois 26 . 

S 6 

g He is. 

II est 26 . 

II soit 26 . 


£ We are. 

Nous sommes. 

2Vom« soyons 4 . 

g Yom are. 

Vous etes 26 . 

Fbws soyez. 


* They are. 

lis sont 26 . 

lis soient 18 . 

g 4 J was. 

•g 2%ow wast. 

J' et ais s . 

Tu £t ais. 

§» //e was. 

II ±t ait 2s . 

2 J^e were. 

Nous £t Z077S 26 . 

§ Yom were. 


? 27ic?/ were. 

lis et aienP. 

^ J was. 

g T/iou wast. 

Je 5 ffus 25 . 

Je 3 fusse 2 . 


!Tm fus.J 

Tu fusses 26 . 

IT iJe was. 

7/ fut 2G . 

// fid 23 . 


% We were. 

iVows fumes. 

Nous fussions. 


£ Yew were. 

Vous futes* 6 . 

Vous fussiez. 


* They were. 

lis furent 18 . 

Us fussent 16 . 

£i I shall or 

will be. 

Je 3 serai 5 . 

2" Tjftozj shalt, 

will be. 

Tu seras 26 . 

3 He shall, 

will be. 

II sera. 

1 We shall, 

will be. 

Nous serons. 

2\ Yom shall, 

, will be. 

Vous serez 26 . 

? They shall, 

will be. 

lis seront 26 . 

51 I should, 

wld. be. 

Je 3 serais 6 . 

** TAo?/; shd. 

wld. be. 

Tz* serais. 

| J/e shd. 

wld. be. 

II serait 26 . 

g- JFe shd. 

wld. be. 

Nous serions. 

1' You shd. 

wld. be. 

Vous seriez. 

£ 7%ey shd. 

wld. be. 

lis seraient 6 . 

gerund, or present participle. 

participle past. 


et ant. 

et£. Been. 

The same verb conjugated Interrogatively. 

Am I? 


suis-jf'e 51 ? 

sommes-7io?« 51 ? 


Art £/icm ? 


zs-tu 51 ? 


i vous™ ? 

Is he? 


esW/ 51 ? 

sont-ifo 51 ? 


Is s/k ? 


Est-eZ/e 51 ? 

sont-elles 5i ? 

Is my brother ? 

Mon frere est-z7 M ? 


freres sont-z7s 52 ? 


Is my sister ? 

Ma soeur est-elle 52 

? Mes 

soeurs sont- dies® ? 


* The plural is generally used instead of the singular, though speaking to a single person 
t See note 2, page 1. $ See, syntax of verbs, the distinction between ttais and fus 


The same verb etre conjugated negatively. 


NOt to BE. Ne pas ETRE. 


Ne sois, or Ne soyez 1 


Be not. 

Let us not be. 

Ne soyonsj 7 

I am not. 
Thou art not. 
He is 7io£. 
We | 

You fare not. 
They J 

I 1 

Thou >was not. 

He J 

We | 

You >were not. 

They J 

I } 

Thou >was tzo£. 

He J 

We 1 

You >were tzoZ. 

They J 






They J 








Je 3 ne suis 
Tu ri es 28 
II ri est 28 
Nous ne sommes 
Vous ri £tes 
lis ne sont 28 

Je 3 ?i ! 
Tu ri 
II »' 
Nous ri 
Vous 7l' 
lis n ! 
Je 3 

£tais 6 


etait 2 * 



6taient 8 

ne fus 

ne fus* 


shall, will 
not be. 

shld. wld. 
not be. 

II ne fut 28 
Nous ne fumes 
Vous ne fates 
lis ne furent 18 
Je 3 ne serai 9 
Tu ne seras 
II ne sera 
Nous Tie serons 
Vous ne serez 
lis Tie seront 26 
Je 3 ne serais 6 
Tu ne serais 
II ne serait 
Nous ne serions 
Vous ne seriez 
lis ne seraient 6 





Being not. iv'istant pas. 


Je 3 ne sois 23 
Tu ne sois 
II ne soit 26 
Nous ne soyons 
Vous ne soyez 
lis ne soient 18 

tyas. § 



Je 3 ne fusse "] 


Tu ne fusses 


11 ne fut 28 


Nous ne fussions 

>pas. s 


Vous ne fussiez 


lis ne fussent 18 



pas Ete* 

i\ro£ been 

Am I 
Art thou 
Is he 
Is she 

The same verb conjugated negatively and interrogatively. 


Ne sms-je 
n' es-tu 
n' est-il 
n* est- elle 



Ne sommes-TiOMS 
n' etes-ucws 
Ne sont-z7s 
Ne sont-elles 

Mes freres ne sor\t-ils pas ? 
Is not my sister? Ma soeur riest-elle pas? Mes soeurs ne sont-elles pas? 

See, syntax, rule 140, the distinction between avais and ens ; ttais and fus. 

Is not my brother? Mon frere ri est-il pas? 

ii 3 


a table shewing in one 


■point of view, the difference between the 





blAm er 






^ Je blAm 



3 Tii 







j? Nous 




§j Poms 




* Jk. 



% Je blAm 


"S ^ 

a is. 



~ iVb?/s 


1 Fom* 


? lis 


^ Je blAim 



% Tw 






S" 2Vb?/a 



g Fows 



' /& 



^Je blAmer 


g Tn 


• JZ 


g_ iVo?« 


§• Poms 


? Jfe 


^Je blAmer 


* r?* 




| JVbMS 


§' For/s 




* After the same manner as blAmer 
are conjugated all the verbs the infi- 
nitive of which ends in er, (about 
2700 in number) except aller and 
envover. Observe only, that in the 
verbs in ger, as, CHANGer, MANGer, 
soNaer, the e is retained before a, o, 
in order to soften the sound of g; so 
instead of saying changcws, mango/is, 


ais ; we say, CHANGeozis, MkNGeons, 
soNGecms; CHANGeaw, MANGe«i.9, Sfc. 


fin ir. 

FIN is. 
















fin issais.f 










finir ai. 





finir ais:\ 

After the same manner as finir 
are conjugated about 220 verbs in 
ir, both primitive and compound. 

Compound verbs are those whose signifi- 
cation changes by the means of a preposition 
prefixed to them ; as, defleurir, to lose the 
blossom ; refleurir, to blossom again ; which 
are conjugated like their primitive fleurh-, to 
blossom : defaire, to undo ; refaire, to do 
again ; which are conjugated like their pri- 
mitive faire, to do. 

* These are the only signs by which it can be known to what conjugation a verb belongs. By 
marked in italic, i. e. those ending in er after blam er, those in ir after fin ir, those in oir after I 
is impossible for any person to commit errors which he is not himself able to rectify. 

>ns ER, IR, OIR, RE* 

jr conjugations, and how the tenses of a verb proceed from one another. 



dev oir. ant. du. 


Dois. Doive. 

Dois. Dois. Doives. 

Doit. Doive. 

dev ons. ons. ions, 

ez. ez. iez. 

Doivent. Doivent. 

dev ais.f 

dus. dussc 

dus. Dusses. 

DUt. Dllt. 

Dumes Dussions. 

Dutes nussiez. 

Durent. Dussent. 

dev rai. 




dev rais.f 
r aient. 

After the same manner as devoir 
are conjugated redevozV, percevozV, 
apercevo?>, s'apercevozV, concev- 
oir, RECEVoir. 

N. B. This verb is not regular ; if it is 
found here amongst the regular, it is because 
its termination requires a conjugation of its 
own. The words which are irregular are 
printed wholly in roman characters ; the re- 
gular are the italic terminations added to the 
capital letters. 


attend re. 








































ATTENDR ttlS.-f 






After the same manner rsattendre 
are conjugated bats, a bats, COM- 
DESCENDS, fonds, confonds, re- 
romps, interromps, ponds, de- 
ponds, corresponds, repands, 
words, demords, tends, etends, 
entends, pretends, rends, pen- 
ds, depends, vends, perds, tor- 
ds, retords, tonds. 

aying attention to the termination of the infinitive, and- altering the same number of letters as are here 
V oir, and those in re after ATT nd re, and with the assistance of the tables of the irregular verbs, it 
t See note 6, pag<> o. 




To blame. BLAM er. 


Let us blame, 


blAm e, sing. 


^7 blame, or am £ Je 3 blAm e 2 . 
3 Thou blamest, ai'tB Tu blAm cs 26 . 
§ He blames, or is « II 

I You £ am f» a l e 
? They {Warning.* 



£ Z%OM'e 
?■ Yom 
? They 

§ He 

g You 


IVbws blAm ons. 
Vous blAm ez. 
lis 25 blAm era* 18 . 
♦Je 3 blAm ais 6 . 
Tu blAm afs. 
7/ blAm ait 26 . 
Nous blAm 2071S. 
Vous blAm £ez. 
I/s 26 blAm aienP. 
Je 3 blam ai 5 . 
2'w blAm as 26 . 
J7 blAm a. 
Nous blAm ames. 
Tows blAm dies, 
lis™ blAm erew*. 18 
«7e 3 blAmer ai 5 . 
Tu blAmer as 26 . 
II blAmer a. 
Nous blAmer ons. 
Vous blAmer ez. 
Us 23 blAmer out 26 . 

Je 3 blAmer ais 6 . 

* * * , j Tu blAmer ais. 
should, would T1 a ., ~ 

it U BLAMER ait. 20 

> blame, or , r * ■ 


be blaming-. Tr A 


lis 25 blAmer aient. 6 

*>He (blamin 
I We 
1 You 

S Thou 

o He I blamed or 

J We [did blame, 

e row 

9 They] 


s/i«Z/, ew7£ 
blame, or 
6e blaming. 



nhkMB'je? §- je 
blAmes-^w? •""■ TU 

blAm a/i£. 


blAm ez, ^/wr. 

BLAM 0715. 


Je 3 blAm e 2 . 
Tw blAm es 20 . 
/7 blAm e. 

IVbws blAm zo ns. 
Vous blAm 2>Z. 
J& 26 blAm eni ls . 


blAm asse* 


blAm asses. 


blAm «7 26 . 


blAm assions. 


blAm assiez. 

lis 26 

blAm assent™ 






Tie bl Ames 
BLAME-t-/7 ? ^ il ne blAme 


vous 7ie blAmez 

blam0ns-7i0ms 3 
blAmez-vows? *>? 

BlAmENT-z7$? a lis 7ieBLAMENT 



blAm e. Blamed. 

Interrogate, and Negativ. 
£ Ne BLAME-je 

° A~e blAmes-^z 
o Ne blAme-1-27 

cs. A 





» Ae BLAMENT-27s 


N. B. .4/fcer #&e same manner as blAmer conjugate all the verbs, the 
infinite of which ends in er, except aller and envoyer, p. 116, 117.f 

* Never sayje suis bldmant, tu es bldmant, West bldmant, j' etais bldmant, fyc. See 
note (t) p. 95. t See note * pa§e 110. 


Compound tenses of the verb blAmer, 
Formed by adding the participle blAme to the auxiliary avoir. 


To have blamed. 


k. I have 1 J' ai 

i> Thou /msZJblamed. Tu as 
a He has J II a 

| We 1 Nousayo?zs 

\have blamed. Vous avez 
lis ont 


I You 

• r - TheyJ 


I Thou 
1 We f 

1 You 
* TheyJ 

4 Thou 

2 He \ 
| We 

5 You 

«f Thou 
I He 
| We 
| You 
a. TheyJ 

| Thou 
r He 

§ We 

1 You 
•"■ TheyJ 

had blamed. 

Tu avais 
II avait 
Nous avions 
Vous aviez 
lis avaient 

J' eus 
Tu eus 
II eut 

Nous eumes 
Vous eutes 
lis eurent 

J' aurai 
Tu auras 
II fiwra 
/i«ye blamed. Nous aurons 
lis auront 

J' aurais 
Tu aurais 
should, wld. II aurait 
have biamed. Nous aurions 
Vous auriez 
lis aura ient 


/z«d blamed. 

s/WZ, wh7Z 





Having blamed. Ay ant blAme. 


A\-je "] je 

As-tu tu 

A-t-il . , n il 


Avez-wms vous/i'avez 

Ont-ils lis 7i'ont 

Avoir blAme. 


J' az'e 
Tu oze* 
II ait 

Nous ayons 
Vous tfyez 
Us flz'e/iZ. 




II euZ 
Nous eussions 
Vous eussiez 
lis eussent 






eu blAme. Had blamed. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 




, »tt.V BLAME. 

NOUS7tavors|* n uvons-ncus 

n' ont-ils 

pas hi.ami':? 

* See, syntax of verbs, the rules on the past participle. 


The verb BLAMER made reflective.* 


To blame oneself. 



Cormnanding 26 rule, page 77. 


27 rule, page 77 

Blame thyself. blam e - toi. 

Ne TE 

blam e ) 

yourself, blam ez - vous. 

Ne vous blam ez \pas 

Let us blame ourselves, blam o;zs-nous. 

Ne nous blam ozzsj 




myself. Je 3 me blam e. 

Je 3 


blam e. 



thyself. Tu te blames. 
jj- himself. II se blame. 



blam es. 




blam e. 



3 ourselves. Nous nous blam ons. 


nous blam ions. 




yourselves. Vous vous blam ez. 


vous blam iez. 


They j 

themselves. lis se blam ent. 



blam e/zz*. 



g myself. Je me blam ais. 




§ thyself. Tu te blam ais. 



£ himself. II se blam ait. 


'§ ourselves. Nous nous blam ions. 


B' yourselves. Vous vous blam iez. 


'• q themselves. lis se blfLm aient 

I ] 

myself. Je me blam az" 



blam «sse 



q- thyself. T?z te blam as. 



blam asses. 



ST himself. II se blam a. 



blam az\ 



5 ourselves. Nous nous blam ames 



blam assions 

. P" 


^yourselves. Poms vous blam cz7es. 



blam assiez. 



themselves. lis se blam eYe/zz\ 



blam assent. 



§n myself. Je Me blamer az'. 



55 thyself. Tu te blamer as. 



| himself. J/ se blamer a. 


p- ourselves. Nous nous blamer ons. 


£T yourselves. Fows vous blamer ez. 


3 themselves. i7s se blamer ozzz*. 

I ] 

§- myself. Je me blamer az's. 


^ thyself. Tu te blamer ais. 


|[ himself. II se blamer ait. 


'^ourselves. Nous nous blamer ions. 


F* yourselves. Fows vous blamer iez. 


| themselves. 7/s se blamer aient. 

Interrogatively. Negatively 

me blame-je? je ne me blame 1 

te bBmes-£w? tu ne te blames W&s. 

SE blame-t-z"/ ? iZ ?ie se blame J 

nous blamons-?zo7Zs? ivozzs zzcnous bl&monspas. 

vous blamez-?;o?zs ? vous ne vous blamez pas. 

se blament-zYs? i/s /ze se blamentpas. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
NessiE blame-ye j 
JveTE blames-^ >pas? 
A'esE blame -t-ilj 
NeNOUs blamons-?zozzs£>fzs? 
Ne vous blamez-rozzs pas ? 
Ne s e blament-zYs pas ? 

* Sometimes it happens that the agent or person who acts is also the ohject, i. e. acts 
upon himself, as when I say ; I blame myself; Thou preparest, thyself; He distinguishes 
himself; We wash ourselves ; You dress yourself', They expose themselves &c by which 


Compound tenses of the reflective verb SE blAmer, 
formed by adding the participle blAme, to the auxiliary verb etre. 


























To have blamed oneself. 


^myself.. Je 3 me suis 
% thyself. Tu t'* es 

J, himself. II s' est 
£T ourselves. Nous nous sommes 
| yourselves. Vous vous eles 
^themselves, lis se son! 

^myself. Je m' etais 
|^ thyself. Tu t' etais 

& himself. II s' etait 
£f ourselves. Nous Nous etions 
2 yourselves. Vous vous ktiez 

s' etaient 

me fus 
Tu te fus 
& himself. 11 se fut 
pf ourselves. Nous nous fumes 
| yourselves. Vous vous fates 
°* themselves, 77s se furent 

~ myself. Je me se?vzi 
^thyself. Tw te seras 
•~ himself. II se sera 
a ourselves. iVows nous serous 
^_ yourselves. Vous vous serez 
g- themselves. i7s se seront 

setre blAm£\ 

BLAMe, m. 
■fee. f. 



themselves. Us 

^ myself. Je 
|^ thyself. 

blAmi, m. 
ee. f. 

blXmSs, m. 
ees. f. 

blAm<?, m. 
be. f. 

blAm^s, m. 
ees. f. 

blAm<?, m. 
ee. f. 

blAm^s, m. 

6 J C9. f. 


Je 3 ME soz's [2 

Tw TE SOW g 

// se soit $■ 

Nous nous soy ons s 

Vous vous soyez a 

17s se so/e?^ & 


Je me 
Tm te 

7/ se 

2Vb?/s nous fissions 
Vous \ous fussiez § 
lis se fusscntj^' 

blam6 j , m. 
ee. f. 

IblAm&, m. 

f ees. f. 

cr myself. Je me serais 

•^thyself. Tu te serais 

|f himself. 11 se sera?7 

We f § ourselves. Nous sous serious 

You £ yourselves. Vousvousseriez 
They) g themselves. lis se seraient) 
Interrogatively . Negatively. 

UEsuis-je) je ne me suis) 

t' cs-tu >blAm^ ? tu ne t' e.9 W/s blAm£. 

s' cst-il J 1 1 nes' est J 

nous .sorames-7ioH.5 , | * jvo?*.s?ieNous$o?;i7?2r-.9p] H 

vous etes-vous > ^vousne vous gfes ;;«.v > J* 

se sont-ils ) %-ils nesE soul pas J g- 

Interrogatively and Negative. y, 
iver' es-^ fjOflWBLAMe? 
A-es' c.^-f/ J 
jve n ous sommes-nousp ) c 
A'e vous etes-vous pas 
ivesE sont-ils pas 

you see that the person who is the agent, performs the action on himself, and c 
quently is also the <>/>jecf. These verbs the French call r&fltchis, i. e. reflective, or 
reflected, because the energy of tlio verb returns to il i agent. Tney differ in nothing 
from the other verbs, but in requiring an obJECTivfe pronoun of the same number and 
person as the agent, or nominative, and in having their compound tenses formed with 
tin; auxiliary ETRE, instead of the atixUiary avoir. 

N. B. These verbs are known in the dictionaries by leaving SE before their infinitive. 

* See note * page 28. + See, syntax of vorhs, the rules on the past participle. 




To go. ALLer. 


go. va, sing. all ez, plur. 

Let ws go. 

ALL 077S. 



^ I go, or am era 

Je 3 vais 6 . 




S Thou goest, art g* 

Tu vas 88 . 




§ i/e goes, or is <? 

J/ va. 




"JFe ) 

iVbz/S ALL 0725. 


all ions. 


1 You P' 0r . 

Fo77S ALL ez. 


all tez. 


? T/^r re s* om -- 

I/s vont 86 . 


aillent 18 . 


B T } 

"g 27*077 >?£a$ going. 

J" ALL «is 6 « 

Tu ALL ais. 

£ffe J 

J/ all ait 2G 

S^ e ) 

NOUS ALL 2077S. 

3 Yb?/, j^ere going. 

F07/5 ALL lez. 

? r/ieyj 

lis all aient 6 . 

2 JAozzI 

J' ALL fli 5 .t 


all asse 2 . 


T?i ALL OS 26 . 


all asses. 


?f JTe (went, or 

J/ ALL a. 


ALL (it* 6 . 


% We (did go. 

Nous \ll times. 

Nous all assions 

f J= 

e You 

Vous all dies. 

Vous all assiez. 


? They | 

lis all erent 1 *. 

■ lis 

all assent. 


? J ^ 

J' irai 5 

| 77z.o?7 

!T?/. iras 25 . 

s /J e 

shall, will go, 

7/ ira. 

1 ^e 

or be going. 

Nous irons. 

E You 

Fb?7s irez. 

? They, 

J/5 iront 26 . 

Ml 1 

J' irais 6 . 

r 7%om 

Tit irais. 


should, wd. go, 

II irait 88 . 


or be going. 


§' You 

Fows iriez. 


J/s iraient 6 




ALL a/*/. 

all e. Gone. 

IV. J?, aller, to go, requires a plac-e mentioned after it; as, 

Je vais a la maison, a la ville, &c. I am going home, to town, &c. 

If no place is mentioned, we make the verb reflective as follows : 

* A verb is called irregular, when all its tenses and persons cannot be formed from 
the infinitive, by changing only the last syllable, as you see in the verb B LAMER. 

In order to render the difference more obvious, the tenses or persons which are formed 
regularly from the infinitive, have their terminations printed in italic characters, the 
words which are irregular are printed wholly in roman. 

•j* Fus, Fus, Fut ; Fumes, Futes, Furent, the perfect tense of etre, is often used in- 
stead of Altai, Alias, Alia ; Alldmes, Alldtes, Allerent, the perfect of aller ; as, J' allai or 
je fua en France V annie derniere ; I went to France last year. I would prefer allai to fus. 



Commanding rule 26, p. 77. 
go away, or) va-T-e>z, sing'. 

be gone, J ALLez-vous-ew, pi. 
Let 2/9 go away, ALLoras-NOUs-ezi. 


T go, or am o 
T/ goest, «r^ 
He goes, or is § 
Z^e ) <§ 

y™ g0 ' cre " 

r/ze3/ jg-oing away. 

I ivas going away. 
I went away. 
I shit, will go away. 
/ sM, wld go away. 


To go away. S'en ALL er. 

Forbidding rule 27, pa^e 77 

Ne T*e?i va pas. ) do not go 

Ne vous era ALLez pas. J away. 
Ne nous ett allows pas. let ms not go . 


Je M'e?i aille. 
Tu T'en ailles. 
II s'en aille. 


Nous nous e?i ALhions. 

Vous VOUS CW ALlieZ. § 

JTs s'en aillent. 




m en Aihasse. 

Je m en vais 
2V I'en vas. 
12 s'e;j va. 


Fows vous en ALLez. 
i7s s'e/i vont. 
Je u'en ALLais. 
u*en kLLai. 
u'e?i irai. 
M'e?i irais. 
I am not going away. Je ne u'en vais pas, &c. 

Compound tenses, formed Jjy adding tlie participle alle to the auxiliary verb ETR5. 
I have 1 
Thou hast 
H e has 
We. have 
You have 
They /*aue 

Je M en suis alle. 

Tm T'e/i es alle. 

II sen est alle. 

Nous nous en sommes alles. 

Vous vous en etes alles. 


en sont alles. 

ENVOYER, To send. 

The sole irregularity of this verb is in the future and in the conditional, the other 
tenses being formed regularly in the same manner as blaMEK. 


To send. ENVOY er. 




I send. 



J' ENVOYe, fyc. 


I did send. 




I sent. 


envoys*, Sfc. 

J' ETiWOYasse, fyc 


I ^ 


enverai 5 . 





shall, or 


en vera. 


wilt send. 

Nous enverons. 






enveront 25 . 


. I ' 


enverais 6 . 





shld, or 


enverait 26 


wld send. 



Vous enveriez. 



enveraient 8 . 

Conjugate in the same manner, renvoy er, to Send back, to Dismiss. 




To finish. FIN ir. 


Finish. fin is, sing. 

Let us finish. 


^ I finish, or am g 5 Je 3 20 fin2s 26 . 

g Thou finishest, art 5£ Tu finis. 

| He finishes, or is 5* II fin z7 26 . 

^ ^e ) n . , °P Nous fin issons 
§ y 01t l fimsh > or 

• S They \ are finishin S- 
•g Thou>was finishing. 

§ Yoi* \were finishing. 
? They] 

fin issez, plur. 
fin issojis. 


Je 3 20 fin me 2 . 
Tm fin isses. 
II fin me. 

8 Thou 
ST ^e 
6 Yon 

£ Thou 
1 ^e 
? Z%ey. 

f Thou 
I He 

§ You 

did finish. 

be finishing 

should, would 

be finishing. 

Vous fin issez. 
lis fin issent™. 

Je 3 fin issais 6 . 
Tu fin issais. 
II fin issait* 6 . 
Nous fin issions. 
Vous fin issiez. 
lis fin issaienP, 

Je 3 fin w 26 . 

2V FIN /?. 

7Z fin?7,- ; . 
Nous fin lines. 
Vous fin ites. 
lis fin irent u . 

Jt 3 FINIR m 5 . 

Tw finir as. 


.ZVoms finir ons 
Vous finir efc. 
lis fintr on#0. 

Je 3 finir ais e . 
Tu finir ais. 
J7 finir ait? 6 . 
Nous finir io/zs. 
Vous finir iez. 
ifo finir aient 6 . 



Interrogatively . 
FINIS-fr/ ?' 

FINIT-2*/ P 

fin issant. 

Negatively . 
ne finis 
ne finis 


nous ne finissons 
vous ne finissez 


Nous fin issions. § 
Fomsfin mzez. ^ 
17s fin issent 18 . s 



Je 3 fin me 2 . 


jfw fin mes. 


7/ FIN ft 26 . 


IVWsfin issions. 


Vous fin mzez. 

J/s fin issent™. 



fin z. Finished. 





Interrogatively and Negat. 
Ne Fims-je ) 
Ne FiNis-tu>pas? 
Ne finit-z7 J 
Ne finisson s-nous p 


Ne FiNissENT- Us pas 4 

After the same manner as finir, are conjugated the following verhs, 

s'Abatardir, to degenerate. Abolir, to abolish. Aboutir, to end. 

s'Abetir, to grow stupid, Abonnir, to better. s'Abrutir, to become stupid. 




Accomplir, to accomplish. 
Accourcir, to shorten, 
s Accroupir, to sit squat. 
Adoucir, to soften. 
Affadir, to render tasteless. 
Affermir, to strengthen. 
Affaiblir, to weaken. 
Affrancbir, to free. 
Agir, to act. 
Agrandir, to enlarge. 
Aguerrir, to inure to war. 
Aigrir, to exasperate. 
Alentir, to slacken. 
Amaigrir, to grow lean. 
Ameublir, to make moveable. 
Amoindrir, to lessen. 
Amollir, to soften. 
Amortir, to redeem. 
Aneantir, to annihilate. 
Anoblir, to ennoble. 
Appauvrir, to empoverish. 
Appesantir, to make heavy. 
Applanir, to level. 
Applatir, to flatten. 
Applaudir, to applaud. 
Approf'ondir, to fathom. 
Asservir, to enslave, 
Assortir, to match. 
Assoupir, to make drowsy. 
Assouplir, to supple. 
Assourdir, to deafen. 
Assouvir, to glut, to satiate. 
Assujettir, to subdue. 
Attendrir, to move to pity. 
Atterrir, to approach the land. 
Avertir, to warn. 
Avilir, to revile, to debase. 
Bannir, to banish, 
Batir, to build. 
Benir, to bless. 
Blancliir, to whiten. 
Blemir, to grow pale. 
Bleuir, to make blue. 
Blondir, to grow fair, 
se Blottir, to lie squat. 
Bondir, to skip. 
Brandir, to brandish. 
Brouir, to blast. 
Brunir, to burnish. 
Candir, to candy. 
Chcrir, to cherish. 
Choisir, to choose. 
Clapir, to squat, to clap. 
Compatir, to compassionate. 
Convertir, to convert. 
Cr6pir, to roughcast. 
Croupir, to stagnate. 
Debrutir, to take the roughness. 
Definir, to define. 
D6fleurir, to lose the blossom. 
Degarnir, to disgarnish. 
Degourdir, to warm a Utile. 
D6guerpir, to move off. 
Demolir, to demolish. 
Dep6rir, to decay. 
Depolir, to unpolish. 
Deroidir, to take off stiffness. 

Derougir, to take off redness. 
Desobeir, to disobey, 
se Dessaisir, to give up. 
Desunir, to disunite. 
Divertir, to divert. 
Durcir, to harden. 
Eblouir, to dazzle. 
Eclaircir, to brighten. 
Elargir, to widen. 
Embellir, to embellish. 
Emplir, , to fill. 
Encberir, to grow dearer. 
Endurcir, to harden. 
Enforcir, to grow strong. 
Enfouir, to bury. 
Enhardir, to embolden. 
Engloutir, to swallow up. 
Engourdir, to benumb. 
Enlaidir, to grow ugly. 
s'Enorgueillir, to grow proud. 
Enricbir, to enrich. 
Ensevelir, to put in a shroud. 
Envabir, to invade. 
Epaissir, to thicken. 
Epanouir, the bud opening. 
Equarrir, to square. 
Etablir, to establish. 
Etourdir, to stun. 
Etrecir, to narrmo. 
s'Evanouir, to faint. 
Farcir, to stuff. 
F16chir, to bend, to move. 
Fletrir, to wither. 
Fleurir, to blossom, to flourish. 
Fouir, to dig. 
Fourbir, to furbish. 
Fournir, to supply. 
Francbir, to leap over. 
Fremir, to shudder, 
se Froidir, to grow cold. 
Garantir, to warrant. 
Garnir, to furnish. 
Gemir, to groan. 
Grandir, to grow tall. 
Grossir, to grow big. 
Guerir, to cure. 
Hennir, to neigh. 
Investir, to invest. 
Jaillir, to spout out. 
Jaunir, to grow yellow. 
Jouir, to enjoy. 
Languir, to Ianguisli. 
Meurtrir, to bruise. 
Moisir, to grow mouldy. 
Mollir, to grow soft. 
Mugir, to low. 
Munir, to store. 
Miirir, to ripen. 
Nantir, to give security . 
Noircir, to blacken. 
Nourrir, to feed. 
Ob6ir, to obey. 
Obscurcir, to obscure. 
Ourdir, 10 uarp. 
Palir, to grow pale. 
Parfournir, to make up. 
Palir, to suffer. 

Perir, to perish. 
Pervertir, to pervert. 
Petrir, to knead. 
Polir, to polish. 
Pourir, to grow rotten. 
Premunir, to provide. 
Punir, to punish. 
Raccourcir, to shorten. 
Racomir, to make tough. 
Radoucir, to soften. 
Raffermir, to strengthen again. 
Ratraicbir, to refresh. 
Ragrandir, to enlarge again. 
Rajeunir, to grow young again. 
Ralentir, to slacken. 
Ramoitir, to moisten. 
Ramollir, to soften. 
Rancir, to grow rancid. 
Ravilir, to debase. 
Ravir, to ravish, to delight. 
Rebatir, to build again. 
Reblancbir, to whiten again. 
Rebondir, to rebound. 
Reflechir, to reflect. 
Refleurir, to blossom again. 
Refroidir, to cool. 
R6gir, to rule, to govern. 
Rejaillir, to spurt up. 
Rejouir, to rejoice. 
Rembrunir, to darken. 
Remplir, to fill again. 
Rencberir, to grow dearer. 
Rendurcir, to make harder. 
Renhardir, to g r ow bold again. 
Repartir, to distribute equally , 
Repolir, to polish again. 
Resaisir, to seize again. 
Resplendir, to shine. 
Ressortir, to resort. 
Retentir, to resound. 
R6trecir, to straiten. 
Reverdir, to grow green a gain. 
Reunir, to reunite. 
R^ussir, to succeed. 
Rotir, to roast. 
Rougir, to blush. 
Rouir, to steep. 
Roussir, to make reddish. 
Rugir, to roar. 
Saillir, to gush out. 
Saisir, to seize. 
Salir, to soil. 
Sevir, to exercise seventy. 
Subir, to undergo. 
Subvertir, to subvert. 
s£ Tapir, to squat. 
Tarir, to drain. 
Ternir, to tarnish. 
Terrir, to land. 
Traliir, to betray. 
Transir, to chill. 
Travestir, to disguise. 
Unir, to unite. 
Verdir, to grow green. 
Vernir, to tarnish. 
Vieillir, to grow old. 
Vomir, to vomit. 

i 2 



The irregular verbs belonging to this conjugation are, 

s'Abstenir, to abstain like vf.nir. Obtenir, to obtain like VEMR. 

Accourir, to run to like COD RIR. Offrir, to offer like OUVRIR 

Accueillir, to welcome UkeWFALLiR. OUVRIR, to open page 127. 

Appartenir, to belong like venir. Parcourir. to over-run tike COURIR, 

AQUERIR, to acquire page 121. 

BOUILLIR, to boil page 122. 

Concourir, to concur like COURIR. 

Conquirir, to conquer like aquerir 

Consentir, to consent like sentir. 


like venir. 

Contenir, to contain 

Contre venir, to contravene 

Convenir, to agree 

COURIR, to run page 123. 

Couvrir, to cover like ouvrir, 

CUEILLIR, to gather page 124. 

Partir, to set out ) ,., 

Pressentir, to have a foresight/ hke SENTIR ' 

Par venir, to attain "j 

Prevenir, to prevent > like VENIR. 

Prevenir t to proceed J 

Querir, to fetch.} 

Recourir, to have recourse to. like courir. 
Recouvrir, to cover again .... like odvrir. 

RecueiUir, to collect Zi/cecoEiLLlR, 

Redevenir, to become again. . . like venir. 
se Rendormir, to sleep again) 

like sentir. 

„ ml 

Dicmvrir, to discover like ouvrir. Repartir, to set out again . . > 

Dtmentir, to give the lie ... ") se Repentir, to repent J 

se Dtpartir, to give up . . . . / like sentir. Requirir, to require like aouerir 

Desservir, to take off the J Ressentir, to resent ), .. 

Dttenir, to detain. . [dishes. 1 j-^ Ressoriir, to go out again / " ke SENTIR « 

Devenir, to become J ' A Ressouvenir, to remember. . . "j 

se Dtvetir, to undress /i'/ve revetir. Retenir, to retain I /j/ce venir. 

Bisconvenir, to disagree ///ve venir. Re venir, to return J 

Discourir. to discourse • like courir. REVETIR, to invest page 128. 


like SENTIR. 

Dormir, to sleep 
Endormir, to lull asleep 
s'Endormir, to fall asleep 

Encourir, to incur like coo RIR. 

s'Enfuir, to run away like FUIR. 

Entretenir, to keep up like venir. 

Entr'ouvrir, to open alittle . . like ouvrir. 
FUIR,toflee,to shun, to avoid. 

Hair, to hate. t page 125. 

Intervenir, to intervene .... 1 ,- 7 
Meiintgmr, to maintain . . . . } llke VENIR « 

Mentir, to lie Wee SENTIR. 

MOURIR,to die page 126. 

Secouvir, to succour /i/ce COURII 

SENTIR, to feel, to smell. . . page 129. 

Servir, to serve, to use ) ,., 

Sortir, to go out } hke **»*»• 

Souffrir, to suffer /j/ce ouvrip 

Soutenir, to maintain "| 

se Souvenir, to remember . . I 

Subvenir, to afford > Zi/ce venir. 

Swri?enir, to befall j 

Tenir, to hold J 

TRESS AILLIR, to start. . . . page 130. 

VENIR, to come page 131. 

Vetir, to clothe like revetir. 

* Several of these irregular verbs having a similarity in their conjugation, as, for 
example, the verbs in tir, which are all but two (vetir and revetir) conjugated like sen- 
tir, the verbs in enir which are conjugated like VENl.t; I have conjugated only one 
verb of each termination, as a model for the others ; and all the verbs which may be 
conjugated in the same manner as that verb are found under it. 

t HAIR is regular only in the first, second, and third persons singular of the present 

of the indicative, and in the second person singular of the imperative, where ai are pro- 
nounced in one syllable, 

Je hais. I hate. pronounce haye. 

Tu hais. Thou hatest. haye. 

II hait. He hates. hay. 

in the other tenses and persons ai are pronounced in two distinct syllables, and the i ia 
marked over with two dots, 

Nous ha'issons. 
Vous ha'issez. 
lis lia'issent. 

We hate. pronounce 
You hate. 
They hate. 


Je haissais. 

I did hate. 

ha-issay e, 

Je ha'is. 

1 hated. 


Je ha'irai. 

I shall hate. 


Je hairais. 

1 should hate, &c. like fin IR. 

X Used only in the infinitive after Alter and Envoy e* : as 

Aller querir, to go and fetch. 

Envoy er querir, to send for. 







Let us acquire. 


^ 1 acquire, or am g J 
a Thou acquirest, art's 
g He acquires, or is 5! 
? We } . jj 

1 You \ aCC ^ U,re '. ' 
? They\ are aC( J uinn S' 

* J ) 

•« Thou)was acquiring. 

%He J 

ft JTe j 

§ Yo?« W'ere acquiring. 



Aquiers, sing*. 

a que a ez, ^?jr. 

AQUER 0715. 

8 7%om 

5 Yom 
? ^Aey. 

3 JY e 

1 We 
£ Yb?z 
? They, 

f* 77*ow 
§ He 

6 JTe 
I" You 
S- TtteyJ 

did acquire. 

oe acquiring. 

should, would 

be acquiring. 



aquiert 23 . 
IVb?.zs aquer ons. 
Vous aqu£r ez. 
lis aquierent 13 . 

J' *aque*ra/s 5 . 
Tu aqueV ais. 
II aquer <zj7 2g . 
Nous aquer ions. 
lis aquer aienl 6 . 

*T *aquis.t 

Tu aquis. 
II aquit 25 . 
Vous aquites. 
lis aquirent. 

.7"' *aquer rai\\ 
Tu aquer ras. 
II aquer ra . 
Nous aquer rons. 
Vous aquer rez. 
lis aquer ronlP. 

J' *aquerra/s 6 4 
Tu aquer rais. 
II aquer raitf*. 
Nous aquer news. 
Vous aquer r/er. 
J/s aquer raienP. 


J' *aquiere. 
Tu aquieves. 
II aquiere. 
Nous aquer ions. 
Vous aquer iez. 
lis aquierent 18 . 



*aquisse 2 . 
aquit 26 . 

Nous aquissions. <g] 
Vous aquissiez. CH - 
lis aquissent 18 . g 


Aquis. Acquired. 


Acquiring. \qv&R ant. 

Conjugate in the same manner, 
requ£rzY, to require, and conquer^, to conquer. 
N. B. conquer ir is used only in the infinitive, in the gerund cox- 
QviRant, in the jjarticiple conquw, and in the perfect 53 

Je conquis. / conquered. Je conquisse. c£' 

Tu conquis. Thou conqueredst. Tu conquisses. ^ 

// conquit. He conquered. II conquit. 

Nous conquimes, &c. Reconquered. Noiis conquissions. >? 

• See qu, page 13. t See note 4, page 2. 

% These two rr must be sounded distinctly ; in ord^r to do it, lay a stress on the first r 




To boil. BOUILLfr. 


Boil. bous, sing. bouill ez plur. 

Let us boil. bouill otw. 



^ I boil, or am % 
<3 Thou boilest, art S 

Je 3 "bous 88 . 


bouill e. 



Tu bous. 


bouill es. 

g He boils, or is aq 

JZ bout 26 . 


bouill e. 


§ Yo« r 0ll > or 

• S TAeJ"™ boilin ^' 

iVbws bouill Otis. 

Nous bouill ions. 


Vous bouill e^r. 

Vous bouill iez. 


lis bouill ent 19 . 


bouill ent 19 . 


^ J 1 

*g 2%om Vwas boiling. 

Je "bouill ais 6 . 

Tu bouill ais. 

§•#* J 

II bouill ait 26 . 

5 ^c ) 

Nov s bou\\\ ions. 

S Yew >tt?ere boiling. 

Vous bouill iez. 

? They) 

lis bouill aient 6 


M J 1 

Je "bouill is 26 . 


bouill me 2 . 

o # 

2 Thou 

Tu bouill is. 


bouill isses. 





II bouill it 25 . 


bouill ft 26 . 


J JFe 

did boil. 


Nous bouill issions 



g Ybw 

Vous bouill ites. 

Vous bouill issiez. 

* TAey. 

lis bouill irent 19 . 


bouill issejit. 



^ J ^1 

Je "bouillir ai 5 . 

| Thou\ 

Tu bouillir as. 

s i?e \shllj wll boil, 

II bouillir a. 

g Jfe ( be boiling". 

Nous bouillir ons. 

&: yow 

Vous bouillir ez. 

? TAeyJ 

Us bouillir out 26 . 

S^ ^ 

Je "bouillir ais. 6 

^ TAcw 

Tu bouillir ais. 

§ He 

sM, w;d boil, 

II bouillir ait 26 . 


be boiling-. 

Nous bouillir ions. 

§ You 

Vous bouillir iez. 

P They^ 

lis bouillir aient 5 . 



■< im 


bouill ant. 

BOUILL i. B0i 


N. B. To boiL, used in an active sense, i. e. followed by an object, is not expressed 
by bouillir, but by faire bouillir ; as, 

Je fais bouillir-] 

Tu fais bouillir 

11 fait bouillir U v de h viand 

JSlousfaisons bouillir I 

Vous faiPes bouillir 

lis font bouillir J 

£jMfait bouillir, &c. 







>boil, or 
am boiling 

boil, or ate 

water, meat, &c. 

I have 
Thou hast 

►boiled, or been boiling. 

And so on, by adding tbe infinitive bouillir to the verb faire. See Faire. 




To run. ^COUR ir. 


Let us run 


cour 5, sing. cour ez,plur. 

cour ons. 


(j / run, or a??i g 

2 jT/zojz runnest, ar^ § 

g ife runs, or w 5* 

Irti * 

1 r™ run ' or . 

? JV^r™ runmn S- 

*L 1 

"g -TAo?/ >tt?as running". 

3>*fc J 

5 ^ e 

§ Ybw \were running. 

? They) 


5 Thou 




dzrf run. 

S Yoa 

*° 2%ey. 

^J " 

I 7%ou 

S He 

sAZZ, tpfi run, 

I We 

be running-. 

S Tow 

? TAey, 


• rt Tao?/, 


shd, wd run 


be running. 

§ Few 


r 2%ey, 


Je M cour e. 
Tu cour es. 
II cour e. 
2Vom* cour ions. 
Vous cour /e*. 
lis cour ew^ 18 . 


"cour iwse 2 . p 
cour usses. 
cour z2Z 26 . I. 
ivozz.9 cour ussions. > 
Fbws cour nssicz. g 
Zw cour ussent. e 

Je 3 M cour s 26 . 
Ta cour «. 
7/ cour 2 26 . 
iVb?z5 cour cms. 
Fb?w cour e«. 
J/s cour ent 1B . 

Je 14 cour a/* 6 . 
Tu cour aw. 
J7 cour ait 26 . 
Nous cour tons. 
Ferns cour iez. 
lis cour aienP. 

Je 14 cour ms 86 
Tw cour us. 
II cour ?^ 26 . 
JVbiw cour umes. 
Vous cour wfes. 
Iw cour urent 18 . 

Je 14 cour rai 5 .* 
Tu cour tyzs. 
// cour ra. 
Nous cour ro/is. 
Foms cour rez. 
lis cour ront? 6 . 

Je 14 cour raw 6 .* 
Ta cour raw. 
// cour rait 26 . 
Nous cour rions. 
Vous cour r/ez. 
7w cour raienP. 


Running. cour a/^. 

^//er Zae same manner as courir, conjugate 
accourir. to run to. parcourir. to peruse, to overrun. 

concourir. to concur. i to run again, to have 

discourir. to discourse. Recourir. j recourse to. 

encourir. to incur. secourir. to succour, to relieve. 

N. Ji. The compound tenses of accourir are formed with either Avoir or litre ; as, 
I have run, J' ai account, or Je suis uccouru. 

Thou ftast run, T« as uccouru, Tu es uccouru. 

He /ias run, 7/ a accouru, 11 est account. 

We /uae run, &c. A'oasavons account. A'ohs sommes accounts, fyc. 


cour a. nun. 

# These two rr must be sounded distinctly ; in order to do it, lay a stress on the first 




To gather. CUEILL*er. 


Gather. cueill es, sing. 

Let us gather. 

cueill ez. plur. 
cueill ons. 

^ I gather, or am <§ 
n Thou gatherest, art £- 
| He gathers, or is z. 
5 We ) ., eg 

§ You [ ffather ° r 
• S Tliey) are S atherill S' 

•g Thou)was gathering. 

g Few Wre gathering 

* 7 

8 2%om 


§ Fotz 


| TA<w 
» He 
1 #'e 

|: Fo?* 

? They. 

? z%om 

g He 

§ Fozj 
£ Z%eyJ 


Je 3 cueill*e. 
I'm cueill es 28 . 
J7 cueill e. 
Nous cueill cm.?. 
Foms cueill ez. 
lis cueill e?^ 18 . 

Je cueill ism 6 . 
TV* cueill a£s. 
77 cueill a/2 26 . 

iVb?f 5 CUeill 20715. 

Vous cueill fez. 
/& cueill aient e , 

Je cueill /.s 26 . 
TV cueill is. 
II cueill iY* 
Nous cueill $me& 
Fb?« cueill ites. 
lis cueill irenP 9 , 

Je cueill era/ 5 . 
T?« cueill eras. 
II cueill era. 
Ntius cueill e;ww. 
Fb?/s cueill erez. 
& cueill eront* 6 , 

Je cueill erais 6 . 
Tu cueill erais. 
J/ cueill erait* 6 . 
Nous cueill erions. 
Vous cueill enez. 
J& cueill eraient 8 . 

d/df gather. 

*Aff, 20M gather 
be gathering. 

shd, wd gather 
be gathering. 



cueill ant. 


Je cueill e. 
Tu cueill es, 
II cueill e. 
Nous cueill eo?zs. 
Fows cueill fez. 
77s cueill ent i9 




Je 3 cueill me 9 . § 
T?/ cueill me*. P- 
/Z cueill ft 26 . § 
Nous cueill issions. <§" 
FoTis cueill mzez. «*■ 
/Zs cueill fsseratf. °5 


cueill j. Gathered 

After the same manner as cueillir are conjugated, 

accueillir, to welcome, and recueillir, to receive, to collect. 

N. B. is now rather obsolete, instead of it, we use Faire bon accueil ; as, 
They welcomed us. lis nous firent bon accueil. 

To be welcome is, Etre bien venu ; as, 

You are welcome. Vous etes bien venu, 

* The nearest idea that I can give with letters, of the sound of cueill, is hheughl. 



To shun; To flee. 


FU ir. 


fu is f sing. 

fui ez, plur. 

Let us shun. 

FUI 0/75. 




u- T shun, or am S- 

Je 3 »fu 2s 86 . 

Je fu ze. 


| 7%o?z shun nest, art % 

Tu fu z.s. 

TV fu 7>s. 


2 //f. shuns, or zs 2. 

// fu m. 

7/ fu i& 

5 '^ 1 u ^ 
2 y 1 shun, or 

' Tliey\ are shunnin £- 

NOUS fu 2/0715. 

Fo?t.s fu yez. 

lis fu 2'e/2^ 18 . 

2Vo7/s fu yions. 

VOUS fu 7/7>Z. 

JZ.s fu ient. 


B T } 

"g ThouVwas shunning. 

Je 4 fu yaw 6 . 
T?z fu yais. 


£#e j 

| Yo?t >7/;ere shunning. 
? They) 

II fu 3/«z?! 26 . 
JVbzwfu yions. 
Vous fu 7/zez. 
J/s fu yaient 5 . 



~I ■ 

Je fu is 26 . 

Je fu me 2 . 

i Thou 

Tu fu 2>. 

Tu fu mes. 




J/ fu it 25 . 

JZ fu it™. 


did shun. 

Nous fu ^mes. 

Nous fu. issio?is 

§ You 

Fows fu ites. 

Vousfu issiez. 


* They, 

lis fu irent iB . 

Us ill issent. 


*3 I } 

Je fuir az 5 . 



1 Thou 

TV fuir as. 

3 He 

shall, will shun, 

II fuir «. 

1 W* 

be shunning. 

TVbz/sfuir ons. 

| Yo7/ 

Vous fuir ez. 

F 7%ey, 

lis fuir ont ss . 

? J 

Je fuir azV 5 . 

f* r^w 

TV fuir ais. 

2 He 

shd, wd shun 

II fuir art 28 . 

|' Yo?t, 

be shunning. 

iVowsfuir ions. 
Vous fuir iez. 

?. TAeyj 

Us fuir aient 6 . 



shunning. fuy ant™. 

fu i. shunned. 

After the same manner is conjugated s'enfuir, to run away ; thus 


I run, or am ' 


M enfuw. 

Thou run nest, art 


t' enfuw. 

He runs, or is 
We run, are 

il s' enfuzY 28 . 
^running" away. " 

awzs nous enjui/cm*. 

You run, are 

vous vous enfuyez. 


run, are 


s J enfu7e/77J 18 . 

2V. B. the compound tenses of s'enfuir are formed with Eire, not Avoir ; as, 
I have run au;ai/. j e ft , E Sin \A 

Thou /last run away. Tier' es >ENFUI 

He /»« run auw/ J/ s ' es t J 





To die. MOUR ir. 


Die. Meurs, 

Let us die. 


mour ez, plur 
mour ons. 


^ 7" die, or am a- 

2 Thou diest, ar£ 3' 

I He dies, or zs °P 

" We 

die, or 



are dying". 

3 7 ) 

•§ T/iow. >was dying'. 

£He J 

5 You \were dying. 
P They) 


e You 

? They] 

S ile 
I We 

5 Fok 
? 2%eyJ 

| JTe 

g' Few 


did die. 

shll, will die, 
6e dying. 

shd, wd die, 
6e dying. 

Je 12 meurs 26 . 

Tu meurs. 

II meurt 26 . 

Nous mour o?i.9. 

FWs mour ez. 

lis meurent 18 . 

Je "mour ais 6 . 
Tu mour ais. 
II mour ait 25 . 
Nous mour ions. 
Vous mour iez. 
J7s mour aient 6 . 

Je "mour us 26 . 
Tu mour us. 
II mour ut 26 . 
A 7 ous mour umes. 
Vous mour $£es. 
7/5 mour urent 18 . 

Je "mour rai 5 * 
Tu mour ras. 
II mour ra. 
JVcwsmour rons. 
Vous mour rez. 
J/5 mour rant 25 . 

Je "mour rais 6 .* 
Tu mour rais. 
II mour rait 26 . 
iVbws mour rions. 
Vous mour riez. 
lis mour raienP. 

mour a?i2 26 . 


Je meure. 
Tm meures. 
II meure. 

Nous mour ions. 
Vous mour fez. 
JZs meurent. 

Je mour 2 . 


T?/ mour usses. 


II mour w^ 26 . 


Nous mour ussions. 


Vous mour ussicz. 


lis mour ussent. 



Mort 26 . Dead, 


«^/£er 2Ae same manner as mourir is conjugated se mourir, to 6e dying ; 
Je me meurs. / am 

TV/ te meurs. Thou art 

i meurs. 

II se meurt. 
2Vb?fs nous mour ons. 
Vous vous mour ez. 
lis se meurent. 

He is 
^e are 

Yo?z are 
They are 

dying away. 

N. B. The compound tenses of mourir are formed by adding Mort to the auxiliary 
Etre; as, He /ms died. It est mart. 

They fraue died. Us sont morte, ^c. 

* These two rr must be sounded distinctly ; in order to do it, lay a stress on the first r 




open. OUVR ir. 



ouvr es, sing. 

ouvr ez, plur. 

Let us open. 

ouvr ons. 




^ I open, or am £. 

J' 14 ouvr e. 

J' 14 ouvr e. 


3 Thou ope nest, art § 

TV. ouvr es. 

Tu ouvr es. 


1 He opens, or is 5 

II ouvr e. 

II ouvr e. 

2 m 1 

iVb?M ouvr ons. 

Nous ouvr ions. 

1 y 0!( °P en - or . 

Vous ouvr ez. 

Vous ouvr iez. 


' They) areo P emn -- 

7/s ouvr ent 18 . 

lis ouvr erc£. 


B 1 } 

•g Thourwas opening. 

J' u ouvr #w 6 . 

Tu ouvr «m. 

£#e J 

JZ ouvr affl*. 

S We } 

Nous ouvr foTis. 

g Foz* Wre opening. 

Fbws ouvr iez. 

? They) 

lis ouvr aient 6 . 


^ J 

J' 14 ouvr w 36 . 

J* 14 ouvr me 2 . 



2 TAozz 

Tit ouvr is. 

Tw ouvr isses. 

jf JEfe 


II ouvr e^ 86 . 

II ouvr ft 20 . 


% We [ did open. 

JVems ouvr imes. 

iVows ouvr issions. 

g Y<m 

Vous ouvr ?£es. 

Vous ouvr wsiez. 

? TA*J 

lis ouvr irent 1B 

Us ouvr me«i. 


? J 1 

J' 14 ouvrir ai 5 . 


I 7%om 

Tit ouvrir as. 

3 He 

sAaW, w«7Z open 

, II ouvrir a. 

1 ^e 

6e opening. 

Nous ouvrir ons. 

S Fow 

Vous ouvrir ez. 

P They. 

lis ouvrir ojit 26 . 

m J ^ 

J' 14 ouvrir ais 6 . 

* TVzom 

Tu ouvrir ais. 

g ^ 

sAd, «;d open, 

II ouvrir ait 26 . 

| Jfe 

6e opening. 

Nous ouvrir ions. 


g" You 

Vous ouvrir iez. 

F- 7*% 

Us ouvrir aient 6 . 




ouvr ant 2 ''. 

oiiverl". opened. 

After the same manner as ouvrir, are conjugated 
entr ouvrir, to open a little. recouvrir, to cover again 

couvrir, to cover. offrir, to offe.r. 

decouvrir, to discover. soufpkir, (o si ffcr. 



To invest with. 

REVET it. 


invest. revet s, sing. revet ez, plur. 
i et us invest. revet o?is. 




m I invest, or am 5' 

Je 3 revet s 36 . 


revet e. 


S Thou investest, art n» 

Tu revet s. 


revet es. 


§ jFfe invests, or is -• 

II revet **. 


rev£t e. 


§ v I invest, 

® ™, are investing-. 

Nous revet ows. 
Ferns revet ez. 

Nous revet ions. 
Vous revet iez. 


lis rev£t end 18 . 


revet ent. 



? J 1 

"g Thou \was investing. 

Je revet afs 6 . 


T?j revet ais. 

1 He J 

II revet aiY*. 

a /Fe | 

JVews revet ions. 

§ Yow >2#ere investing. 

Vous revet zes. 

— • 


? r%J 

lis revet aient 9 . 


Je revet is 93 . 


revfit me. 



g TAom 

Tm revet w. 


revet isses. 




IZ revet HP. 


revet it 26 . 



5 ^ e 

did invest. 

Nous revet ?me*. 


revet issions. 

g Fom 

Vous revet ftes. 

Vous revet issiez. 


*° 2%cy. 

JTs revet irent 1B . 


revet issent. 


^ I i 

Je revetir at 5 . 


| Tta 

Tu revetir as. 

S He 

shit, wll invest, 

II revetir a. 

1 J^e 

be investing. 

Nous revetir ons. 

1 You 

Vous revetir ez. 

? They ^ 

lis revetir out 26 . 

? J 1 

Je revfetir ais 96 . 

S* Z%Gtt 

Tu revetir ais. 


shd, wd invest, 

II revetir ait. 

&^ e 

be investing. 

Nous revetir ions. 

§' Fo?^ 

Vous revetir iez. 

F* 2%«y. 

lis revetir aient?. 

GJSii 17.Y.D. 



westing. revet a?it e6 . 


u. invested. 

^4/2er <Ae same manner as revetir, are conjugated 

vetir, to clothe ; and devetir, to undress ; 

but these two verbs are seldom used, except in the infinitive vetir, de- 
vetir, and in the participle vetu, clothed ; instead of the former, we 
make use of habiller, to clothe, to dress ; and instead of the latter, we 
use deshabiller, to undress. 

* To invest with honours, dignities, b)c. but not to surround. 





Let us feel. 


sens, sing. 



^ I feel, or am & 
2 Thou feel est, art ~ 
g He feels, or is <$ 

S You , 

? They) arereehn S- 

B 1 } 

•g Thou\was feeling. 

*He J 

| JFe | 

§ Yo?z >w>ere feeling 


€■ Thou 
i He 
S t^e 
5 You 
? They 

I tvzom 

S He 

1 AT* 

? T/ieyJ 

2 He 

g' Fo//. 

Je 3 "sens 88 . 
Ta sens. 
II sent 96 . 
JVows sent o??5. 
Vous sent ez. 
7/s sent enP 8 . 

Je sent azV 5 . 
T?£ sent ais. 
II sent az^ 86 . 
Nous sent toTfs 
Poms sent iez. 
lis sent dienlP. 

Je 3 sent zs 88 . 
T?/ sent is. 
II sent z7 2J . 
JV02/S sent fines. 
Vous sent ftes. 
J/s sent ireni 18 . 
Je sentir az 5 . 
Tu sentir as. 
shaUy will feel, J7 sentir a. 
iVozzs sentir ons. 
Vous sentir ez. 
lis sentir cm^ 26 . 
Je sentir ais 8 . 
Tu sentir aw. 
7/ sentir ait. 
Nous sentir ions. 
Vous sentir iez 
lis sentir aie?it 6 . 

did feel. 

be feeling. 

shd, wd feel, 
be feelinjr. 

SENT ir. 

sent cz, phtr. 
sent ons. 


Je sent e 2 . £> 

2V sent es. j^ 

II sent e. § 

Nous sent ions. <§ 

Vous sent zVsr. 5T- 

7/s sent enV 8 . r* 


sent isse*. , 


sent isses. 


sent ft. 93 

Nous sent visions. 


sent issiez. 


sent issent. 


SENT I. Felt. 


Feeling. sent awi 26 . 

4/2er Me same manner as sentir are conjugated 
consentir, to consent. partir, to set out ; to depart. 

dementir, to give the lie. pressentir, to have a foresight, 

se de partir, to give up. repartir, to set out again; to reply 

desservir, to take off the dishes ; se repentir, to repent. 
dormir, to sleep, [to do an ill office, ressentir, to resent. 
endormir, to lull asleep. ressortir, to go out again. 

sendormir, to fall asleep. servir, to serve; se servir to use* 

mentir, to lie; to tell a lie. sortir, to go out. 

* Observe that the third person singular of the present tense of servir, is,' err, not scru 




To leap for joy. 


o^o/>r.} TRESSAILL lr de >' e ' de P eur ' 


Let us start. 


TRESSAILL es, Sing. TRESSAILL ez, plur. 




/ start, or am % 

Thou startest, art % 

He starts, or is r 3* 




1 1 

Thou >was starting. 

We | 

You Ywere starting 

r 1 

He [started, 














did start. 

shll, wll start, 
be starting. 

shd, wd start, 
be starting-. 

Je 3 






















tressaill e.f 
tressaiil es. 
tressaill e. 
tressaill ons. 
tressaill ez. 
tressaill ent 16 . 

tressaill ais 6 . 
tressaill ais. 
tressaill ai&*. 
tressaill ions. 
tressaill iez. 
tressaill aientf. 

tressaill z"s 26 . 
tressaill is. 
tressaill iti* 6 . 
tressaill imes. 
tressaill ties. 
tressaill irent 18 . 
tressaillir ai 5 . 
tressaillir as. 
tressaillir a. 
tressaillir ons. 
tressaillir ez. 
tressaillir ont 26 . 
tressaillir ais 6 . 
tressaillir ais. 
tressaillir ait 26 . 
tressaillir ions. 
tressaillir iez. 
tressaillir aient 6 


Je tressaill e. 
Tu tressaill es. 
II tressaill e. 
Nous tressaill ions. 
Vous tressaill iez. 
lis tressaill ent. 

Je tressaill me 9 . S 
Tu tressaill isses. •§ 
II tressaill it. 
Nous tressaill issions. 
Vous tressaill issiez. 
lis tressaill issent. M 


starting. tressaill ant 26 . tressaill i. started, 

After the same manner as tressaillir are conjugated 
assaillir, to assault, but it is not used in the first, second, and third 
persons singular of the present tense, and is seldom used, except in the 
infinitive assaillir, and in the participle assailli, assaulted. 

saillir, to jet out, used only in the infinitive saillir, in the gerund 
saillant, in the participle sailli, and in the third person of each tense 

* tressaillir is seldom used without the words joie, joy j or pew, fear, 
t See lb preceded by i, page 11 and 12. 




To COM2, VEN ir. 


come. viens, sing. 

Let us come. 


I come, or am § 
3 Thou comest, art 5. 
| //e comes, or is tf| 

I come, or 
«re coming. 

g Tom 

g TAom fwfls coming. 

i7e J 

1 0^ ) 

S You >were coming 
? They) 

* J 

8 Tow 


S If e 

S Ybw 
? They 

• & 27zo?/ 

2 #e 
2 Tow 
P TVieyJ 

came, or 
tf j<Z come. 

shall, will tome 
or 6e co mi 112:. 

slid, wd come, 
or 6e coming- 


Je 3 viens 23 . 
Tw viens. 
II vient 23 . 
Nous ven ons. 
Tons ven eg. 
J£s viennent 18 . 

Je 3 ven ais 6 . 
!Ttt ven ais 
II ven a/2 26 . 
Nous ven zo?*s. 
Fbws ven iez. 
lis ven aient 6 . 

Je "vins 83 . 
Tjj vins. 
// vint 28 . 
Nous v'mmes. 
Vous vintes. 
lis vinrent 18 . 

Je 3 viendrai 5 . 
Tu viendras. 
II viendra. 
Nous viendrons, 
Vous viendrez. 
lis viendront 26 . 

Je 3 viendrais. 

Tu viendrais. 

II viendrait 26 . 

Nous viendrions. 


lis viendraient 6 . 

ven ant* . 

ven ez plur. 
ven ons. 


Je 3 vienne' 2 . 
Tu viennes. 
II vienne. 
Nous ven ions. 
Vous ven iez* 
lis viennent. 

Je 3 

vinsse 8 . 




vint 26 . 

Nous vinssions. 




vinssent 1 ' 

VEN 11. 


After the same manner as venir are conjugated, 












to abstain. 

to belong. 

to agree, to become. 

to contravene. 

to contain. 

obtenir, to obtain. 

parvenir, to attain, to arrive. 

prevenir, to prevent, to anticipate. 

provenir, to proceed. 

revenir, to come again, to return, 
to disagree, to disown, retenir, to retain, to keep, 
to detain. soutenir, to maintain, 

to become. se souvenir, to remember, 

to keep up. subvenir, to afford, 

to intervene. subvenir, to befal, to happen, 

to maintain. tenir, to hold. 

N. B. The compound tenses of venir, convenir, devenir, disconvf.nir, PARVE- 
NIR, p rovenir, revenir, and survenir, are formed with the auxiliary Eire, not A coir 
as, I have agreed, Je suis convenu ; not J'ai convenu. 




a table shewing, in one point of view, how to 







FIN ir, issant, 





CUEILL ir, ant, 








^ Je FIN is 





£ Tu 

is is 





es es 

g II 






£ Nous 

issons issons 






ons ons 

g Vous 

issez issez 





ez. ez 

g lis 






tf Je 
-a Tu 











? Now 




g Fous 




£ /fa 




1? J f 






B> 2*« 






^ 7/ 






£ IVous 






g Feus 






£ ft 






^ JeFlNIit ai 


cueill erai 

5 Tu 




►d II 




S Nous 




£* Fous 




3 /fa 




htj Jg 




g. Tu 




g Mws 
g' Fous 

ait Like FINIR, con- 
ions Jugate all the verbs 



ie* in IR, tke following 


eriez a 

e* ft 

aient. ' excepted. 


eraient. Rec 

AQTTER ir, ant, 



ir, ant, 


FU ir, yant, 

Z r 






S Tto 

aquiers aquiers aquieres 




is is 

g. IJ 






<+ JVous 

ons ons 





yons yons 

o Vous 

ez ez 





yez yez 

S ft 






a 1 J'AQUER afa 



•5 T« 




'^ Nous 







g Fous 




S ft 



y aient. 

hj J' 






3 Tu 











f* JVous 






g Frnts 
1 ft 












lag J'aquer rai 



FUIR ai 

5- Tu 




« I* 




o JVous 








2 /fa 




*rj J' 




S. Tu 




o « 




§ JVTons 




& Fous 




* /fa 

r aient. 



In the same manner conjugate Conquenr, 

Like Courir conjugate 


Like Fuir conjugate 



Discourir,Encourir, Par- 

to run away. 

courir, Recourir. Secourir. 


all the verbs in IR, both regular and irregular 



10UR ir, 





meurs meure 

meurs meurs meure s 

IOUR ons ons 
ez ez 














IOUR rai 








REVET ir, 

















r aient. 


)UVR ir, ant, ouvert. 



































In the same manner conjugate 
Enti'ouvrir.Convrir. Deeouvrir.Re- 
•nuvrir, Offiir, Sonffrir. 




ait . 































aient. DevStir. 





sens sen 
SENT ons ons 
ez ez 

































Consentir, Pros^entir, Rpssentir, 
Mentir, Dementir, Partir, Rppirtir, 
i-e Departir, Sortir, Ressortir, se 
Repentir, S^rvir, Uesservir, Dormir 
Kndormir, s'Endormir. 











om ions 

ez iez 





TRES- irent* 










aient. Assaillir, Saillir. 


































vi end rez 







venir, Intervenir, Parvenir, Prevenir, 
Provenir, Revenir, se Sotivenir, Sub- 
venir. Mirvenir, Tenir, s'Abstenir, Ar> 
p;irte:iir. Contenir, Detenir, Entretenir 
Maintenir, Obtenir, Retenir, Souteuir 

nir, Contrevemr, 
Devenir, Discon 




To owe. DEV oir. 


owe. Dois, sing. dev ez, plur. 

Let us owe. dev ons. 



^ I owe. 

3 Thou owest. 

Je 23 dois 26 . 

Je doive 2 . 2 
jT?« doives. « 

Tu dois. 

g JTe owes. 

7/ doit 2 <\ 

II doive. g 

% We } 

iVbzw dev ons. 

Nous dev ions. <§ 

g Yom >owe. 

Vous dev e£. 

Poms dev iez. 9 
J/s doivent. n> 

? 2%cyJ 

lis doivent 18 . 

r J 1 

Je 3 DEV a?V\ 

Tu DEV «/.?. 

>did owe. 

7/ dev ait* 5 . 
Nous dev ions. 

1 You 

Vous dev iez. 

? They t 

lis dev aze?zi 8 


g Thou 

Je dus.t 
Tu dus. 

Je dusse 2 . Jf 

2*m dusses. i 5- 

f He 


JZ dut 26 . 

1/ dut 28 . | 

J ^ 

Nous dumes. 

JVbws dussions. ^ 

1 Tow, 

Fbws dutes. 

FWs dussiez. 5" 

? They, 

7fo durent 18 . 

lis dussent. 18 % 

?I ] 

Je dev rai 3 . 

| r/ww 

Tm dev ras. 

s Z7e 

1 ^ 

>shcdl, will 


II dev ra. 


|: You 

Kow5 dev rez. 

? They, 

lis dev ront 25 . 

2 1 " 

Je dev razV 5 . 

s* 2%ow 

7\« dev raw. 

>shld, wld 


II dev raft 86 . 

iVbzzs dev rions. 


| You 

Vous dev nez. 

7/s dev raienP. 




DEV #?zi 25 . 

du. owed. 



Interrogatively and Negativ. 

Dois-je ? §- 


we dois 1 m 

Ne do\s-je 


Dois-^w? H 


we dois £- 



Doit-z/? | 
Devons-Tiows ? n> 

il we doit I s 
nous Tie devons | r <^ 

Ne doit-z'Z 

2ve devons-?zows 


>pas ? © 



i&? p 

vousrcedevez ' ^ 
lis 7ie doiventj 

Ne devez-vous 


-4/ifer zVze seme manner as devoir are conjugated, 

apercevoir,) , • percevoir, (a law term) to receive. 

}to perceive. ; . y 

apercevoir, r recevoir, to receive. 

conce\oir, to conceive. 


to owe still. 

* See n. b. under devoir, page 111. 

f See note 2, page 1, 



ASSEOIR, \. .. Anmt 
s'ASSEOIR,} tosltdown ' 

Choir, to fall \ 

Dtchoir, to decay > 

Echoir, to expire, to be out. J 

Emouvoir, to stir up 

Entrevoir, to have a glimpse ; 
Equivaloir, to be equivalent ; 
FaLloir, must; tobe necessary 

MOU VOIR, to move ; 

Pleuvoir, to rain ; 

Pourvoir, to provide ; 

POUVOIR, to be able ; . . . 

verbs belonging to this conjugation are 

4 « r PREVOIR, to foresee ; . . . page 139. 

page lo6. Prhaloi t0 prevail . . '. . . i * 

-n i i • j. -i !(• } see valoir. 

sePrevaloir, to avail oneselt ; J 

* Revaloir, return like for like ; like valoir. 

Rasseoir, |to sit down 1 ^ ASS£0IR . 
like mouvoir. se Rasseoir, ) again; J 

like voir. Revoir, to see again ; Uke\oiR. 

like valoir. SAVOIR, to know ; page 140. 

.t Seoir, to fit, to suit, to become; $ 

page 137. urseoir, to supersede ; .... see PREVOIR. 

t VALOIR, to be worth ; . . . page 141. 

see prevoir. VOIR, to see ; page 142. 

page 138. VOULOIR, to will, to be willing ; page 143 , 

* These three verbs are now hardly ever used, but are found in many ancient writings , 
they are conjugated thus : 



To Fall. 
To Decay. 


CHm. fallen. No other tenses. 

DECHu. decayed. 

Je dechois. 
Tu dechofs. 
II, dechoit. 
Nous dechoyons. 
Vous dechoyez. 
lis dechoie)it. 


I decay, or am ^ 
Thou decayest, art g 
He decays, or is "jS. 
Wp \ B 

decay, <P 

e decaying. 



did decay. 

jhall, will decay, 
)e decaying. 

should, would decay. 
be decaying. 

Je dechoie. 
Tu dechoies. 
II dechoie. 
Nous dechoyions. 
Vous dechoyiez. 
lis dechoient. 

Je dechu sse. 
Tu dechusses. 
II d6chut. 
Nous dGchussions. 
Vous dechussiez. 
lis d&chussent. 












*may decay. 

Je dechus. / 

Tu dechus. 1 

11 dechufc. . 1 

Nous d&chximes. T 

Vous dechutes. J 

lis dechurent. 1 

Je d£cherrai. 
Tu d^cherras. 
II d^cherra. 
Nous d6cherrons. 
Vous decherrez. 
lis d£cherront. 

Je d6cherrois. 
Tu d6cherrois. 
II decherroit. 
Nous d£cherrions. 
Vous decherriez. 
Us decherroient. 


ECHOIR. To Expire ; speaking of the end of a term ; as, 

The rent is due, the time is expired. La rente est due, le terme est 6chu. 


"mht decay. 

Pres. II 6choit. 
Perf. II echut. 
Fut. II echerra. 
Con. 11 echerroit. 

It expires. 
It expired. 
It will expire. 
It would expire. 

II £choie. 
11 6chut. 

It may expire. 
It might expire. 

KCHE ant. 



BOHu. Expired. 

+ FALLOIR, PLEUVOIR, see the impersonal verbs, page 172, 174. 

t SEOIR, To fit, to suit, to become, has only the third person of each tense in use. 
Ilsitd. It fits, llsstioit. It fitted. 11 sit.ra. It will fit. llsitrait. It would fit. 
lis sicent. They fit. llsscioient.'Llwy fitted, llssicront. They will fit. llssitruient. They wd &% 




To sit down. & ASSE oir. 


sit down. Assieds-Toi, sing, asse zez-vous, plur. 

Let us sit down. asse ions-sovs 


^ I sit, or am |- 
8 27jom sittest, fl.rZ 5" 
g He sits, or is p. 

2 ,-r I stt, «re o 
£ You > . '. , • 

» ,7,, sitting down. 

* I 1 

3 ,rv I zms sitting; 
•g Thou} , 3 
2 „- down. 

ST- He J 

§ Fo?z l«*« sitting 

? W down - 

J Thou 
$ He 

sr ^ 

? They] 

sat, c?i(i 
sit down. 








g' Yew 

shll, idi sit, 
6e sitting dn. 

^shd, wd sit, 
6e sitting; dn. 

Je 3 m' ^assieds 23 . 
Tu t' assieds. 
J/ s' assied 23 . 
IVews nous asse z'o??s. 
Vous vous asse zez. 
JT/s s' asse lent 19 . 

Je m' asse iai&, 
Tu t' asse iais. 
II s' asse zazi 88 . 
Nous nous asse yons 4 . 
Vous vous ass£ 7/ez. 
JZs s' ass£ iaient 6 . 

Je m' as sis 23 . 
Tm t' assis, 
J/ s' as sit 23 . 
Nous nous assimes. 
Fews vols assites. 
Its s' assirent 19 . 

Je m' 10 asseirai 5 . 
!Tm t' asseiras. 
II s' asseira. 
IVewsNous asseirons. 
Vous vous asseirez. 
J/s s' asseiront 25 . 

Je m' asseirais 6 . 
Tu t asseirais. 
II s' asseirait 23 . 
Nous nous asseirions. 
Fews vous asseiriez. 
lis s' asseiraient 5 . 


sitting- down. 

M* assieds-^e ? £ 
T* assieds-foz ? H 
s' assied-z7? s? 

s'asse yant* 5 . 

Negatively . 

je we m' assieds] £j 
Z'M 7ie t' assieds >p#s. o" 
iZ 7ie s' assied J o 





ie\ t 








ie. g. 











ass6 ient. 


Je m' 

assisse 2 .^ 

Tw t' 

assisses. ^ 

JZ s' 

assit 23 . & 

Nous nous assissions. 

Foiz« vous assissiez. 

IZs s* 





Assis. sat down. 

Interrogat. and Negat. 
Ne m* assied s-^'e 1 
if e t' assieds-Zw >pas ? 
Ne s' assied-tl J 

I have 
Thou hast 
He A#s 
We Aezue 

COMFODND tenses formed by adding assis to the auxiliary ETRE. 













nous nous sommes] 

nous nous soyojis] 

In the same manner, conjugate rasseoir, se rasseoir, to sit down again. 





Let us move. 


MOUV oir*. 


meus, sing. mouv ez, plur. 

mouv ons. 




7" move, or am B 

Thou movest, art < m 

He moves or is cr 

We ) 

You \ move \ 

Thcy\ arem0Ymn °- 

I 1 

Thou \ivas moving. 

He J 
We \ 

You \were moving-. 

I } 


He moved, 

We [did move. 














be moving. 

shd, wd move, 
be moving. 

Je ^meus 26 . 
Tu meus. 
II meut 23 . 
Nous mouv ons. 
Vous mouv ez. 
lis meuvent 18 . 

Je 34 mouv ais 6 . 
Tu mouv ais. 
II mouv aii 2s . 
Nous mouv ions. 
Vous mouv iez. 
lis mouv aienP. 
Je tmus 23 . 
Tu mus. 
II mut 23 . 
Nous mumes. 
Vous mutes. 
lis murent 18 . 
Je 14 mouv rai s . 
Tu mouv ras 2 * 1 . 
II mouv ra. 
Nous mouv rons. 
Vous mouv rez. 
lis mouv ront 26 . 

Je 14 mouv rais*. 
Tu mouv rais. 
II mouv rait?*. 
Nous mouv rions. 
Vous mouv riez. 
lis mouv raient 6 . 


Je meuve 2 . 3 

Tu meuves 23 . < 
II meuve. ^ 
IVb?/smouv ions. ^ 
Vous mouv iez. 
lis meuvent. 


Je musse 2 . 


Tu musses. 


II mut 28 . 




Vous mussiez. 


lis mussent 18 . 





mu. moved. 


Moving. mouv ant 26 . 

After the same manner as mouvoir is conjugated emouvoiu, to move, 

stir up, speaking of vapours, or the passions ; as, 

Le soleil 6meut les vapeurs. The sun stirs up the vapours. 

Cet homme s'emeut de rien. That man is moved with the least thing 

* MOUVOI R is a technical term, used only in some general propositions ; as for examDlo 
Every free body moves in a straight line. Tout corps Libre se meut en ligne droile. 

The general acceptation of move is REMUER ; as, 

Move your arm, your leg, your foot, the chair, the dish, the table, &c. 
Remuez le bras, lajambe, le pied, la chaise, le plat, la table, &;c. 

f See nota 2 pa^o t 




To be able. POUV oir. 


I can, or am able. 

Thou canst, art able. 

He can, or is able. 

We \ 

You >can, are able. 


B 1 

Thou >could, was able. 


We | 

Yow >eould, were able. 

^ \ 

Thou Vcould, was able. 

He J 

JFe | 

Ybw >could, were able 

2%^ J 

3 He 

EK Ybw 
? 7%ei/J 

f* Thou 
2 He 

I' You 

sM, wll be able. 

r s^rf, wd be able. 


Being able. 

JTe 23 puis 26 . 
!Tw 12 peux. 
II peut. 26 

JVoMS pOUV 072*. 

Vous pouv ez. 
J/s peuvent 18 . 

Je 14 pouv ais 6 . 
Tu pouv ais. 
II pouv AMY 86 . 
IVbz/s pouv ions. 
Vous pouv «ez. 
lis pouv aient 6 . 

Je tpus 2 * 3 . 
jTia pus. 
J/ put 26 . 
iVbws pumes. 
Vous putes. 
lis purent 18 . 

Je 14 pourai 5 . 
Tu pouras 86 . 
II poura. 
Nous pourons. 
Vous pourez. 
lis pouront 35 . 
Je u pourais 6 . 
Tu pourais. 
II pourait 26 . 
Nous pourions. 
Vous pouriez. 
lis pouraient 6 . 

pouv ant* 6 . 


puisse 2 . 3 



H puisse. 
Nous puissions. 
Vous piiissiez. 


lis puissent 18 . £ 


Je pusse 2 . 
Tu pusses. 
II put 26 . 
Nous pussions. 
Vous pussiez. 
lis pussent 18 . 





pu. Been able 

* MAY, MIGHT have, through the verbs, been considered only as signs of the subjunc- 
tive mood ; but these 'words are not always signs ; they are sometimes verbs denoting 

In order to discriminate whether may, might, are verbs, or only signs, change them 
into the tenses of the verb BE, that will make the best sense with the word power or abl". 

If may, might, thus changed, answer to the tenses of the indicative of the verb BE, 
they must be expressed by the same tenses of the verb POCVOIR ; as, 

I may see it, if I choose, i. e. it is in my power, or I am able to see it, if I choose. 

Je puis le voir, si je veux. 

I might see it, if I chose, i. e. it would be in my power, or I should be able to see it, if 1 
chose. Je pourais le voir, sijevoulais. 

If may, might, answer to the tenses of the subjunctive of the verb BE, they may be ex 
pressed either by the subjunctive of the following verb, or by the subjunctive of pou VOIR ; as 

Bring it me, that I may see it, i. e. that I may be able to see it. 

Apportez-le-moi, afin que je le voie, or afin que je puisse le voir. 

He brought it me, that I might see it, i. e. that I might be able to see it 

II me Vapporta, afin que je le visse, or afin que je pusse le voir. 

t See note 2, page 1 . N.B. MA\ , 





Let 21s foresee. 



pr£v ois, sing. 

PREV oir. 

prev oyez, pli/r. 
prev oyons. 


* Jfi 



Je prev ois 23 . 

Je prev oie 23 . 

o 5 

3 Thou foreseest. 

Tu prev ois. 

Tu prev oies 26 . 


§ He foresees. 

II pre'v oiP*. 

It preV oie. 


Nous preV oyons*. 

Nous prev oyions. 


g Yb?j Vforesee. 

Vous prev oyez. 

Vous preV oyiez. 


? They) 

lis prev oient 16 . 

lis preV oient, 


B 1 

Je prev oyais 6 . 


•§ 2%0M 

Tu pre'v oyais. 


*did foresee. 

II prev oyait 26 . 
Nous pre'v oyions. 

I r ° w 

Vous pre'v oyiez. 

? They j 

lis prev oyaient 6 . 

I ] 

Je prev is 2 * 

Je preV me 8 . 



Tu prev is. 

Tu prev isses. 



II prev atf 36 . 

II prev it* 6 . 


2 We 

did foresee. 

Nous prev zmes. 

Nous prev issions 


1 You 

Flows prev ites. 

Vous pre'v issiez. 

? They] 

lis prev irent 18 . 

lis pre'v issent n 


' 3 

? T } 

Je prevoir ai 5 . 



| Thou 

Tu prevoir as 25 . 


3 He 

shall, will 

II prevoir a. 

1 JFe 


Nous prevoir ons. 


Vous prevoir ez. 

? The Vj 

lis prevoir ont 26 . 

? J ] 

Je prevoir ais 6 . 

s* 7%cm 

Tu pr€voir ais. 

§ H e 

shuld, wuld 

II prevoir ait 26 . 



Nous prevoir ions. 

§ Yo?j 

Vous prevoir iez. 

£ 2%^, 

lis prevoir aient 6 . 


pr£v oyant 26 . 

prev u. Foreseen 

After the same manner is conjugated surseoir, to supersede, partic 


sursis. pourvoir, to provide, except the 

perfect tense, 

I ) 

Je pourv us. 

Je pourv usse 2 . 



Tu pourv its. 

Tu pourv usses. 




II pourv ut 2 *. 

II pourv tit 2 *. 



did provide. 

Nous pourv umes. 

Nous pourv ussions 



Vous pourv dies. 

Vous pourv ussiez. 



lis pourv urent™. 

lis pourv vssent u 


JV.B. MM, expressing a wish, is rendered by the present of the subjunctive of pouvoir ; 

as, May you be happy ! Puissiez-vou* etre heureux I 

But observe that, these instances excepted, the subjunctive never begins a sentence ; so 

this, May I see it \ is, Puis-je le 

Not Le voie-je, or Puisse-je le voir ? 





To know. SAV oir* 


Know. saches, sing, sachez, plur. 

Let us know. sachons. 


^ I kn0 


Je sais 6 . 

S Thou knowest. 

Tu sais. 

| He knows. 

II sait 56 . 

Z We 1 

JVbws sav ons 

g You >know. 

Vous sav e?. 

? They) 

lis sav e/ii 18 . 

S 1 ^ 

Je sav ais 9 . 

| Thou 

Tu sav aw. 

did know. 

7/ sav ait 26 . 
Nous sav ions. 

1 r ° M 

Pous sav iez. 

? TAey, 

lis sav aieni 9 . 

2 T/iow 

Je sus 26 . 

Tu sus. 



J/ sut 26 . 

£ JFe 

'did know. 

Nous sumes. 

S You 

Vous sutes. 

? Tfiey) 

J/s surent 18 . 

2 1 

Je 8 saurai 5 . 

& Thou 

Tu sauras 26 . 

s He 

shall, will 

II saura. 

1 /Pe 


Nous saurons. 

|- You 

Vous saurez. 

P TAey, 

lis saurontr 6 . 

j J 1 

Je 8 saurais G . 

-* tw 

Tu saurais. 



II saurait 26 

& jr e 

wld know. 


§ You 

Vous sauriez. 

P They. 

lis sauraient*. 



sachant 86 . 


Je sache.f § 
Tu saches 26 . 3 
II sache. § 
2Vb?z$sachions. ;§ 
Vous sachiez. g* - 
Ils sachent 18 . o 


Je susse*. 2 
Tu susses. - 
II sut 90 . § 
iVW? scissions. ^ 
Vous sussiez. J 
lis sussent 18 . g 


su. Known. 

* Meaning mental knowledge, science, information ; as, 
I know my lesson, French, English, mathematics. 
Je sais ma lecon, le Francais, l' Anglais, les mathe'matiques. 
I know your brother will come. Je sais que votre frere viendra. 

But To know, meaning to be acqnuinted with, to know by sight, is not expressed by 
SAVorR, it is expressed by CONNAITRE ; as, 

1 know your brother, your sister, i.e. I am acquainted with them, I know them by 
sight. Je connais votre frere, vctre sozur, §c. See connait re. 
t Not that I know, fye. so often used in answer to a question, is expressed by the pre* 
sent of the subjunctive of this verb ; thus, 

Not that I know. Non pas queje sache. 

Not that we know. Non pas que nous sachions. 




To be worth. VAL oir. 



>_; I am worth. 

Je 8 vaux 26 . 


vaille 2 .* 


| Thou art worth. 

Tu vaux. 


vailles 26 . 


§ He is worth. 

J/ vaut 23 . 



l We } 

2Vb?«val ons. 

Nous vq\ ions. 


§ You \are worth. 

Voils val ez. 

Vous val iez. 


? They) 

lis val ew# 8 . 


vaillent 18 . 


B 1 } 

Je val ais*. 

"g Thou)was worth. 

Tu val «z& 

~- He J 

II val a^ 29 . 

t We ) 

iVbwsval £o?w. 

% You \were worth. 

Vousval iez. 

? They) 

Us val aienP. 

* 7 1 

2 Thou >was worth. 

Je val Ms 26 . 


val usse s . 


Tw val us. 


val usses. 


%He ) 

11 val ?^ 26 . 


val ut 2s . 

VK } 

iVowsval times. 

Nous val ussions 


w You Vwere worth. 

Vous val wfes. 

Vous val ussiez. 

? They) 

J& val urent 18 . 


val ussent™ 


^1 ] 

Je 8 vaudrai 5 . 

£ Thou 

Til vaudras 25 . 

S He 

shall, will 

II vaudra. 

1 We 

be worth. 

Nous vaudrons. 

S Yoz^ 

Vous vaudrez. 

? 7%ey, 

lis vaudront 26 . 

2 7 ' 

Je 8 vaudrais 6 . 

r XVzow 

Tu vaudrais. 

2 He 

should, would 

II vaudrait 26 . 


be worth. 

Nous vaudrions. 

g Yo?£ 

Vous vaudriez. 

F- 2%ey. 

lis vaudraient 8 




e272g* worth. 

val ant 2G . 


seen worth 

After the same manner as valoir are conjugated 
equivaloir, to be equivalent. prevaloir, to prevail. 

revaloir, to return like for like. se prevaloir, to avail oneself 

But observe that prevaloir and se prevaloir have an imperative. 
prevail. pr£vaux, sing". pre val ez. plur. 

Let us prevail. preval ons. 


I may 

Thou rnayest 
He may 
We may 
You may 
They may 

prevail, is 

Je pre> ale, >d 

Tu prev ales, 
11 prev ale, 
Nouspr£v alions, 
Vous preV aliez, 
lis pre*v alent 


See 11 preceded by i, page 11 and 12. 




To see. V oir. 



v ois, sing. 

v oyez, plur. 

Let us see, 

v oyons. 



^7 see. 

Je 2s vois™. 

Je v oie 23 . a, 

3 Thou seest 

Tu v ois. 

Tu v oies 26 . s° 

§ He sees. 

II voit 28 . 

II v ofe. § 

*»* ) 

Nous v oyons*. 

Nous v oyions. <i 

§ Yo?« >see. 

Vous v oyez. 

Fbws v oyzez. £ 

? 7% e yJ 

Us v oient 1 *. 

7/s v oient. ? 

3 J 1 

Je v oyais*. 

w 2%ow 

Tu v oyaw. 


did see. 

7/ v oyait 26 . 
Nous v oy ions. 


Vous v o^zez. 

? They % 

7/s v oyaient*. 

* J 1 

Je v zs 26 . 

Je v me 8 . p 

<? Thou 
£He [ 

I'm v is. 

Tm v me*. ^ 

did see. 

II v.*>. 

7Z vft 26 . 8 

2- „- >saw, 

iVb?A9 v ?mes. 

iVows v issions. *% 

§ Yew 

FbttS V ?fes. 

Vous v issiez. ^ 

? 2%eyJ 

7/s v irent 18 . 

Ite v issent™. a 

2 J ' 

Je *verrai 5 . 

g- TAo?* 

T?z verras 86 . 

° He 


f, ici'W see. 

II verra. 

o JFe 

Nous verrons. 

a. You 

Vous verrez. 

? TAe^/J 

lis verront 26 . 

2 J 1 

Je *verrais 6 . 


Tu verrais. 


^sA/c?, wld see. 

II verrait 26 . 
Nous verrions. 

o'You | 

Vous \erriez. 


lis verraient 6 . 





v oyant 2e . 

v w. seen 

After the same manner as voir are conjugated 
entrevoir, to have a glimpse. revoir, to see again. 

* Only one r is sounded, the other r serves to make the preceding e long. 




VOUL oir. 


I will,* or am $. 
Thou wiliest, art 5 
He wills, or is orq 

are willing. 











I -\ 






They J 

was willing:. 


were willing, 


shall, will 
be willing. 

should, wld 
be willing. 

Je 12 veux 23 . 
Tu veux. 
II veut 28 . 
Nous voul ons. 
Vous voul ez. 
lis veulent 18 . 

Je 14 voul ais*. 
Tu voul ais. 
II voul am. 
iVoMSvoul ions. 
Vous voul iez. 
lis voul aienP. 

Je "voul us 2s . 
Tu voul us. 
II voul ut* 8 . 
Nous voul umes. 
Vous voul utes. 
lis voul urent 19 . 

Je "voudrai\ 
Tu voudras. 
II voudra. 

Nous voudrons. 
Vous voudrez. 
lis voudront 26 . 

Je "voudrais 6 . 
Tu voudrais. 
II voudrait 26 . 
Nous voudrions. 
Vous voudriez. 
lis voudraient 8 . 


Je veuille 2 . 
Tu veuilles 26 . 
II veuille. 
Nous voul ions. 
Vous voul iez. 
lis veuillent 1 . 

Je voul usse 2 . i§ 
Tu voul usses. *§. 
17 voul ut ss . ~ 
iVbwsvoul ussions. "j 
Vous voul ussiez. & 

lis voul ussent 18 . 5 



Being willing, voul ant 26 . 


voul u. Been willin 

* Frequent mistakes are committed in the use of the word WILL, which sometimes 
is a VERB implying will, wish, desire, inclination, and sometimes, as has been seen through 
the conjugations, only the sign of some of the tenses of verbs. 

Though the distinction between will, the verb, and will, the sign, in some instances 
be nice, yet it is necessary it should be made, as it changes the idea. 

If will, would can be changed into the words be willing, they denote the will, and 
are expressed by the tenses of voijloir as above. 

If will, would cannot properly be changed into be willing, they are mere signs ex- 
pressed in french by the termination of the verb. This sentence, for example ; 

Will you go to the play to-night 1 may be translated these two ways ; 

voULEZ-voui aller a la comidie ce soir '/ or, I RKZ-vous a la come" die ce soir ? with this dif- 
ference, that in the first instance, 1 inquire whether it is the wish, desire, or inclination 
of the person I am speaking to, to go to the play, yet he may not go for all that ; in the 
second, I do not consult his will or inclination, for a person may do a thing against his 
inclination ; but I ask whether his going to the play will actually take place, either 
because he has resolved to go, or because he is compelled to go. 

R 3 


2 Tu 

g II 

S Nous 

g Tows 

2 1/ 


§ Vous 
S I/s 

§ 1/ 

g Fi>ttS 

S Ik 

51 Je 
5. Tit 

4? j/ 
s Nous 

2 lis 


c Tu 


g Noms 

F i/5 

A table shewing, in one point of view, how to conjugal 



DEV orr, 


DEV oris 










d ilmes 














r uient. 




















POU Voir, 

Like Devoir conjugate 
Redevoir, Percevoir, 
Apercevoir, Concevoir, 

*V T, 

v> Ta 

I U 
£ Nous 

g Vous 

S Us 

I Tu 

£ Nous 
g Vous 

1 Us 


2 Tu 
S 9 11 


g J/3 


g. Fou* 

? Tu 

f J/ 
S Nous 

S Fous 

F J/5 

ASSE oir, 

/ assied 
ASSE ions, 











as sites 




























Like Asseoib, conjugate s'Asseoir, 

Rasseoir, se 


pouv ons 






a ient 




p times 




pour as 
























PRE Voir, 




oyons, oyons, 

































it . 




Pourvoir, perfect Pourvws, Pourvaw 
not Pourvis. Surseoir, participle Surs\ 4 


11 the verbs in OTR, both regular and irregular. 







SAV oir, 



Voir, oyant, 














ois, ois, 






sav ons, 



oyons, oyons, 





oyez, oyez, 






















































saurai s 












verraient. Ent 

revol/, Revoir, 

/"A Loir, 


VOUL oir, ant, 














VAL ons 


VOUL o-s.s 








































































Equivaloir,Revaloir,(Prevuloir, se Pre" 
aloir, subjunctive, Vrevale, not PrevatV/e.) 




To wait /or, To expect. ATTEND re 


Wait. ATTEND 9, sillg. ATTEND C2, JjlllT. 

Let us wait. attend ons. 


►0 I wait, or am g J* 
8 TAom waitest, art g-; T?z 
g Jfe waits, or ?'s 

1 You [ wa,t ' 

are waiting 


§ You \were waiting 
? They) 


<$ Thou 

2 We 
g You 

? They) 
* I 
| Thou 

3 H e 
1 We 
|: You 
? TAey 

f* 2%OM 

§ He 

§ Yom 
£ 2%eyJ 

ATTEND S 10 . 



lis ATTEND ent 1B . 
J' ATTEND ais 6 . 

as waiting. Tu attend ais. 
II attend ait* 8 . 
Nous attend ions. 


lis attend aient 6 . 

J 1 ATTEND is 20 . 

Tu ATTEND is. 
II ATTEND it 26 . 

Nous attend ime.s. 


lis attend irenP*. 

J* ATTENDR ai 5 . 


lis ATTENDR Ollt 26 . 
J' ATTENDR aiS 6 . 

Tu ATTENDR ais. 

shd, wd wait, II attendr ait 26 . 

lis ATTENDR aieilt 6 . 

attend ant 26 . 

did wait, 

shll, wll wait, 
be waiting. 

be waiting. 

J' ATTEND e 2 . 
Tu ATTEND es. 26 


lis attend enl 18 . 



attend me. 2 & 

ATTEND isses. q. 

ATTEND it 26 . g 


lis attend issent 18 ^ 



After the sa?ne manner as attend re, are conjugated 

Battre, to beat, to fight. Descendre, to go or come down. ~R€bQ.ttre,tobeatagain,torepe(tt 

Abattre, to pull down. Entendre, to hear, understand. Refondre, to melt again. 

Combattre, to fight. Etendre, to stretch, to spread. Rendre, to render, to return. 

Condescendre, to condescend. Fendre, to cleave, to split. se Rendre, to surrender. 

Confondre, to confound. Fondre, to melt, to cast. 

Correspondre, to correspond. Interrompre, to interrupt. 

Corrompre, to corrupt. Mordre, to bite. 

Debattre, to debate. se Morfondre, to grow cold. 

se Debattre, to struggle. Pendre, to hang 

Defendre, to forbid. Perdre, to lose, to ruin. 

se Defendre, to defend onesetf. Pondre, to lay eggs. 

Demordre, to relax. Pr6tendre, to pretend. 

D£pendre, to depend. Rabattre, to abate. 

Repandre, to spill, to shed. 
Repondre, to answer. 
Retordre, to twist arew. 
Rompre, to break. 
Suspendre, to suspena. ' 
Tendre, to tend, to bend, 
Tondre, to shear. 
Tordre, to twist, to wring. 
Vendre, to sell. 



The irregular verbs belonging to this conjugation are 

Absoudre, to absolve, 

Abstraire, to abstract, 

Accroitre, to accrue, 

Admettre, to admit, 

ApparaUre, to appear, 

APPRENDRE, to learn, . . . 

Astraindre, to restrain, 1 

Atteindre, to reach, to hit,. . J 

BOIRE, to drink, 

Braire, to bray.* 

Ceindre, to gird,. 

Circoncire, to circumcise,. . . . 
Circonscrire, to circumscribe, . 
Clore, to close, to shut.t 

Commettre, to commit, 

Comparaitre, to appear, 

Complaire, to comply with, . . 
Comprendre, to understand, . . 
Compromettre, compromise, . . 
CONCLURE, to conclude,. . 
Conduire, to conduct, to lead,. 

Confire, to pickle, 

Conjoindre, to join together,. . 
CONNAITRE, to know, .... 
Construire, to construct, .... 

Contraindre, to compel, 

Contredhe, to contradict, .... 
Contrefaire, to counterfeit,. . . 

Convaincre, to convince, 

COUDRE, to sew, 

Cruindre, to fear, 

CROIRE, to believe, 

Croitre, to grow up, 

Cuire, to do victuals, to cook, 

DScoudre, to unsew, 

D6crire, to describe, 

Dtcroitre, to decrease, 

se De'dire, to recant, to retract, 

Dtduire, to deduct, 

Ddfaire, to undo, to defeat,. 1 
se Dtfaire, to get rid of, ... J 

Dtjoindre, to disjoin, 

JMmettre, to disjoint, 1 

se Dtmettre, to abdicate, . . . J 

Ddplaive, to displease, 

Dfoapprendre, to unlearn, . . . . 
DSteindre, to take off the die, 

Ditru've, to destroy, 

DIRE, to say,.. 

Dispara'itre, to disappear,. . . . 

Dissoudre, to dissolve, 

Distruire, disturb attention,.. 
Eclore, to hatch .-f- 

ECRIRE, to write, 

Elire, to elect, 

Emoudre, to whet, to grind, . 

see TRAIRE. 
like METTRE. 
page 149. 

like FEINDRE. 

page 150. 

like FEINDRE. 

see dire. 
like ecrire. 

like METTRE. 
like PLAIRE. 
like METTRE. 
page 151. 
like instruire. 
see dire. 

like FEINDRE. 
page 152. 
like FEINDRE. 
see dire. 

like FA! RE. 

like vaincp-e, 
page 153. 
like FEINDRE. 
page 154. 

like COUDRE. 
like ECRIRE. 

see dire. 


like FAIRE. 

like FEINDRE. 

like METTRE. 

like PLAIRE. 
like FEINDRE. 

page loo. 
like connaitre, 
like TRAIRE. 

page 156. 
like lire. 
like moudre. 

like FEINDRE. 

Enceindre, to encompass,. . . like feindrE; 
Enclore, to enclose, f 

Enduire, to daub, like INSTRUIRE 

Enfreindre, to infringe, 

Enjoindre, to enjoin,. . 

s'Entremettre, intermeddle,, like mettre. 

Entreprendre, to undertake,, like apprendre 

Epreindre to squeeze out, }^ eFElNDRE . 

Eteindre, to extinguish,. . . J 

Exclure, to exclude, see conclure. 

Extraire, to extract, like traiee. 

FAIRE, to do, to make, page 157. 

FEINDRE, to feign, page 158. 

Frire, to fry, see RIRE. 

Induire, to induce, like INSTRUIRE. 

Inscrire, to inscribe, like ecrire. 

INSTRUIRE, to instruct, .page 159. 

Interdire, to interdict, see dire. 

Introduire, to introduce,. . . . like INSTRUIRE. 

Joindre, to join, like feindre. 

LIRE, to read, page 160. 

Luire, to shine, see instruire. 

Maudire, to curse, 1 ^ T „ „ 

Medire, to slander, ) see DIRE ' 

Me'comialtre, not to know, . . like connaitre. 
se Me'prendre, to mistake, . . like apprendre 

METTRE, to put, page 161 . 

MOUDRE, to grind, page 162. A 

Nditre, to come to life, see connaitre. 

Nuire, to harm, to hurt, see INSTRUIRE. 

Oiudre, to anoint, like feindre. 

Omettre, to omit, like METTRE. 

p attl lt T^Z e ^:; !• ^ e connaitre. 

raraitrc, to appear, J 

Feindre., to paint, like FEINDRE. 

Permettre, to permit, like METTRE. 

Plaindre, to pity, 1 ,., FFTNnRF 

se Plaindre, to complain,. . / llke FEINDRE ' 

PLAIRE, to please, page 163. 

se Plaire a, to delight in,. . . like PLAIRE. 

Poursuivre, to pursue, like suivre. 

Prtdire, to foretel, see DIRE. 

Prendre, to take, /i/ceAPPRENDRE. 

Prtscrire, to prescribe, like EC R ire. 

Produire, to produce, like instruire. 

. Promettre, to promise, like mettre. 

Proscrire, to proscribe, like ecrire. 

Beboire, to drink again, like boire. 

Reconduire, to lead back, . . . like instruire. 
Reconnoitre, to know again,, like connaitre. 
Recoudre, to sew again, .... like coudre. 

Rtcrire, to write again, like ecrire. 

Recuire, to do or cook again, see instruire. 
Redtfuire, to undo again, . . . like faire. 

Redire, to say again, like DIRE. 

RMuire, to reduce, like instruire. 

* braire is used only in the following tenses and persons ; 

Present. Future. Conditional. 

II brait, He, it brays. 11 braira, He, it will bray. 11 brairait. He, it would brav. 
Us braient, They, bray. Us brairont, They will bray. 11$ brairaient, They would bray. 

f clore, and its compounds eclore. enclore, have only the following tenses and 



Refaire, to do again, like faire. 

Retire, to read again, like lire. 

Reiuire, to shine, like INSTRUIRE. 

Remettre, to put again, . . . like mettre. 
Rtmoudre, to grind again, . like moudre. 

Renaitre, to revive, see connaitre. 

Rentraire, to finedraw, . . . like traire. 

Repaitre, to feed, see connaitre. 

Revrendre, to take again,. . like apprendre. 
RESOUDRE, to resolve, . page 164. 
Restreindre, to restringe,. . like feindre. 
Revivre, to live again, .... like V1VRE. 

HIRE, to laugh, page 165. 

Satisfaire, to satisfy, like faire. 

Seduire, to seduce, like instruire. 

Soumettre, to submit,. .... like mettre. 

Sourire, to smile, like rire. 

Souso ire, to subscribe, like ecrire. 

Soustraire, to subtract, like traike. 

SUIVRE, to follow, page 166. 

Suffire, to be sufficient, see dire. 

Surf aire, to exact, like faire. 

Surprendre, to surprise, like apprendre 

Survivre, to outlive, survive,, like vivre. 
seTaire, to hold one's tongue,, like plaire. 

Teindre, to dye, like feindre. 

Traduire, to translate, like instruire. 

TRAIRE, to milk, page 167. 

Transcrire, to transcribe, .... like ecrire. 

Transmettre, to transmit, like METTRE. 

VAINCRE, to vanquish, . . . page 168. 
VIVRE, to live, page 169. 

persons in use : 

clo re. To close. 

clo s. I close, or am closing, 

clo s. Thou closest, art closing, 

clo t. He closes, is closing. 

Hd Je 
3 Tu 
S° II 

*rJ Je clor at, 

5- Tu clor as. 
*g II clor a. 
{£. Nous clor otis. 

6- Vous clor ez. 
o lis clor out. 

**i Je clor ais. 
& Tu clor ais. 
q 11 clor ait. 
g Nous clor ions. 
P; Fous clor iez, 
?*' I7s clor ajeut. 

vj/ VsftaZZ u>iM close, or oe closing. 




They 4 

should, would close, or' be closing. 

clo s. closed, 


Je close. 
Tu closes. 
II close. 


►tj I have 
«j Thou hast 
^ He Tiers 
| We have 
■g You have 
c They /un>e 

?" I tact" closed, &c 

J' ai 
Tu as 
1/ a 
Nous avons 
Vous avez 
J/s ont 



V avais clos, §c. 
Conjugate in the same manner, enclore, 

J' aie 

Tu aies 
11 ait 
Nous ayons 
Fotts ayez 
Z/s aient 


To enclose. 

EC lore has only the following tenses and persons in use : 


eclo re. 

To be hatching. 

eclos. hatched. 


J ec'lot. It is hatching. 

lis eclosent. They are hatching. 

II eclora. It will be hatching. 

lis ecloront. They will be hatching. 

II eclorait. It would be hatching. 

Us ecloraient They would be hatching. 


II eclose. 
Us eclosent. 





* APPREND re. 


Learn. apprend s, sing. Apprenez, plur. 

Let us learn. 


I learn, or am g 

Thou learnest, art g 
He learns, or is 5' 

are learning". 


?as learnini 





We ] 

You \were learning;. 
















r did learn. 

shll, wll learn, 
be learning. 

shd, wd learn, 
be learning;. 

J'f * apprend s 28 . 
Tu 16 apprend s. 
II apprend 23 . 
Nous apprenons. 
Vous apprenez. 
lis apprennent 18 . 

J' apprenais 6 . 
Tu apprenais. 
// apprenait 26 . 
Nous apprenions. 
Vous appreniez. 
lis apprenaient 6 . 

J't appris 83 . 
Tu appris. 
II apprii 26 . 
Nous apprimes. 
Vous apprites. 
lis apprirent 18 . 

T apprendr ai 5 . 
Tu apprendr as 9 *. 
11 apprendr a. 
Nous apprendr ons. 
Vous apprendr cz. 
lis apprendr ont? 5 . 

J' apprendr ais 6 . 
Tu apprendr ais. 
II apprendr ait**. 
Nous apprendr ions. 
Vous apprendr iez. 
lis apprendr aient 6 


J' ap premie 2 . £ 

Tu apprennes 26 . 3 

II apprenne. g 

Nous apprenions. ^ 

Vous appreniez. — 

lis apprennent. g 



Tu apprisses. S 
// apprit 26 . 
Nous apprissions. jl 
Vous apprissiez. s> 
Us apprissent 18 . o" 



Learning;. Apprenant 25 . 


Appris 23 . Learned. 

After the same manner as apprendre, are conjugated [mistake. 

desapprendre, to unlearn. scmeprendre, to commit a 

prendre, to take. [to take again, 

comprendre, to comprehend, to understand. 
entreprendre, to undertake. 



\ to rebuke. 
surprendre, to surprise. 

* Sound only one p.; see pp. page 13. 

t See note * page 28. 





BOI re. 



BOI s, sing. 

Buvez, plur. 

Let us drink. 




^ I drink, or am g- 

Je ^boi s™. 

Je ^boi ve 2 . 


S Thou drinkest, art ^ 

Tu boi 5. 

Tu boi ves*>. 


g He drinks, or is g* 

II boi t zs . 

II boi ve. 


2 --r 1 drink. 

p They\ arednnVm %' 

Nous buvons. 

Nous buvions. 


Vous buvez. 
lis boi vent 19 . 

Vous buviez. 
lis boi vent™. 

B 1 } 

^ 7%om >w;as drinking. 

Je *buvais 6 . 

^r 1 

Tu buvais. 

£#e J 

II buvait 86 . 

5 We } 

Nous buvions. 

§ Yew >w?ere drinking. 

Vous buviez. 

? They) 

lis buvaient 6 . 

^1 ' 
2 Thou 

Je *bus 26 . 

Je *busse*. 

Tu bus. 

Tu busses. 



11 but 26 . 

II but 26 . 



% We 

cfo'cZ drink. 

Nous b umes. 

Nous bussions. 

§ You 

Vous butes 26 . 

Vous bussiez. 


? They, 

lis burent 18 . 

lis bussent 19 . 


^1 •> 

Je ^boir ai 5 . 


£ Thou 

Tu boir as 28 . 

S He 

shall, will drink, 

II boir a. 

1 ^ 

be drinking. 

Nous boir ons. 


Vous boir ez. 

? r/tey 

lis boir otiP. 

? J 1 

Je ^boir ais*. 

** t%om 

Tu boir azs. 

1 He 

shd, wd drink, 

II boir «#. M 


be drinking. 

JVb?/s boir io?is. 

§ Yom 

Vous boir iez. 


J7s boir aient. 6 





Buvant 86 . 

bu. Drunk. 

J/2er £Ae same manner as boire & conjugated 
reboire, to drink again; to drink afresh. 

* See note 2, page 1. 




To conclude. CONCLU re. 


conclude. conclu s, sing. 
Let us conclude. 

conclu ez, plur. 
conclu ons. 


^ I conclude, or am § Je 21 conclu s 26 . 
3 Thou concludest, art g- Tu conclu s. 
2 He concludes, or is &.II conclu^ 26 . 
2 J^e lii <* iVbiw conclu o/w. 

I Yew l conclud ^' e * roi« conclu ez. 
J concluding. J& conclu c ^„ 





8 TAow 
8 He 

S You 
' They} 

was conclud- 

were conclud- 

did conclude. 

Je 21 conclu ais 6 . 
Tu conclu ais. 
II conclu aiP 6 . 
Nous conclu ions. 
Vous conclu iez. 
lis conclu aient 6 . 

Je 21 conclu s 26 . 
Tu conclu s. 
II conclu t 26 . 
Nous conclu mes. 
Vous conclu tes. 
lis conclu rent™. 


I Thou 
S He 

~ IVe 

shall, will 

W. You I ° to * Vous conclur ez. 

? They] lis conclur onL 26 . 

Je 21 conclur ai 5 . 
Tu conclur as-*. 
II conclur a. 
Nous conclur ons. 


Je conclu e 2 . 
Tu conclu es 26 . 
II conclu e. 
Nous conclu ions. 
Vous conclu iez. 
lis conclu ent™. 




Je conclu sse 2 . cu 
Tu conclu sses. cu 
II conclu t 26 . g 
Nous conclu ssions. c*S" 
Vous conclu ssiez. S- 
lis conclu ssenP 9 . o 

s* Thou 
§ He 
g JFe 
I' Fo?* 

should, would 

&e concluding;. 

Je a, conclur ais 6 . 
Tu conclur ais. 
II conclur ait 26 . 
Nous conclur ions. 
Vous conclur iez. 
lis conclur aieni?. 



conclu ant 26 . 


conclu. concluded. 

After the same manner as conclure, is conjugated 
exclure, to exclude; observe only that the participle of exclure is 
kxclus, excluded. 



To KNOW.* 




Let us know. 


W J 

1 Thou 

? They 
» Yow 


connais, sjrtg*. connaissez, plur. 


Je connaisse 2 . 
Tu connaisses 26 . 
II connaisse. 
Nous commissions 

2 J 

B Thou 

S He 

1 ^ 
ff Tom 
? They] 

| He 

§ Yom 

did know. 

c?id know. 


shuld, wuld 

Vous connaissiez. 
lis connaissent 18 . 


connusse 9 . 




co nn lit 88 . 






connussent 18 

I know. Je 5 fconnais . 

Thou knowest. Tu connais. 

He knows. II connait 96 . 

We \ Nous connaissons. 

You >know. Vous connaissez. 

They J lis connaissent 18 . 

Je connaissais 6 . 

Tu connaissais. 

II connaissait 28 . 

Nous connaissions. 

Vous connaissiez. 

lis connaissaient 8 . 

Je connus 23 . 
Tu connus. 
II conn nt 28 . 
Nous connumes. 
Vous connutes. 
lis connurent 18 . 

Je connaitr ai 5 . 
Tu connaitr as™. 
II connaitr a. 
Nous connaitr ons. 
Vous connaitr ez. 
lis connaitr ont 2 - 6 . 

Je connaitr ais 6 . 
Tu connaitr ais. 
II connaitr ait™. 
Nous connaitr ions. 
Vous connaitr iez. 
lis connaitr aienP 

Knowing. connaissant 56 . connu. Known. 

After the same manner as connaitre, are conjugated 
Meconnaitre, not to know. paraitre, to appear. 
reconnaitre, to know again, apparaitre, to appear, speaking of ghosts. 
croitre, to grow up, to encrease. comvaraitre, (a law term,) to appear. 
accroitre, to accrue, disparaitre, to disappear. 

decroitre, to decrease. paitre, to graze. 

recroitre, to grow again. repaitre, to feed. 
renaitre, to revive # , perf . ind> NAQU ^ ^ ft . _ jmgSj ^ _ nenL 

NAiTRE, to come to lljc y part. NE. \vert.sub.XAQV-isse,~isses,-1t;-issions,-isf£ez,issent 

* Meaning to know by sight, or to be acquainted with ; as, 

I know that man, this horse, that house, your brother, your sister, i. e. by sight. 
Je connais eel homme, ce cheval, cette maison, votre frere, voire sa;ur. 
See savoir, page 140. t Sound only one n, and lay the accent upon o. 




To SEW. 

COUD re 


sew. coud s, sing. cousez, plur. 

Let us sew. 




^ I sew, or am " 

Je 3 14 coud s 26 . 

Je 14 couse 2 . 



3 Thou sewest, art ^. 

Tu coud s. 

Tu couses 26 . 


g He sews, or w aq 

// coud 2s . 

11 couse. 


sr We 1 co 


Nous cousions. 


1 You I sevv > . 

Vous cousez.* 

Vous cousiez. 


? They\ are sewin ^ 

lis cousent 18 . 

lis cousent 18 . 


H 7 I 

Je 14 cousais 8 . 

•g Thou \was sewing. 

Tu cousais. 

ZHe J 

II cousait 28 . 

I We 


8 Fow >were sewing. 

Vous cousiez. 

? 7%eyj 

lis cousaient 6 . 

* J 1 

Je 14 cousis.t 

Je "cousisse 2 . 


8 Thou 

Tu cousis 28 . 

Tu cousisses. 



I He 


II cousit 28 . 

11 cousit 23 . 



<ftc/ sew. 

Nous cousimes. 

Nous cousissions. 


I Ybw 

Vous cousites. 


' They, 

lis cousirent 18 . 

lis cousissent 18 . 



%I ' 

Je 14 coudr at 5 . 

g Thou 

Tu coudr as 26 . 

* JJe 

shlly wll sew, 

II coudr a. 

1 ^e 

r be sewing". 

Nous coudr ons. 

£ Yom 

Vous coudr ez. 

? 77^. 

lis coudr ont K . 

gJ/ 1 

Je 14 coudr ais 6 . 

s — * 

r Thou 

Tu coudr ais. 

I He 

shd, wd sew, 

11 coudr ait 26 . 


be sewing. 

Nous coudr ions. 

g You 
& They) 

Vous coudr iez. 
lis coudr aient*. 


Sewing. cousant 20 . 


cousu. sewed. 

After the same maimer as coud re, are conjugated 
d£coudre, to uiLsew. 

See s between two vowels page 14. 

t See note 4, pafe 2. 




To believe. CROI re. 


Believe crois, sing. 

Let us believe. 

croyez, plur 


I believe. 

| Thou believest. 
§ He believes. 

Z We ) 

g You >believe. 

? They) 

B 1 ] 
>% Thou 


" We 

did believe 


* 7 1 
8 Thou 


ST We 
g Yom j 
? They) 

*did believe 

I Thou 

® He [sA«Z/, w>i7Z 

g /Fe C believe. 

I r ott 

? They) 

g ife \shuld, wuld 
& /Fe [ believe. 

g Yow 

Je 3 croi s 26 . 
Tw ^croi s. 
II croi £ 2S . 
Nous croyons. 
Vous croyez 4 . 
27s croi ent 18 

Je 23 croyais 4 . 
Tu croyais. 
II croyait 86 . 
Nous croyions. 
Vous croyiez. 
lis croyaient 6 

Je cms 86 . 
Tu cms.* 
II crut 26 . 
Nous crumes. 
Vous crutes. 
lis crurent 18 . 

Je 28 croir ai 5 . 
Tit croir as 26 . 
II croir a. 
Nous croir ons. 
Vous croir ez. 
lis croir ow£ 86 . 

Je 23 croir ais 9 . 
Tu croir *m. 
II croir aitf 26 . 
2Vbws croir ions. 
Vous croir ie2. 
I& croir aient 6 . 


Je 23 croi e. 
Tu croi es 23 . 
7/ croi e. 
Nous croyions. 
Vous croyiez. 
lis croi ent 18 . 







crusse 2 . 






crut 86 . 


iVows missions. a ;§- 
Vous crussiez. J 
lis crussent". £- 

GJ5.R l/A'D. 

Believing. croyant 26 . 


cm. Believed 

See note 2, page 1. 




To say, To tell. Di re. 


say. di s, sing. Dites, plur. 

Let us say. di sons. 

^ i say, or am p 
3 Thou say est, artz 
g He says, or w °p 
Z We ) 


Je 3 d 

Tu d 
7/ d 

Nous d 

ro<a sa y> . 

B 1 } 

"g Thou>was saying. 
$He J 

5 We } 

S Yom >w;ere saying. 


5 Thou 
i We 

m YOU 

? They, 

| Thou 
* He 
1 JFe 

£'. You 
? They. 

said, did say. 

sM, wM say, 
be saying. 

Vous d 
I& d 

Je d 

Zto d: 
II d 

Fo^ d 
J/5 d 

Je d 

2V d 
II d 

IVbz/s d: 
Vous d 
I/s d 


f 1 TAow 

g' Yow 

sM, 2rd say, 
be saying. 


Je d 

Tu d 
II d 

Nous d 
Fbws d 

/& d 

Je d 

Tw d 
II d 

Fbws d 
lis d 

DI Sfl^ 26 . 

2 26 . 

tes 28 
sent 18 . 




saient 6 . 

s 26 


t 2G . 



rent 19 . 

r ai 5 . 
r as 26 . 
r «. 
r Otis. 
r ez. 
ont 26 , 

ais 6 . 





aieni 6 . 


Je di se 2 . 
Tu di ses 26 . 
II di se. 
Nous di sions. 
Vous di siez. 
Its di sew* 18 . 


di sse 2 . 



di sses. 



di d*. 


J\W? di ssions. <§] 
Poms di me*. £• 
lis di ssew*. 18 ^ 

di P». 


After the same manner as dire, are conjugated 
contredire, to contradict. predire, to foretell. 
se d£dire, to retract, to recant, redire, to say again. 
interdire, to interdict. confire, to confect, preserve fruit in sugar. 

maudire, to curse. circoncire, to circumcise, part, circoncis. 

medire, to slander. suffire, to be sufficient part, suffi. 

Observe only, that except redire, the second person plural of the present of the indi- 
cative, and of the imperative of all these verbs ends in sez, and not in tes ; so, Vous 
coNFisez, Vous coNTREDisez ; and that in maudike the s is doubled in the middle of the 
word ; so, Nous maudi-ssons, Vous maudlssez ; Jfe maudissais, &c. not Nous maudi- 
Sons, 6cc. 




ECRI re. 


Let us write. 


ecri s, sing. 

ecri vez, plur. 
ecri vons. 


^ I write, or am ^ 
8 Thou write st, art £'. 
g .fie writes, or is ^ 

§ y 0M t write, 

• S They) are Writin ^- 

? 7 ] 

•g Thou>was writing. 

B-#e J 

S*Fa ] 

§ Y<w \were writing*. 


g Thou 

£ You 
•* Tfcy 

^ J 

| Thou 
3 J7e 

£ Yom 
® IVzei/ 

^ I 

* TAow 
| He 

g Fom 

did write. 

shll, wll write, 
be writing-. 

shd, wd write, 
be writing-. 

J'* ecri s 33 . 
jTw 6cri s.f 
JZ ecri t 2s . 
Nous ecri ro?is. 
Vous ecri vez. 
J7s ecri vent 10 . 


ecri vais 6 . 

£cri inm*. 

£cri vait 25 . 
Nous e'en vions. 
Vous e*cri riez. 
J/s ecri vaient 6 . 



£cri ms.f 
ecri t«s. 
ecri w'Z 26 . 

iVbizse'cri vimes. 

Vous £cri r?Zes. 

J/5 £cri virent 1B . 

e'erir az 5 . 

e'erir as 26 . 

e'erir a. 
Nous e'erir cws. 
Fb^s- e'erir ez. 
//s e'erir o?i^ 2<; . 




ecrir azs. 6 
ecrir a/s. 
ecrir ait 26 . 

Nous ecvir ions. 

Vous e'erir zez. 

lis e'erir aient 6 . 


ecri vant 2s . 


J' ecri re 9 . 
Tw tScri pes 29 
JZ e'en re. 
Nous 6cri w 07/s. 
Foms e'en riez. 
7/s ecri re?iZ 10 . 



eeri vme 8 . 
£cri visses. 
e'en i;2/ 26 . 

.ZVcms £cri vissions. <*?f 
Fbws e*cri vissiez. «■ 
J/s e"cri vissent™ % 

«4/?er ZAe same manner as ecrire, are conjugated 


ecri Z 88 . written. 

circonscrire, Zo circumscribe. 
decrire, to describe. 
inscrire, to inscribe. 
prescrire, to prescribe. 

proscrire, to proscribe. 
recrire, to write again. 
souscrire, to subscribe. 
trans crire, to transcribe, to copy. 

* See note * page 

+ See note 4, page 2. 





do fai s, sing;. 

Let us do. 

FAI re. 

Faites, plur. 
fai sons. 


^ I do, or am g- 
» TAo?/: doest, ar* 5' 

Je 3 fai s 6 . 

Tu fai s. 

2 He does, or as a ? 

J7 fai t*\ 

1 Ybi* 1 do ' . 

Nous fai sows. 

Fbws faites. 

lis font 23 . 

B 1 1 

"g 7%oz* )was doing". 

J' fai sais 6 . 

Tu fai sazs.* 

$He j 

7/ fai sail* 6 . 

S We } 

Nous fai sions. 

g Yow Wre doing. 

Vous fai siez. 

? 3%cyJ 

lis fai saient 6 . 

^ J 1 
2 Thou 

Je fis 95 . 

Tw fis. 


did, or made. 

J7 fit 23 . 
Nous I fanes. 

g You 

Fbws fites. 

° They) 

I/s firent 18 . 

^i * 

«7e tferai 5 . 

1 Thou 

Tzj feras- 3 . 

3 i/e 

sM, will do, 

II fera. 

1 Ws 

6e doing. 

iVbiw ferons. 

|: You 

Vous ferez. 

P TAey, 

J& feront 4 * 5 . 

c 1 " 

Je fferais 6 . 

r 3%om 

Tu ferais. 

§ He 

s/id\ wld do, 

II ferait 88 . 


6e doing. 

iVWsfe rions. 

§ You 

Fows feriez. 

P They, 

J/s fera i en t 8 . 



)oinfr. fai sanff*. 


Je fasse 2 .j 

jTm fasses 23 . p 
J/ fasse. § 
2Vbw5 fassions. <§ 
Fb?^s fassiez. g- 
lis fassent 18 . ' 


fisse 2 . 






fit 26 . 


iVWs fissions. ^ 
Fo/zs fissiez. ^ 
lis fissent 15 . o 


fai t* 6 . Done, Made. 

After the same manner as fai re, are conjugated 

CONTREFAiRE, to counterfeit. refaire, to do again. 

Defatre, to undo, to defeat. satisfaire, to satisfy. 

se DEFAiRE, to get rid of. surfaire, to exact, to ask too much. 

redefmre, to undo again. 

See s between two vowels, page 14. t Pronounce fr»y,fraw, §c. t See ss, p. 






pretend. Feins, sing. 

Let us pretend. 


^ I pretend. 

ro Thou pretendest. 

§ He pretends. 

t'V" \ 

£ You Vpretend. 
? They) 

^ T 

3 l 

Je? feins 83 . 
Tu 19 feins. 
J/ feint 95 . 
JVems feignons. 
Vous feignez. 
lis feignent 18 . 

Je 19 feignais 8 . 
Thou\was pretending'. Tu, feignais. 
He J II feign ait 26 . 

We ) JVbz/sfeignions. 

You \were pretending". Vous feigniez. 

I y 


feignaient 6 . 
19 fei<mis 86 . 

J We 
| You 
' They 

c Ihoa 

3 He 

O ^ 6 

| Few 

1 ^ 

§ Few 

2* They} 

^ pretended, 
r cfoV7 pretend, 


should, would 




Tu feignis. 
II feignit 26 . 
Nous feignimes. 
Vous feignJtes. 
lis feignirent 18 . 

Je "feindr oft 
Tu feindr a* 23 . 

II feindr a. 
Nous feindr ons. 
Vous feindr ez. 
lis feindr omP. 

Je 19 feindr ais 9 . 
Tu feindr aw 
II feindr ait 23 . 
Nous feindr ions. 
Vous feindr iez. 
lis feindr aienl 6 . 

Feinrnant 23 . 

FEIND re. 

Feignez, plu 1 - 


Je 19 feigne 2 . 
Tu feignes 23 . 
// feigne. 
lis feignent' 10 . 



19 feignisse 2 . 




feignit 26 . 





9 feignissiez. 



feignissent 38 .^ 




Feint 23 , pretended 

After the same manner as feindre, are conjugated 

astreindre, to tie, to bind. 

craindre, to fear. 
contraindre, to constrain. 

ceindre, to gird. 

encetndre, to encompass. 

join d re, to join. 

conjoin dre, to unite. 

dejoindre, to disjoin. 

enjoindre, to enjoin. 

enfrejndre, to infringe. 

oindre, to anoint. 

teindre, to die. 

deteindre, to take off 'the die. 

eteindre, to extinguish, to put out. 

atteindre, to reach. 

peindre, to paint. 

PLAINDRE, to pity. 

se plaindre, to complain. 

restreindre, to restrain, to limit. 

epreindre, to squeeze out, to strain* 





To instruct. INSTRUI re. 


instruct. instrui s, sing. instrui sez, jAur. 

Let us instruct. instrui sons. 


,_ I instruct, or am B' J' 19 instrui s 25 . 

( Thou instructest, art % Tu instrui .?. 

o II instrui t 20 . 

2 He instructs, or 25 

are i 

Z W 'e 
g You 
• ro They 

B 1 } 

•g ThouVw* 

*He J 
% We ) 

I You 
? They 




J' "instrui se 2 . 
Tu instrui ses 26 . 
II instrui se. 
Nous instrui sions. 
Vous instrui siez. 
lis instrui sent™. 

as instructing. 

were instructing 

2 Thou 
% He 

« YOU 

? They) 


| Thou 
S He 
J You 
? They] 

£ Thou 
1 He 

g You 

J' "instrui sme 8 . o 
7w instrui mses. £L 
II instrui *ft 26 . § 
Nous instrui sissions.d?' 
Vous instrui sissiez. «. 
lis instrui sissent, 5* 

iVows instrui sons. 
Vous instrui sez. 
lis instrui sent 18 . 

J' 19 instrui sais . 
Tu instrui sais. 
II instrui sail 23 . 
Nous instrui sions. 
Vous instrui siez. 
lis instrui saienP. 

T "instrui sis 28 . 
Tu instrui sis. 
instructed, II instrui sit 26 . 

did instruct. Nous instrui stmes. 

Vous instrui sites. 
lis instrui sirent 6 . 

J 1 19 instruir ai 5 . 
Tu instrui r as 83 . 
sklyivl instruct, // instruir a. 
be instructing. Nous instruir ojis. 
Vous instruir ez. 
Xls instruir out 25 . 

J' "instruir ais. 
Tu instruir ais. 
shd, wd instruct, II instruir ail 2 \ 
be instructing. Nous instruir ions. 
Vous instruir iez. 
lis instruir aienl . 


instructing. instrui sa?it 26 . 
After the same manner as instruire, are conjugated 

CONDUIRE, to Conduct INTRODUIRE, to introduce 

reconduire, to take or lead back, luire, 

con.;truire, to construct. reluire, 

cuire, to do victuals, to cook* nuire, to hurt, to injure, part, nui 

recuire, to do or cook over again, produire, to produce. 

deduire, to deduct. reduire, to reduce, to compel. 

Detruire, to destroy. seduire, to seduce. 

enduire, to daub. traduire, to translate. 


instrui t 2) . instructed 

to shine, part, lui, relui. 

To cook, followed by an object, is generally expressed by Faire cuire; as, 
I cook, or am cooking meat, fish, &c. Jc iais cuire de la viande, du poisson, &;c. 
l2 ' 



To read. *LI re. 


Read. li *, sing. 
Let 2is read. 

li sez, 2?lMr. 
li sons 


,_, I read, or am 3 

no p 

3 Thou readest, art a- 
g i/e reads, or m a q 

Irll read \. 
? rA^r rereadmg - 

Je 3 *li s 26 . 
2^ li s. 
II li £*. 
iVbw^ li sons.-y 
Vous li sez. 
J/s li sent 18 . 


Je *li se 2 .t 3 
jftj li se.s- 23 . JL 
// li se. g 
NousYi sions. <§ 
Foms li SZC2. Jg 
27s li se//.*». g. 

B 1 } 

•g T%07z >w<zs reading. 

3»ifc J 

ft JFe | 

g Yotz >w;ere reading. 

? They) 

Je *li saw 6 . 
Tu li sais.f 
7/ li sail* 5 . 
Nousli sions. 
Vous li siez. 
lis li saient 6 . 

* Thou 

9 They. 

did read. 

Je lus 2<5 . 
Tw Jlus. 
17 lut 26 . 
Nous] ilmes. 
Fb?^ lutes. 
J7s lurent 18 . 

Je flusse 3 . 
Tu lusses. 
II lut 28 . 
Nous lussions 
Vous lussiez. 
lis lussent 18 . 



Ml 1 
I Thou 

1 ^ 

|: Yo?z 

? They. 

shall, will read, 
be reading. 

Je *lir «i 5 . 
T?f lir as 26 . 
J7 lir a. 
No-usWr ons. 
Vous lir ez. 
I/s lir o/i£ 26 . 

s* Thou 
% He 

g You 

shld, wld read, 
be reading. 

Je *lir ais 6 . 
Tu lir aw. 
1/ lir ait 26 . 
Nous lir zo/is. 
Vous lir zez. 
J7s lir aient 6 . 



Reading. li 

sant* 6 . 

lu. Read 

After the same manner as lire, are conjugated 
elire, to elect. relire, to read again 

* See note 4, page 2. f See p. 14, $ between two vowels. $ See note 2, p. 1, 




To PUT. 





Mets, sing. 



Let 7/5 put. 

METT 077.9. 



^ i" put, or am ^ 

Je 3 mets 23 . 

Je *mett e 2 . 


3 Thou puttest, art Er. Tu mets. 

2V, mett es 26 . 


g He puts, or is £ 

II met 2 '. 

J/ mett e. 


Z We ) 

§ You [ put ' 

9 They\ ar(i V n[i[n S' 

Nous mett ons. 

Nous mett ions.*** 

Vous mett ez. 

Vous mett fez. 


lis mett ent 18 . 

J/s mett ejit 11 


B 1 \ 

•g Thou>was putting-. 

Je *inett «zV. 

Tu mett czs. 

*He J 

J/ mett ait 28 . 

2 ^ e ) 

Nous mett zoras. 

% You \were putting. 

F07/S mett iez. 

P They) 

lis mett aient 8 . 

I 1 

Je fmis 26 . 

Je. tmisse 8 . 


T?/ mis. 

Tt/ misses. 



J/ mit 2j- . 

II mit 26 . 


J JFe 

did put. 

Nous mfmes. 

JVbws missions. 

1 Yom 

Vous mites. 

Fom.9 missiez. 


9 They] 

Its mi rent 16 . 

lis missent 18 . 


? J i 

Je *mettr ai\ 

| Thou 

Tu mettr as 26 

I He 

sM, w;ZZ put, 

II mettr a. 

1 JTe 

be putting. 

Nous mettr oras. 

| Yo7J 

Ferns mettr ez. 

? TAct/, 

Its mettr ont* 3 . 

? f 1 

Je *mettr ais 8 . 

J Tte 

Tu mettr ais. 

§ ife \shd, wd put, 

II mettr ait 28 . 

£*• # r e | be putting 

Nous mettr ions. 

g Y07/, 

Vous mettr 7>z. 

B. JAqJ 

lis mettr aient 8 . 




METT a?^ 26 . 

Mis. put. 


the same manner as mettre, are conjugated 

admettre fo admit. 

COMMETTRE, to Commit. 

compromettre, to compromise. 

DEMETTRE, to put Old ofjoillt. 

se demettre, to abdicate. 

OMETTRE, to Omtt. 

permettre, to permit. 
promettre, to promise. 
remettre, to put again, to deliver up. 
soumettre, to submit. 

sentremettre, to intermeddle, transmettre, to transmit. 

Sound only one t. 

t See note 4, page 2 




To grind. MOUD re. 


Grind. moud s, ting. Moulez, plur. 

Let us grind. Moulons. 



^ I grind, or am ^ 
3 Thou grindest, art 5* 

Je w moud s 26 . 

Je w moule 2 . 


jTm moud 5. 

Tu moules 26 . 



§ /fe grinds, or is z- 

II moud 23 . 

II moule. 


• S T%j areffrmdinff - 

Nous moulons. 

Nous moulions. 

Vous moulez. 

Vous mouliez. 


lis moulent 18 . 

lis moulent 19 . 

IT 1 1 

v Thou >was grinding. 

Je 14 moulais 6 . 


Tu moulais. 

%He J 

II moulait 26 . 

a We \ 

Nous moulions. 

§ You \were grinding. 

Fous mouliez. 

? They) 

lis moulaient 6 . 


^1 1 

Je 14 moulus 83 

Je u moulusse s . 



Tu moulus.* 

Tu moulusses. 


j? .He 1 ground, 

11 moulut 26 - 

II moulut 26 . 


g- /Fie j did grind. 

Nous moulumes. 

Nous moulussions 


6 Ybw 

Vous moulutes. 

Vous moulussiez. 

? 2%cyJ 

lis moulurent 18 . 

lis moulussent" 


jl ^ 

Je M moudr ai h . 


H Thou 

Tu moudr as m . 

S He 

shall, will grind 

, II moudr a. 

1 ^e 

6e grinding. 

Nous moudr ons. 

|- Yo?£ 

Vous moudr ez. 

? TAey. 

lis moudr ont 96 . 

^r 1 

Je 14 moudr ais 6 . 

s- 2^ 

Tu moudr ais. 


s/id, w;<2 grind, 

11 moudr ail 2s . 


6e grinding. 

Nous moudr ions. 

| Ycm 

Vous moudr iez. 

?■ Z%ey. 

lis moudr aienP. 


grinding. Moulant 26 . Moulu. around. 

After the same manner as moudre, are conjugated 
emoudrf, to grind, to whet. remoudre, to grind again. 

* See note 2, page 1 





PLAI re. 



plai 5, sing. 

plai sez, plur. 

Let us please. 




^ 1 please. 

Je plai s 6 . 

Je plai se 2 . 


3 Thou pleasest. 

Tu plai s. 

!Tw plai ses 26 . 


g He pleases. 

II plai P. 

11 plai se. 


I™ } 

Nous plai sows. 

IVoms plai sions. 


£ You >please. 

Vous plai sez.* 

Vous plai siez. 

? They) 

JTs plai sent 16 

J/s plai sent 18 . 

B 1 ' 
•g Thou 

Je plai saw 8 . 


Tw plai sais* 


S We 

cfo/ please. 

II plai sa^ 23 . 
iVbw.splai sions. 

g You 

Vous plai siez. 

? They, 

lis plai saienP. 


►o 7 ' 

Je fplus 88 . 

Je fplusse 2 . 



5 Thou 

Tm plus. 

Tw plusses. 




J/ plut 26 . 

II pi Lit 26 . 


£ We 

did please. 

iVows plumes. 

IVbz/s pi ussions. 


S Ycm 

Vous plutes. 

F"om5 plussiez. 


? T%, 

lis plurent 19 . 

lis plussent 18 


>ril * 

Je plair ai 5 . 

% Thou 

Tu plair as 26 . 

3 He 


II plair a. 

I We 

will please. 

IVows plair ons. 

&. Ybw 

Vous plair ez. 

? They 

lis plair cm£ 2s . 

3»* 1 

Je plair ais 6 . 

r* 2%ok 

Tu plair azs. 



7/ plair ait™ 


would please. 

Nous plair zcms. 

2* Yb?/. 

Vous plair zez. 

£ TAey. 

77s plair aient*. 





isiiig. plai sant* 6 . 

plu. pleiisetl 

J/fcr the same manner as plaire, are conjugated 

complaire, to comply. se plaire, to delight in. 

deplaire, to displease. se taire, to hold one's tongue, to be silent. 

* See s between two vowels, page 14. 

t See note 2, page 1. 




Resolve. rc'sous, sing. Re*solvez, plur. 

Let us resolve. Resolvons. 


art o 


I resolve, or am « 

Thou resolvest, 

He resolves, or is 

We \ , 

You i 

are resolving. 

I resolve, 
They) 1 

I } 

Thou\was resolving:. 

He J 

We \ 

You \were resolving. 















did resolve. 

shllyWll resolve, 
be resolving*. 

shd, wld resolve, 
be resolving. 

Je "resous 98 . 
Tu re sous. 
II resout 28 . 
Nous resolvons. 
Vous resolvez. 
lis resolvent 18 . 

Je resolvais . 
Tu resolvais. 
II t6 sol v ait. 
Nous r£solvions. 
Vous rdsolviez. 
lis resolvaient 8 . 

Je resolus 28 . 
Tu resolus. 
II resolut 88 . 
Vous resolutes. 
lis resolurent 18 . 

Je "resoudr ai s . 
Tu resoudr as* 6 . 
II resoudr a. 
Nous resoudr ons. 
Vous resoudr ez. 
lis resoudr oni* 6 . 

Je "resoudr ais 6 . 
Tu resoudr ais. 
II resoudr ail 96 . 
Novs resoudr ions. 
Vous resoudr iez. 
lis resoudr aient 6 . 


Je resolve 2 . 
Tu resolves 2 ". 
II resolve. 
Nous resolvionsi 

Vous resolviez. 
lis resolvent 18 . 

Je resolusse*. - 
Tu resolusses. g, 
II resolut 26 . g 

Nous r£solussions. ^ 
Vous resolussiez. ^ 
lis r£solussent 18 . n 



Ixi *m Resolu. 

>Resolvant 26 . 

J Resous, 

After the same manner as resoudre, are conjugated 
absoudre, to absolve, part, absous, absolved; and dissoudre 
dissolve, part, dissous, dissolved. 

N. B. These two verbs have no perfect tense. 


Resolved, determined. 
Melted, dissolved.* 


As, he soleil a resous le b^ouillard en phue. The sun has melted the mist into rain. 







ri 5, sing. 

ri ez, plur. 

Let us laugh. 

RI 0715. 



*e I laugh, or am ET 

Je 3 *ri s 26 . 

Je *ri e 2 . sT 

| Thou laughest, arti^ 
S He laughs, or is g- 

T?j ri 5. 
II ri P. 

Tu ri es 26 . arq, 
1/ ri e. -" 
IVbws ryons*. ^ 

§ v 1 laugh, 
» You > 1 3 1 • 

* r^yj arcla "^ hl11 ^ 

IVbiz* ri orcs. 

Fo?/sri ez. 
JZs ri e/i# 8 . 

Vous ryez. fL 
J/5 ri ent' ±e . § 

B 1 } 

% Thou \was laughing. 

Je *ri «is 6 . 

5Tm ri ais. 

%He ) 

II ri art 26 . 

a *Te 

■ZVbwsryons 4 . 

1 Fozz Wre laughing. 

Poms ryez. 

? They) 

J/s ri aienP. 


^T ] 

Je *ri s 26 . 

Je *ri sse*. ^p- 

S TAow 

Tm ris. 

Ta ri sses. cL 

% He 


II ri* 26 . 

J/ ri Z 25 . § 

S JTe 

a7a* laugh. 

iVcws ri mes. 

Nous ri ssions. aS' 

1 you 

Vous ri 2es. 

Fows ri 5«/es. «. 

' They. 

J/s ri rent x \ 

J/s ri ssent™. sT 


Je *rir ai 5 . 


| Thou 

Tu rir as 26 . 

3 tfe 

s/i//, troU laugh, 

J/ rir a. 

1 /T« 

6e laughing. 

Nous rir 071s. 

&: Yo?^ 

Fows rir ez. 

? TAey. 

lis rir ozrt 86 . 


Je *rir aw 6 . 

r Tto 

TV rir ais. 

§ #e 

shd t wld laugh, 

II rir a& 28 . 

£" We. * be laughing. 

iVb?«rir ions. 

§ You 

Vous rir iez. 


J/s rir aient 6 . 





RI art/ 26 . 

ri. Laughed. 

-^/Itfir /Ae sa??2e manner as rire, are conjugated 
sourire, to smile. frire, to fry, part, frit, fry ed. 

N.B. frire is used only in the 1st, 2d, and 3d person of the present of the indicative, 
je/ris, tu/m, \\frit ; in the future, je/rirai,tu/rtra«, ^c. and in the conditional, jefiirais, 
tafrirais, &;c. ; the other tenses are formed with the verb faire, and the infinitive of this 
verb ; so, We fry, nous faisons frire; you fry, votes faites frire ; they fry, (7s font frire. 

Fry this fish, these eggs, that meat. Faites frire ce poisson, ces oeufs, cette viande. 

* See note 4, page 2 




To follow. SUIV re. 



suis, sing. 

suiv ez, plur. 

Let us toll 


SUIV 072S. 




^ 7 follow, or am g 

Je 3 suis 23 . 


suiv e 2 . 


3 Thou folio west, art <T 

Tu 23 suis. 


suiv es* s . 


1 He follows, or is |- 

II suit 26 . 


suiv e. 


CD fnllnW 

Nous suiv ons. 


suiv ions. 


§ J.OU > r „ 

• 2%eyr refo llowin S'« 

Vous suiv ez. 
lis suiv e/i£ 13 . 


suiv fez. 
suiv tnt 18 . 


5 11 1 

•§ Thoufwas following. 

Je ^suiv ais s . 

Tu suiv cws. 

£#e J 

II suiv a/2 88 . 

a We | 

§ Yo?« >were following'. 

iVbws suiv ions. 

Vous suiv fez. 

7/s suiv aient 5 . 


m 1 1 

Je 23 suiv is* 5 . 


suiv zsse 8 . 


Tu suiv is. 


suiv w. 




II suiv it* 6 . 


suiv it 25 . 


5 ^ e 

did follow. 

Nous suiv 2mes. 


suiv issions. 


5 Ycm 

Fbws suiv ites. 


suiv issiez. 


? Z%«y, 

lis suiv irent 18 . 


suiv isseni 18 


*7 i 

Je ^suivr ai 5 . 

£ 2%cm 

Tu suivr as* 6 . 

3 77e 

shll, mil follow, 

II suivr a. 

1 ^ 

be following. 

IVcws suivr ons. 

|. Yow 

Vous suivr ez. 

? They , 

lis suivr em?? 6 . 

2 1 1 

Je 23 suivr ais 5 . 

s* Z%om 

Tu suivr «% 


jhd, wd follow, 

J/ suivr ait 25 . 

& JTe 

be following. 

Nous suivr zows. 


Vous suivr /ez. 

£ T^ 

7/s suivr a lent 6 . 





suiv «/zi 26 . 




After the same manner as suivre, are conjugated 

s'ensuivre, to follow from, i.e. a consequence. 
Poursuivre, to pursue. 





TRAI re. 



TRAI S, MTig 1 . 

Trayez, j^/itr. 

Let us mi 





^ 1" milky or am 3 

Je 3 trai s 6 . 

Je trai e 2 . 


3 jF%om milkest, art g 

Tw trai 5. 

Tm trai es 23 . 


g i/e milks, or zs ^ 

1/ trai t™. 

J7 trai e. 


2 We \ ... 

2 , r 1 milk, 

9 t>l [a™ milking. 
• They) 5 

Nous trayons*. 

Nous trayions. 


Vous trayez. 
lis trai ent 18 . 

Vous trayiez. 
lis trai ent 18 . 


5T 1 

B 1 \ 

Je 4 trayais 6 . 

"g TAow >2To:5 milking. 

Tu trayais. 

*He J 

II trayait 26 . 


S JFe j 

Nous trayions. 


§ You \were milking. 

Vous trayiez. 

? They) 

lis tray ai ent 6 . 


3 Thou 

Je tirai.* 

Je tirasse 2 . 


Tu tiras 26 . 

Tu tirasses. 


? He 


II tira. 

II tirat 26 . 


I We 

r dz<i milk. 

Nous tirames. 

Nous tirassions 

s ybw 

Vous tirates. 

Vous tirassiez, 


° 3%6yj 

lis tire rent 18 . 

lis tirassent 18 


£ J ' 

Je trair ai 5 . 

•t 1 

| Thou 

Tu trair as* 5 . 

3 7/e 

s/tcrZ/, will milk 

11 trair a. 

1 ^c 

6e milking. 

Nous trair ons. 

S Yok 

Vous trair ez. 

? TAei/j 

lis trair out 26 . 

J* ' 

Je trair am 6 . 

r TAo?« 

Tm trair ais. 

§ He 

s/j/d, wld milk, 

II trair a/* 86 . 


r oe milking. 

Nous trair jo?js. 

g" You 


Fbws trair iez. 


lis trair aie?ii 6 . 





Trayant 26 . 

trai t". Milked. 

///ifer Me sawe manner as traire, are conjugated 
abstraire, to abstract. rentraire, to Jinedraw. 

distraire, to disturb ones attention. soustraire, to subtract. 

extraire, to extract. N. B. These verbs have no perfect tense. 

* traire having no perfect tense, we supply its place with the perfect of the verb 
TIRER, which may be used in the same sense as traire ; example, 

1 milked my cows, my goats, &c. Je tirai vies inches, vies chines, S d c. 




To vanquish. VAINC re. 


vanquish. vainc s> sing. vainquez, plur. 
Let us vanquish. vainquons. 


►3 I vanquish, or am £ 

Thou vanquishest, art-** 
§ He vanquishes, or is «; 

1 Tou I Van( * msh ' 


are vanquishing 

B 1 } 

*% Thou >was vanquishing. 

X-He J 

% You Ywere vanquishing. 
? They) 


2 Thov 

U You 
? They] 

2 Thou 

3 He 
B. You 

? They] 

? T ' 
s* Thou 

did vanquish. 

shll, wll vanquish, 
be vanquishing. 

g He \shd, wd vanquish. 
& We j be vanquishing. 


Je* vainc s- r '. 
Tu 19 vainc s. 
II vainc * 
Nous vainquons. 
Vous vainquez. t 
lis vainquent 18 . 

Je "vainquais 6 . 
Tu vainquais.f 
II vainquait 26 . 
Nous vainquions. 
Vous vainquiez. 
lis vainquaient 8 . 

Je "vainquis 25 . 
Tu vainquis.f 
II vain quit 23 . 
Nous vainquimes. 
Vous vainquites. 
lis vainquirent 18 . 

Je "vainer ai\ 
Tu vainer as* 6 . 
II vainer a. 
Nous vainer ons. 
Vous vainer ez. 
lis vainer out 36 . 

Je "vainer ais 6 . 
Tu vainer ais. 
II vainer ait 26 . 
Nous vainer ions. 
Vous vainer iez. 
lis vainer aient 6 . 


Je vainque t 
Tu vainques 26 . 
II vainque. 
Nous vainquions. 
Vous vainquiez. 
lis vainquent 18 . 

Je vainquisse 2 . § 
Tu vainquisses. c g^ 
II vain quit 26 . ^ 
A r oMA'vainquissions. g 
Vous vainquissiez. ^ 
lis vainquissent 18 . g£ 


vanquishing. vainquant 26 . 


vaincu, vanquished. 

After the same manner as vaincrb, is conjugated 
convaincre, to convince. 

* The 1st, 2d, and 3d person singular of the present of the indicative, 
+ See qu, page 13. 

are not much used, 




To Live, to have Life.* VI V re. 


Live. vis, sing. vxv ez, plur 

Let us live. viv ons. 


I live. 
Thou livest. 
He lives. 
JFe ] 
Yow >live. 


■g Tto 


* 7 





£ Yow 

^ J 

I TVzera 

1 #V 

|:y M 

s* Z%om 
§ #e 

§ Yow, 

efa'd lr 

rffd live. 

will Vive. 

wld live. 


Je 3 fvis 26 . 
!Tm vis. 
J/ vit 98 . 
iVbws viv oras. 
Foms viv ez. 
lis viv en# 8 . 

Je fviv ais 6 . 
T?z viv ais. 
II viv ai^ 26 . 
IVbws viv ions. 
Vous viv fez. 
lis viv aient 6 . 

Je v£cus.J 
Tu ve*cus. 
II v^cut 26 . 

JVows vecumes. 
Vous vecutes. 
lis ve*curent 18 . 

Je fvivr ai 5 . 
Tu vivr as m . 
II vivr «. 
JVbwsvivr ons. 
Vous vivr ez. 
JZs vivr ozzP. 

Je fvivr aw 6 . 
Tu vivr ais. 
J/ vivr ait 26 . 
Nous vivr fern*. 
Fbws vivr tez. 
Jfe vivr aient 6 . 



VIV ATl^ 26 . 


Je viv e 2 . f 

Tw viv es 26 . i 1 

/Z viv e. 5 

iVozviv tows. «s 

Fbwviv iezi |j 

17s viv ent 19 . t 

Je vjusse 2 . %• 
Tu v^usses. q - 
II veYit 26 . g 
iVows ve^ssions.^- 
Vous vlcssiez. «! 
lis v^ci5sent 18 . 5? 


ve"cu. Lived. 

Aflei the same manner as viv re, are conjugated 
revivre, to revive, to come to life again, survivre, to survive, to outlive 

* To live, meaning to dwell, is expressed by demeurer ; as, 
We live in London, in town, in the country. 
Nous demeurons a Londres, a la vil e, a la campagnc. 

+ See note 4, page 2. $ See note 2, page 1. 



3> J ' 

1 Tu 

1 n 

B Nous 

2 Vous 
1 lls 

1 Tu 

3 It 

? Nous 
g Koi« 

2 JVin/s 

S jw 

.8 i/s 

•o It 
S. Mnu 

hi J- 

£ Tu 
g A'om 

s- rows 
r /7« 

Tendre, Etendre, Ei 

VERBS 111 EE. 
a t,le shewing, in one point of view, how to conjugate all the verbs i» RE, £ 'h regulai and irregular.' 


buvons, buvons, avions 
buvez, buvez, uviez 
vent. int. 


















ais Battre, a 

a i s Fendre, Defendre, Descend 

a j ( Condescendre, Fondre, Con- 

• fondre, se Morfondre, Rom| 

w Corrompre, Interrompre, F__ 
le ? dre t Repondre. Corn pond i 
atenf.Repandre, Mordre.Di sra n ],, 

• idre, Pretendre, Rendre. Pendi 

Depcndre, Suspcndre, Vendre, Perdre, Tordre, Toudre. 

APPREND re, apprenant, 

I Tu 


"■ Nous 

g Vous 
I «• 


§ Vous 

I Tu 

t Vous 

! IU 


" Vous 


I Tu ais 

It ait 

Nma ions 

t Vous iez 

£'.' , "ient.Like\j,p Ien an 
Desapprendre, Prendre, Comprendre, 

se Meprendre, Reprcndre, Sarprendre 
























Conjugate in the S>»c '■ 

CONN AIT re, onnaissant, 


connassons t connaissions 
conraissez connaissiez 
copiaissent. connaissent. 














. Meconnattre, Reconnattre, 

V J " S Paraitre, Apparaitre, Com- 

«« paraitre, Disparaitre.Croi- •« Contredire, Dedi . 

aier.t tre, Accrottre, Decroltre, ment. dire, Maudire, Medire.Re 

Rer ttre, Pattre.Repailre.Naitre.Rena- dire, Predire, Circoncire. ConSre, Suffire 

!trr SeeremarftunderConuaitre, p. 152.) (Sec remor* under Dire, p. 155.) 













vons, vons, vwns 
vez, vez, viez 
vent. vent. 

aient. Circonscrire, Decrire 
Inscrire, Prescrire, Proscrire, Recrire. 
Souscrire, Transcrire. 

FEIND re, feignant, feint, 
feins feigne 

feins feignes 

feint feigne 

feignons t feignions 
feignez feigniez 

feignent. feignent. 


feignirent. feignissent. 

ais Astreindl«, Craindre, 
u jj Contraindre, Ceindre, 
. Enceindre, Joindre, 

•""* Conjoindre.Dejoindre, 
iez EDJoindre.Enfreindre, 
aient.Oindre, Teindre, De- 
teindre, Eteiudre, Atteindre, Peindre, 
Irej Restreindre, Epreindn 




ons, fassions 
aites fassiez 





ferai I 






























C'iduire, Reconduin 
alt D<uire, Endtiire,Intr< 
ions du-e.Produire.Reduir, 
ie: So'"re,Traduire, Coi 



PL A Ire, sant , phi. 













OJlt, I. 

Complaire, Plaire, 


ons, ons, 







»« tre, Demettre, En- 
at'ent.tremettre, Omettre, 
Permettre, Promettre, Remet- 
tre, Soumettre, Transtnettre. 













Revivre, Survivre. 

T i t t , ? rbscON0LURE ' to conclude; coudre, tot 
alphabetical order amongst the verbs in HE 

which are not frequently uid, have been left out of this table, in order to renler ii more convenient ; they may be seen in their 

172 verbs called impersonal. 

Some verbs which have only the third person singular, and sometimes 
the third person plural of their tenses in use, are called impersonal, 
though they would perhaps be more properly called monopersonal, i. e. 
verbs of one person ; the most frequently used are the following : 

TONNer. ECLAiRer, 
To Thunder. To Lighten. 


PLEUvofr. GELer. 
To Rain. To Freeze. 

NEiGer. GRELer. VENTer. 
To Snow. To Hail. To Blow. 



It thunders. 

7/ tonne. 

II tonne. 


^ It lightens. 

17 eelaire. 

II eclaire. 

| It rains. 

II pleut. 

II pleuve. 


2- It freezes. 

II ghie. 

II gele. 

g It snows. 

II neige. 

II neige. 


8 It hails. 

II grele. 

II grele. 


The wind blows. 

II vente. 

7/ vente. 


M It did thunder. 

7/ tonnail. 


.| It did lighten. 

II eclairm7. 

^ It did rain. 

II pleuvaz'2. 

o It did freeze. 

II gelait. 

g- 7£ cfc'tf snow. 

II neigeait. 

| J< did hail. 

II grhlait. 

The wind rfid blow. 

II ventazY. 


It thundered. 

II tonna. 

7/ tonnatf. 


£ It lightened. 

II e'claim. 

II e'claircitf 


3» It rained. 

II plut. 

II plut. 

~ It froze. 

II gelfl. 

II gelat. 

2 7£ snowed. 
p 7£ hailed. 

II neigea. 

II neigeat 


H grela. 

II grelaz*. 


The wind blew. 

II venta. 

II ventak 


I£ t0i77 thunder. 

II tonnera. 


g. It will lighten. 

II e'clairera. 

S 7£ M?z7Z rain. 

II pleuvra. 

•o 72 «oi7Z freeze. 

II gelera. 

S. 7£ «7z7/ snow. 

II neigera. 


< It will hail. 

II grelera. 

* The wind will blow 

II ventera. 

•ad It would thunder. 

II tonneraz7. 

$ It would lighten. 

II e*claireraz7. 

8 72 would rain. 

II pleuvr#z7. 

| It would freeze. 

II geleraz7. 

g? 72 would snow. 

II neigeraz7. 

g' 72 would hail. 

II £releraz7. 

r- The wind w?ow/d blow. 7/ venter«27. 



Interrogatively fy Negatively 




11 ne tonne 


Ne tonne-t-z7 " 




11 n' eclaire 



N' e*claire-t-z7 




11 ne pleut 


Ne pleut- il 




r £■ 

11 ne gele 

rpas. 2. 

Ne gele-t-z7 


Neige- t-tf? 


11 ne neige 

• g 

Ne neige-t-i/ 

Grele-t-tf? , 


11 ne grele _ 


iVe grele-t-z7 



verbs called impersonal. 173 


There be. Y AVOIR. 


There is, 

There are Ilya. II y ait. s^ 

TAere was, 3 

There were II y avait. 

There was, 

TAere were II 1/ eut. II y eut. 

TAere will be II y aura. •" 

There would be II y aurait. 

There is not, «;. 

There are not II riy a pas. II n'3/ ait pas. ^ 

There was not, ^ 

7'Aere were not .... II riy avait pas. | 

TAere was not, ^ 

TAere were not Iln'y eut pas. II n'^/ eut pas. o 

T/tere will not be ... II riy aura pas. cr 
T/jere would not be . II riy aurait pas. 

Is Mere, 

£ re there ? Y a-t-il ? 

Was Mere, 

Were there? Y avait-il ? 

Was there, 

Were Mere ? Y eut-il ? 

Will Mere be ? Y aura-t-il ? 

Would there be ? Y aurait- il ? 

Is Mere not, 

Are Mere not? "N'y a-t-il pas? 

Was there not, 

Were there not? .... N'y avait-il pas? 

Was there not, 

Were there not ? . . . . N'y ent-il pas ? 

Will not th-ere be? . . N'?/ aura-t-il pas? 

Would not there be?. N'i/ aurait-il pas? 


Th^.re has been, 

There have been . ... II y a eu. II y ait eu. 

There had been II y avait eu. 

TViere had been II y eut eu. II y eut eu. 

There will have been. II y aura eu. 

TAere wd have been . II y aurait eu. 

There has not been, 

There have not been. II riy a pas eu. 

Has there been ? Y a-t-il eu ? Has not there been ? N'y a-t-il pas eu? 


verbs called impersonal. 

must. FALLOIR. 

The verb must is conjugated through its different persons; but its 
representative falloir has only the third person singular of each tense, 
with II for nominative ; then the nominative of must becomes the nomi- 
native of the folhwing verb in french, which verb must be in the present 
of the subjunctive after 77 faut, II faudra; and in the perfect, after II 
fallait, II fallut, II faudrait, as appears by the following example, 

I must 

que je sorte. 

Thou must 

que tu sortes. 

He must 

qiC il sorte. 

My brother must 

go out. 

II faut 

que raon frere sorte. 

We must 

que nous sortions. 

You must 

que vous sortiez. 

They must 

qu! ils sortent. 

v for me 

que je sortisse. 

J for thee 
S for him 
| for my brother 

to go out, or 
that 1", thou,, 
he, Sfc. should 

II fallait 
II fallut ' 

que tu sortisses. 

qu' il 50?*^^. 

o/z^e mon frere sortit. 

| for us 

que nous sortissions. 

g for you 

go out. 

que vous sortissiez. 

for them 


qu' ils sortissent 

fei for me 

que je sorte. 

|. for £Aee 

que tu sortes. 

^ for /«m 

p for my brother 

to go out, 
that I go c 


II faudra < 

o/w' il sorfe. 

gwe mon frere sorte. 

g for ?*s 

que nous sortions. 

| for you 

que vous sortiez. 

3 for £/i<?7/2 

qu' ils sortent. 

- for me 

que je sortisse. 

| for ^ee 

que tu sortisses. 

£ for A/m 

to go out 


qu' il sortit. 

1" for my brother 

>that I" should 

II faudrait < 

que mon frere sortit. 

g for ws 

go out. 

que nous sortissio?is. 

g for 2/om 

que vous sortissiez. 

3 for them 

qui ils sortissent. 


I must ?io£ 

que je sorte. 

Thou must ??o£ 

>go out. 

II ne fsiutpas 

<7?je tu sortes. 

life must not 

qu 1 il sorte. 

My brother must 


<?we mon frere sorte, 


Must I 

que]e sorte? 

Must 2/io?£ 

>go out? 


que tu so?-£es ? 

Must &e 

oV il sorte ? 

Must my brother 


o/we mon frere sorte? 

Must J not 


queje sorte? 

Must Mow ?jo£ 

>go out? 

Ne faut-27 pas 

que tu sortes ? 

Must he not 

o/u' il sorte ? 

Must ?io£ mi/ bro 


o, we mon frere sorte? 

verbs called impersonal. 175 

must have, meaning To be in need of a thing, is expressed thus : 

I must have 

Thou must have 

He must have 

We must have 

You must have 

They must have 

My brother must have 

h for me 

money, books; 

or, I, thou, he, fyc. 




faut de Vargent, des 


to have money, 

books; or, /wanted 

money, books. 

to have money, 

books ; or, / shall 

want monev, &c. 

to have money, 

books; or, /should 

want money, &c. 

§ for thee 

3 for him 

g for us 

| for you 

«< for them 

~ for me 
i for thee 
» for him 
% for us 
| for you 
| for them 

i? for ???e 
S- for £Aee 
I" for him 
% for us 
| for ?/cw 
| for £Aem 

The impersonal verb TARDER, 
same manner as the above ; 
/ long* 

Thou longest 

He longs [to see her, 

We long- fto go there. 

You long 
They long 
My brother longs 

/ did long 
Thou didst long 
He did long 
We did long 
Yew did long 
77; r?/ did long 

I \ longed, 
Thou\ did long 
He J 

* | 

J(? ME 

77 LUI 
7/ NOUS 

II vous 

// LEUR^ 

II faut c?es //ures a mon frere. 

7/ TE 

fallait, or fallut de 
des livres. 

V 'argent, 


77 vous 

72 LEUR, 

// ME 
// NOUS 
// VOUS 

11 ME 
// TE 

77 NOUS 
// VOUS 

To long, is also conjugated in the 

faudra de V argent, 
des livres. 

faudrait de I' argent, 
des livres. 

tarde de la voir, oVy 

to see her, 
to go there. 



will low. 

to see her, 
to go there. 

(to see her, 
(to <ro there. 

should long to see her, &c. 

// VOUS 

II tarde a mon frere de la voir 


// LEUR 

// ME 
11 TE. 

// ME 


tardait de la voir, d\j 

tarda de la voir, oVy 

tardera de la voir 

tarderait de la voir 

'■ >/ 

















































































thirty-two, &c. 



forty- one. 

forty-two, &c. 



fifty- one. 

fifty-two, &c. 



sixty-one, &c. 

sixty- nine. 


seventy- one. 

*Un, m. [Die f 
Quat re. 
Dix -sept. 
Dix- huit 

Vingt et un. 
Vingt- deux. 
Vingt- cinq. 
Vingt- huit. 
Trente et un. 
Trente-deux, Sfc. 
Quarante et un. 
Quarante-deux, fyc. 
Cinquante et un. 
Cinquante- deux, fyc. 

Soixante et un y fyc. 

* These words are both Articles and Substantives. 

Articles when prefixed to a noun ; as, Un homme, Une femme ; Un livre, Deux livres; 
Trois hommes ; Quatre maisons ; Cinq chevaux ; Dix ecus, &c. 

Substantives when preceded by an article ; as, un Deux ; un Trois ; un Quatre •, le Deux 
le Trois, /eQuatre,de Janvier, de fevrier, de coeur,de pique, &cc.des Trois; desQuatro,&c. 

•f- The chapter on pronunciation contains rules which shew how to pronounce all these 






































Quatre-vingt . 




Q uatre-vingt- un. 








Quatre-vingt' trow. 












Quatre-vingt-s'tx . 
















Quatre- vingt-dix. 







ninety- two. 

Quatre-vingt- douze. 















ninety- six. . 
















a hundred. 




a hundred & one.* 

Cent un. 



a hundred & two, &c 

Cent deux, 8fc. 



a hundred & ten. 

Cent dix. 



a hundred & twenty. 

Cent vingt. 



two hundred. 

Deux cents.f 



two hundred & fifty. 

Deux cent cinquanie. 



three hundred. 

Trois cents. 



nine hundred. 

Neuf cents. 



a thousand. J 




one hundred. 

Un cent. 



two hundred. 

Deux cents. 



one thousand. 

Un mille. % 



two thousand. 

Deux mille. 

* The article A, and the conjunction And, are omitted with these numbers in fiviuli. 

t Quatre vingt and Cent, followed by a noun plural, requires; as, Quatre vingts ans, 
eighty years ; Deux cents hommes, two hundred men ; but not when they are followed 
by another number ; as Quatre vingt dix ans; Deux cent cinquante liommes. 

Observe also, that the noun which follows the number One, after another number, 
must be singular in french, though it is plural in english; as, One and twenty years. 
Vtngt el un an. One and thirty men. Trent e et un homme ; but if the noun is followed 
by an adjective, the adjective must be plural; as, Vingt et un an accomplis. Trenteet 
un homme amies. 

i In the date of the year, One is omitted, and Thousand is spelt Mil, not Mille ; so we 
write 1819, Mil huit cent dix neuf, not Un mille huit cent dix neuf. 




From the foregoing' numbei 

rs are formed the adjectives of number } 


the first. 

le Premier, m. la Premiere, f. 


the second. 

| le Second, m. la Seconde, f. 
\ le or la Deuxlbme, m. and/!* 


the third. 

le Trowieme. 


the fourth. 

le Quatribme. 


the fifth. 

le Cinqibme. 


the sixth. 

le Sijcibme. 


the seventh. 

le Septxbme. 


the eighth. 

le Huitibme. 


the ninth. 

le Neuvibme. 


the tenth. 

le Dmeme. 


the eleventh. 

le Onzibme, or YOnz'ibme, 


the twelfth. 

le Douzibme. 


the thirteenth. 

le Treiz'ibme. 


the fourteenth. 

le Quatorzibme. 


the fifteenth. 

le Qui?iz\bme. 


the sixteenth. 

le Se^ieme. 


the seventeenth. 

le Dix-septibme. 


the eighteenth. 

le Dix-huitibme. 


the nineteenth. 

le Dix-neuvibme. 


the twentieth. 

le Vingtibme. 


the twenty-first. 

le Vingt et umbme. 


the twenty-second. 

le Vingt-deuxibme. 


the twenty-third. 

le Vingt-trois\bme. 


the twenty-fourth. 

le Vingt- quatribme. 


the twenty-fifth. 

le Vingt-cinqxbme. 


the twenty-sixth. 

le Vingt-sixibme. 


the twenty-seventh. 

le Vmgt-sept'ibme. 


the twenty- eighth. 

le Vingt-huitibme. 


the twenty-ninth. 

le Vingt-?ieuvibme, 


the thirtieth. 

le Trentibme. 


the thirty-first. 

le Trent et umbme. 


the thirty-second, &c. 

le Trente-deuxibme, and so on, by 


ieme, to the substantive numbers, page 176, 177. 

Observe only, that in those ending in e, the e is left out ; as, Quatre, 

Quatribme; Douze, Douzibme 

; and in those ending in f, the f is changed 

into v, 

? or softness of sound; as 

Neuf, Neuvibme; Dix-neuf, Dix-neuv'ieme. 

From the above adjectives s 

ire also formed the numeral adverbs; ■ 






j Secondement. 
\ Deuxiemement. 













and so 

on, by adding ment to 

the above adjectives. 

* Second and Deuxieme are used indiscriminately, when they are followed by a noun; 
as, Le second, or Le deuxieme jour ; La seconde, or La deuxieme semaine ; but after another 
number, Deuxieme alone can be used ; so we could not say, Vingt second; Trente second; 
we must say, Vingt deuxieme; Trente deuxieme, §c. 

( 179 ) 










The French language, like most of the living- languages, is composed 
of NINE different sorts of words, commonly known by the names of 




* Some of the general rules contained in the introduction are repeated in the syntax, 
because they are necessary to connect the different rules together. But each part must 
be considered as a distinct work, designed for different persons. The introduction is 
intended for children, and for persons who, not being accustomed to the study of lan- 
guages, could not at once comprehend such a multiplicity of rules. The syntax, which 
includes all the rules which are necessary to a perfect knowledge of the language, is in- 
tended for the same persons, after they are sufficiently grounded in the introductory 
rules, and for persons of a comprehensive mind, who have no need of an introduction. 

t Ever since the art of speaking has been reduced into a system, grammarians, and 
the philosophers who have written on the subject, have differed upon the parts, or dif- 
ferent species of words of which it is composed. Some argue that there are but two, 
the NOUN and the verb, and assert that the rest are only corruptions or abbreviations of 
these ; others add the article and the conjunction ; others the pronoun, and so on 
to the interjection. It does not belong to a production of this kind to inquire into 
these different opinions ; and I have adopted the most prevalent, because it has ap- 
peared to me, that whether they be words, or only abbreviations of words, there are NINE 
sorts, which are subject to different rides. 

Those who are desirous to see ingenious dissertations on this subject, may read 
Harris's Hermes, and Tooke's Diversions of Purley. 




every word is called a noun which names a substance or being, eithei 
real, as man, house, tree, Sfc. ; or ideal, as god, heaven, glory, fyc. 

Nouns are distinguished into proper and common. 

A noun proper, or proper name, is that which belongs only to one 
being ; as, John, the Thames, London, Paris, England, France, fyc* 

A noun common, or common name, is that which belongs to all beings 
of the same kind; as, man, woman, river, city, country, fyc. 

N. B. In this class are comprised the abstract names of virtue, vice, 
pleasure, pain, love, desire, fear, hatred, glory, honor, and such like. 


* Though proper names should remain invariably the same in all languages, yet the 
French have given to the names of countries, and of some capital cities, names or ter- 
minations adapted to their own language; so, Asia is called Asie; Africa, Afrique; 
America, Amerique; England, Angleterre ; Scotland, Ecosse ; London, Londres ; Spain, 
Espagne ; Mexico, MSxique ; Jamaica, Jama'ique ; Italy, ltalie ; Tuscany, Toscagne ; 
Sardinia, Sardaigne ; Sicily, Sicile ; Leghorn, Livourne ; Mantua, Mantoue ; Geneva, 
Geneve ; Genoa, Genes ; Switzerland, Suisse ; Germany, Allemagne ; Hungary, Hongrie; 
Bohemia, Boheme ; Vienna, Vienne; Poland, Pologne ; Warsaw, Varsovie; Cracow, Cra- 
covie; Russia, Russie; Prussia, Prusse ; Sweden, Suede, §c. for which no rule can be 
given ; but as they are single words, and are generally found in the dictionaries, when 
they have been seen once or twice, they are easily retained. 

The names of persons, derived from the living languages, do not vary ; so, Fox, Pitt, 
White, Brown, are in French, Fox, Pitt, White, Brown, as in english ; but the names of 
persons, derived from the greek and latin languages, generally change their termina- 
tions, agreeably to the following rules. 

Names ending in al, ar, or, is, os, on, do not vary ; as, Annibal, Adherbal, Cesar, 
Hamilcar, Mentor, Nestor, Adonis, Sesostris, Minos, Atropos, Damon, Solon, &;c. nor the 
names of men ending in a , as, Numa, Nerva, Sylla, Agrippa, Dolabella ; except Seneca, 
which is Scneque. 

The finals as and es, are changed into e : as, Pythagoras, Pythagore; Mecenas, Mtee- 
ne ; Eneas, , En Se ; Socrates, Socrate; Demosthenes, Demosthene, §c. ; ex'cept Agesilus, 
Leonidas, PHopidas, Phidias, Pythias, Pausanias, Epaminondas, Eudamidas, Calchas, 
Olympias, Ceres, Xerxes, Pericles, and a few others not often met with. 

The finals ns and ius, are also generally changed into e; as, Augustus, Auguste; Titus, 
The; Tiberius, Tibere; Julius Caesar, Jule Char; Tacitus, Tacit e ; Virgilius, Virgile; 
Horatius, Horace; Eolus, Eole ; (Edipus, Oedipe; except Appius, Baccns, Brutus, Cin- 
cinnatus, Claudius, Crcrsus, Cyrus, Darius, Decius, Dentatus, Gallus, Germanicus, Janus, 
Junius, Manlius, Marius, Menenius, Metetlus, Mutius, Papirius, Plaut'ius, Pompilius, 
Poms, Pyrrhus, Remus, Romulus, Silvius, Valerius, Venus, Tullus, and a few others not 
frequently met with; and Coriolanus, Ta->-quinius, which lose the finals us, ius; thus, 
Coriolan, Tarquin. 

Nouns in chus, change chus into que; as, Telemachus, TtUmaque; Lysimachus, Lysi- 
maque; Gracchus, Graque; except Antiochus. 

Nouns ending ino take the addition of n; as, Cato, Caton; Cicero, Ciceron ; Scipio, 
Scipion ; Plato, Platon ; Apollo, Apollon ; Pluto, Pluton ; Juno, Junon ; Dido, Didon ; 
except Calipso, Clio, Clotho, Sappho, Echo. 

The final der is changed into dre ; as, Alexander, Alexandre ; Lysander, Lysandre. 

Names of women ending in a, change a into e mute ; as, Julia, Julie ; Amelia, Ame'lie ; 
Agrippina, Agrippine ; Cleopatra, Cleopatre ; Minerva, Minerve, &"t*. 

Those ending in e, e, retain their termination ; as, Cybele, Melpomene, Circe", Cloe", 
Daphne, Hebe, Thisbt ; except the following, in which the French do not sound the final 
e ; Ariadne, Euridiee, Ptntlope. 

•NOUN. 181 

Two things are to be considered in nouns ; the gender and the number. 

The gender is the distinction between the sexes. 

The french language admits of two genders only, the masculine and 
the feminine. 

By masculine is meant the male being; by feminine, the female. 

The names of beings whose sex is unknown, and of those inanimate 
behiffs, commonly called things, which are of the neuter gender m english, 
are either masculine, or feminine, in french, according to custom.* 


TE. la Liberte, liberty ; la Sante, health , 
la Beaute, beauty ; la Boute, goodness ; 
la Majeste, majesty ; la Divinitt, divi- 
Except i'Ete, summer; un Comte, a comity _, 
le C6te, t/ie side; un Pale, a pie; un Comite, 
a committee ; un Traite, a treaty, a treatise ; 
du The, some tea. 

* The difference of gender is generally known by the termination of the noun. 
Nouns of the following Terminations are Nouns of the following Termination* are 


A. un Opera, an opera ; un Sopha, a sopha ; 
du Quinquina, peruvian bark. 

AT sounded A ; as, 

un Plat, a dish ; un Combat, a battle. 

B. du Plomb, lead; le Radoub, refitting ; 
un Rumb, a point, of the compass. 

C. le Bee, the beak; du Sue, gravy , 
du Pore, por/c ; du Tabac, tobacco. 

D. du Lard, bacon; du Fard, paint ; 
un Regard, a look; le Hasard, chance. 

E preceded by any letter but T; 

du Ble, corn ; un Pre, a meadow ; 
un Conge, a holiday ; du Caffe, co/fee. 

Except l'Amitie, friendship ; 
la Moitie, i/te half; la Pitie, pity. 

ER sounded E ; as, 

un Baiser, a kiss; le Danger, danger; 
un Metier, a trade ; un Panier, a basket. 

AI. sounded E; as, 

un Geai, a jay ; un Balai, a broom, 
un Essai, an essay; un Delai, a delay. 

AIT, ET sounded. E ; as, 

un Fait, a fact ; un Portrait, a picture ; 
un Sujet, a subject ; un Objet, an object. 

F. un Nerf, a sinew ; un ffiuf, an egg; 
du Bosuf, tee/; du Suif, tallow. 

Except une Clef, a key ; la Soif, thirst ; 
la Nef, the body oj a church. 

G. lo Rang, rank ; le Sang, the blood ; 
un Etang, a pond ; uu hareng, a herring. 

I. un Etui, a case ; un DeTi, a challenge ; 
un Lit, a bed : un Habit, a coat. 

Except une Fourini, an ant; laNuit, night. 

01. uu Envoi, au invoice ; un Convoi, a convoy ; 
un Emploi, w< employ ; le Doigt, the finger. 
Except la Foi, /ai'i/( ; la Loi, /uu;. 

L. un Mai, un etv'/, ; le Travail, /u/xmr ; 
un H6tel, an /loiei ; le Sommeil, s/eep. 

M. le Nom, f/;e ?i«/m; le Parfum, pcrfuim ; 
duThim, thyme. 

Except la l'airj), hunger 



There are two numbers, the singular and the plural. 
A noun is singular, when we speak of one being only ; as, a book, 
un livre ; a house, une maison ; a tree, un arbre ,- a ship, un navire, fyc. 

A noun 

masculine Terminations. 

N. All the terminations in N which are not ION, 
or SON soft, i. e. sounded ZON, viz. 

AN. du Bran, oran ; du Saffran, saffron. 

ANT, ENT sounded an ; as, 

unDiamant,a diamond /unPresentjapj-eseni,- 
le Vent, the wind. Except une Dent, a tooth. 

AIN. duPain, bread ; unBain,a bath. EaclaMain, 

IN, EIN sounded AIN ; as, l the hand - 

du Vin, some wine ; le Matin, morning ; 
le Sein, the bosom; le Teint, the complexion. 
Except la Fin, the end. 

OIN. le Soin, care ; un Coin, a comer. 

IEN. un Lien, a tie ; du Bien, wealth. 

CON. un Balcon, a balcony ; un Flacon, a decanter. 

LON. un Violon, a violin ; un Papillon, a butterfly. 

SSON. un Buisson, a bush ; du Poisson, fish. 

Except laMoisson,i/<e/ia)i;est; la Boisson, 

drink; une Chanson, a song. 
CON. unHamecon,ayzs/i-7i0ok;unLimacon,asrtai/. 
* Except une Lecon, a lesson ; une Rancon, 

a ransom ; la Facon, the making. 

TON. un Baton, a stick ; un Bouton, a button. 

O. un Echo, an echo; un Duo, a duet. 

OT sounded O ; as, 

un Mot, a word ; un Complot, a plot ; 
un Pot, a pot ; un Gigot, a leg of mutton. 

EAU sounded O ; .as, 

un Couteau, a knife ; un Chapeau, a hat. 
Except l'Eau, water ; la Peau, the skin. 

P. un Cap, a cape ; un Cep, a stock of a vine ; 

un Champ, afield; le Galop, the gallop. 

Q.. un Cinq, a five; un Coq, a cock. 

R. All the terminations in R, which are not EUR. 

AIR , FAir, the air ; un Eclair, a flash of lightning. 
Except la Chair, the flesh. 

ER- le Fer, iron ; l'Enfer, hell. Except la Mer, 
the sea ; une Cuiller, a spoon. 

IR. le Desir, desire ; le Plaisir, pleasure. 
OIR. le Soir, evening ; unMouchoir,a handkerchief. 
DR. FOr, gold ; un Tresor, a treasure. 
ORD ORT, sounded OR ; as, le Bord, the border; 
un Fort, a fort ; le Sort, fate. 
Except la Mort, death. 

Wii. 1© Jour, the day ; unTour, a trick. 

Except la Cour, the court, the yard ; une 
Tour, a tower. 

FEMININE Terminations. 

ION. une Action, an action ; une Caution, 
a bail; une Portion, a portion. 

Except un Bastion, a bastion ; un Crayon, 
a pencil; un Rayon, a ray; un Pion, a 
man at drufts ; le Tallion, retaliation ; un 
Scorpion, a scorpion; le Septentrion, the 
north ; le Croupion, the rump of fowls and 
birds; un Million, a million. 


ZON' une -M a ^ son > a house; la Raison, 
reason ; la Saison, the season. 

Except le Gazon, turf; du Poison, poison; 
un Tison, a firebrand ; un Oison, a gosling 
l'Horizon, the horizon ; le Blason, heraldry 

EUR. laPeur,/ear ; la Chaleur, heat; une 
Fleur, a flower ; la Couleur, colour. 

Except le Bonheur, luck, happiness ; le 
Malheur, misfortune ; l'Honneur, honour ; 
le Deshonneur, dishonour ; le Coeur, the 
heart ; FEquateur, the equator ; lTnterieur, 
the interior ; l'Exterieur, tile exterior. 

Except also the nouns in EUR, which belong 
only to persons ; as, un Auteur, an author ; 
un Docteur, a doctor ; §c. 

See also, pagt 189, how some nouns femi- 
nine are formed from the masculine, in the 
same manner as adjectives, by chang : ng the 

A noun is plural when we speak of more than one. 


N. B. The plural is generally formed hi trench, as in english, by add- 
ing s to the singular ; as, des limes, books ; des maisons, houses, fyc. 



MASCULINE Terminations. FEMININE Termhiations. 

S. le Bras, the arm ; le Repos, repose ; 
du Bois, wood ; le Sucees, success ; 

Except une Brebis, a sheep : une Souris, 
a mouse ; une Vis, a screw ; Fois, tune. 

T. un Plat, a dish ; un Lit, a bed ; 

le Vent, the wind; un Accident, an accident. 
Exe. une Part, a share; une Foret, a forest; 
la Nuit, night ; une Dot, a dowery ; une 
Dent, a tooth; la Mort, death. 

U. un Ecu, a crown ; un Fetu, a straw. 

Except la Vertu, virtue; une Tribu, a tribe; 
de la Glu, bird-lime. 

UT sounded u; as, 

le But, the aim; le Scorbut, the scurvy. 

EU. le Feu, fire ; un Lieu, a place. 

OU. un Trou, a hole ; un Chou, a cabbage. 

X. un Faix, a burthen; le Choix, choice. 

Except la Paix, peace ; la Voix, the voice ; 
une Noix, nut; de la Poix, pitch; une 
Croix, a cross ; la Toux, cough ; une Per- 
drix, a panridge ; une Faux, a scythe. 

From the above rules it appears that nouns ending with a consonant, or (my vowel but e 
mute, are generally masculine; but there is a great number of nouns ending in e ?n«£e, part 
of which are masculine, and part feminine, which can not be reduced tosuch certain rules.* 


All NAMES of COUNTRIES ending with e mute are feminine ; as, 
la France, France ; la Hollande, Holland ; l'Angleterre, England ; la Suisse, Switzer- 
land, &c. except le Mexique, Mexico. Those ending with any other vowel, as Canada, 
Chili, P6rou, c\c, or with a consonant, as Denmark, Portugal, Japon, §c. are masculine. 

All COMMON NAMES ending in e mute, preceded by another vowel, are feminine ; as, 
une Epee, a sword ; une Armee, an army ; une Guinee, a guinea ; la Vie, life ; la Rue, 
t/je street; la Vue, t/ie s%Ai ; la Joie, joy ; la Joue, the cheek; la Pluie, rain, b)c. 

Except le Foie, the liver ; un Incendie, a conflagration ; le Genie, genius ; le Messie, 
f/ie messiah; un Parapluie, a/i umbrella; un Trophee, a trophy ; un Pigme'e, a pigmy ; 
le Caducee, caduceus ; l'Hymenee, hymen ; un Mausolee, a mausoleum ; and nouns ending 
in gi;e and que, which are subject to a particular rule. See GUE, QUE. 


BE. There are Thirty-four nouns ending in be, Eleven of which 
are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Adverbe, an adverb ; un Proverbe, a proverb -A 

un Cube, a cube ; un Tube, a tube; ( Twenty -three other nouns end- 

un Globe, a globe ; un Teorbe, a theorb ; j ing in BE are feminine. 

un Orbe, an orb ; un Verbe, a verb ; ) 

* The discrimination between the genders of nouns is a difficulty which the learne* finds 
hard to overcome. In order to attain it, he mutt consider the greatest number of words of each 
termination which are either masculine or feminine, as a general rule, and retain as many 
words of the exception as he can. Besides this, when he reads a french author, lie must pay 
particular attention to the article which precedes each noun, and consider it as its necessary 
appendage. By these means the difficulty will insensibly lessen, and his mistakes will be but 
few. Not to overload his memory with a multiplicity of words, 1 hare omitted in the list if 
nouns given <i» exceptions, those which are either obsolete or little used. 

184 NOUN. 

Nouns ending in 5 or a? in the singular, are the same in the plural ; as, 
moil Jils, my son ; mes fits, my sons ; une brcbis, a sheep ; des brebis, 
sheep ; une voix, a voice ; des voix, voices ; une noix, a nut ; des noix, nuts. 






MASCULINE Terminations. 

feminine Terminations. 

There are Three hundred nouns 
of which are masculine ; the most 

un Appendice, an appendix ; un 

un Armistice, an armistice ; le 

un Artifice, an artifice ; un 

un Auspice, a nauspice; un 

un Benefice,, a benefit ; le 

un Calice, a chalice ; un 

le Caprice, caprice ; le 

un Cilice, a hair-cloth ; un 

le Commerce, commerce; un 

le Delice, delight ; le 

un Edifice, an edifice ; le 

un Exercice, an exercise ; le 

le Frontispice, frontispiece ; le 

ending in CE, Thirty-four 
commonly used are, 
Indice, an indication ; 
Negoce, traffic ; 
Office, an office ; 
Orifice, <ra orifice ; 
Pouce, the thumb ; 
Precipice, a precipice ; 
Prejudice, injury ; 
Sacrifice, a sacrifice ; 
Service, a service ; 
Silence, silence ; 
Solstice, the solstice ; 
Supplice, punishment , 
Vice, vice. 

Two hundred and sixty- 
isix other nouns ending ic 
CE are feminine. 

One hundred and seventy. 
>three other nouns ending io 
DE are feminine. 

There are Two hundred nouns ending in DE, Twenty-seven 
of which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, ' 
un Camarade, a companion'; le Monde, the world ; 
un Code, a code ; un Periode, a period of time ; 

le Coude, the elbow ; un Remede, a remedy ; 

un Fluide, a fluid ; un Sph£roide, a spheroid ; 

un Grade, a degree ; un Subside, a subsidy ; 

un Guide, a guide; le Suicide, suicide ; 

un Mode, a mode ; le Vide, Vacuum, 

There are Twenty nouns ending in Y£ } phe, Eight of which 
are masculine; they are, 

un Golfe, a gulph ; un Parafe, a paraph ; 1 

un Greffe, a court register ; un Paragraphe, a paragraph ; ( Twelve othernouns ending 
un Hieroglyphe, a hieroglyph; un Triomphe, a triumph ; J in FE, THE, are feminine. 
un Logogriphe, a riddle; un Telegraphe, a telegraph ; J 

There are Eighty nouns ending in ge, Thirty-two of which 
are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 

un ange, an angel ; 

un archange, an archangel ; 

le Change, the 'change ; 

un Cierge, a taper ; 

un College, a college ; 

un Cortege, a retinue ; 

le Deluge, the deluge ; 

un Echange, an exchange ; 

un Eloge, an encomium ; 

du Liege, cork ; 

du Linge, linen ; 

le Manege, riding school ; 

un Melange, a mixture : 

un Mensonge, a lie ; 
un Prestige, a prestige ; 
un Privilege, a privilege ; 
un Prodige, a prodigy ; 
un Rechange, a change ; 
un Refuge, a refuge ; 
un Sacrilege, a sacrilege; 
un Siege, a seat, a siege ; 
un Singe, an ape ; 
un Songe, a dream ; 
un Subterfuge, a subterfuge ; 
un Vertige, a giddiness ; 
un Vestige, a track. 

Forty-eight other ncuna 
'ending in GE are feminine. 

AGE. All nouns ending in age are masculine; as 

un Avantage, an advantage ; le Mariage, marriage ; 

un Badinage, a joke ; 

un Bocage, a grove ; 

le Courage, courage ; 

du Fromage, some cheese ; 

le Jardinage, gardening ; 

un Hermitage, an hermitage 

le Menage, housekeeping ; 
un Orage, a storm ; 
un Ouvrage, a work : 
le Rivage, the shore ; 
le Veuvage, widowhood ; 
le Visage, the face, c\c. 

Except une Cage, a cage; 
une Image, an image; la 
'Nage, swimming ; une Page, 
a page ; la Plage, a poetical 
word for sea; la Rage, rage. 



Nouns ending in u take x instead of s for the sign of the plural number ; 
as, chapeaity hat ; chapeaux, hats ; chou, cabbage ; choux, cabbages ; lieu, 
place; lieux, places ; feu, fire ; feux, fires; jeu, game; jeux, games, $c. 


masculine Terminations. 

GUE. There are Thirty -five nouns ending in gu-., Twelve of 
which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Catalogue, a catalogue ; un Dogue, a bull-dog ; 
le Decalogue, the decalogue ; un Orgue, an organ; 
un Dialogue, a dialogue ; le Prologue, the prologue 

FEMININE Terminations. 

I Twenty-three other 

rnouns ending in GUE are 

CHE. There are One hundred nouns ending in che, Twelve of 
which are masculine; the most commonly used are, 
un Acrostiche, an acrostic; un Panache, a plume; \ 

le Coche, the stage coach; du Ponche, punch; ! Eighty-eight other 

un Dimanche, a Sunday ; un Pre che, a dissenting sermon; j nouns ending in CHE are 
un Htmistiche, an hemistich; un Reproche, a reproach; j feminine. 

un Manche, a handle; un Tournehroche, a jack; .... une Manche, a sleeve. 

LE. There are Four hundred nouns 

dred of which are masculine ; the 

un Aigle, an eagle ; un 

un Angle, an angle ; un 

un Article, an article; un 

un Asile, an asylum; le 

un Buflie, a buffalo; un 

un Cable, a cable; un 

le Capitole, the capital; le 

le Centuple, the centuple; un 

un Cercle, a circle; le 

du Chevre-feuille, woodbine ; un 

le Chile, the chyle; le 

le Comble, the top ; un 

un Concile, a council; le 

le Controle, the control ; le 

un Couvercle, a lid; un 

le Crepuscle, the twilight ; un 

un Crible, a sieve ; le 

un Crocodile, a crocodile; un 

le Diable, the devil; le 

un Disciple, a disciple ; le 

un Domicile, a domicil ; du 

le Double, the double ; un 

un Drole, a fellow ; le 

1' Evangile, the gospel ; le 

un Exemple, an example; un 

du Girorle, clove-spice ; le 

le Hale, the burning sun ; le 

un Intervalle, an interval, un 

un Libelle, a libel; le 

un Maroufle, a scoundrel ; le 

un .Merle, a blackbird ; le 

le Meuble, the furniture ; le 

un Mille, a mile ; un 

un Miracle, a miracle; un 

un Modele, a model ; un 

un Monopole, a monopoly , un 

un Moule, a mould ; un 

le Murle, the muzzle, le 
un Muscle, a muscle ; 

ending in LE, One hun- 
most commonly used are, 
Obstacle, an obstacle; 
Ongle, a nail ; 
Oracle, an oracle ; 
Parallele, the parallel ; 
Pecule, spare money ; 
Pendule, a pendulum ; . . . . 
Peuple, the people ; 

Poele, a stove ; 

Pole, the pole; 
Portefeuiile, a portfolio ; 
Preambule, the preamble ; 
Quadrangle, a quadrangle ; 
Quadrille, quadril ; 
Quadruple, quadruple; 
Receptacle, a receptacle; 
Role, a roll, the part of an 
Sable, the sand ; [actor ; 
Saule, a willow ; 
Scandale, scandal; 
Scrupule, the scruple ; 
Seigle, rye; 
Siecle, an age ; 
Symbole, the symbol; 
Souffle, the breath ; 
Spectacle, a spectacle ; 
Stile, the style ; 
Tabernacle, the tabernacle ; 
Temple, </ temple; 
Trefle, trefoil ; 
Tremble, the asp tree ; 
Triple, the treble ; 
Trouble, disturbance ; 
Vaudeville, a ballad ; 
Vestibule, a vestibule ; 
A' ignoble, a vineyard ; 
Violoncelle, a violoncello ; 

Voile, a veil ; 

Zele, the zeal. 

une Pendule, a clock. 
une Poele, afryingpan. 

Three hundred other 
^nouns ending in le are 

une Voile, a sail. 



Except clou, nail ; bijou, jewel ; fou, mad; filou, sharper; trou, hole, 
sou, penny; matou, ram cat; and individu, individual; which require s 
for their plural, clous, nails ; bijous, jewels; fous, mad people; Jilous, fyc. 




MASCULINE Terminations. 

FEMININE Terminations, 

There are One hundred and seventy-two nouns ending in ME, Forty-three of which arc 

feminine ; the most commonly used are, 

One hundred and Iwen- 
ty-nine other nouns end- 
ing in ME are masculine. 

V Ame, the soul ; 
une Arme, an arm ; 
la Brume, the fog ; 
la Cime, the top ; 

la Coutume, the custom ; 
la Creme, cream ; 
la Dime, the tithe ; 
1' Ecume, the foam ; 
une Enclume, an anvil ; 
une Enigme, an enigma ; 
une Epigramme, an epigram 

V Escrime, fencrig ; 
1' Estime, esteem ; 
une Ferme, a farm ; 

la Elamme, the flame', 
la Forme, the form ; 
la Gamme, the gamut ; 
la Gomme, gum ; 

la Gourme, the strangles ; 

un Idiome, an idiom ; 

la Lame, the blade ; 

une Larme, a tear ; 

la Legitime, a child's portion , 

une Lime, a file ; 

une Maxime, a maxim ; 

la Paume, the palm, tennis; 

une Plate-forme, a platform ; 

une Plume, a pen ; 

une Pomme, an apple 

la Prime, the prirrte ; 

Une Kame, an oar, a ream; 

la Reforme, the reform ; 

la Rime, the rhyme ; 

une Somme, a sum ; 

la Trame, the thread ; 

une Vic time, a victim. 

There are Two hundred and forty -six nouns in NE, Thirty 
of which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
del'Antimoine, antimony; le Jeune, fasting ; 
un Aune, an elder ; un Organe, an organ ; 

V Automne, autumn ; le Patrimoine, patrimony ; 

le Capricorne, the Capricorn ; unPeigne, a comb 

un Cerne, a magical ring : 

unChene, an ozfc; 

un Cygne, a swan , 

un Cone, a cone ; 

le Crane, the scull ; 

un Decagone, a decagon ; 

un Domaine, a domain ; 

un Faune, a faun ; 

du Filigrane, filligram ; 

un Frene, an ash tree ; 

le Pene, the holt of a lock; 
un Pentagone, a pentagon ; 
un ^henomene, a phenomenon ; 
un Poly gone, a polygon ; 
unPr6ne, a sermon ; 
le Regne, the reign ; 
un Renne, a rein deer ; 
un Signe, a sign ; 
un Trone, a throne. 

Two hundred and six- 
teen other nons ending 
'in ne are feminine 

PE. There are Sixty-eight nouns ending in pe, Twelve of 

which are masculine ; the most commonly used are, 
un Groupe, a group ; un Participe, a participle ; 

un Horoscope, a horoscope ; un Polype, a polypus ; 
du Jaspe, jasper ; un Principe, a principle ; 

un Microscope, amicroscope; un Telescope, a telescope. 

QUE. There are One hundred nouns ending in que, Thirty -four 
of which are masculine; the most commonly used are, 
un Asterisque, an asterisk; le Panegirique, panegyric ; 

un Cantique, a canticle; 
un Casque, a cask; 
un Caustique, a caustic; 
un Cirque, a circus; 
un Disque, a disk; 
un Emetique, an emetic; 
un Obelisque, an obelisk : 
un Manque, a want ; 
un Masque, a mask; 

le Pentateuque, the pentateuch; 

un Portique, a portico ; 

le Risque, the risk ; 

un Soliloque, a soliloquy ; 

un Specifique, a specific ; 

le Tropique, the iropick ; 

le Viatique, viaticum; 

le Zodiaque, the zodiac. 

y Fifty-six other no mis 
ending in pe wee feminine. 

Sixty -six other nouns 
ending in que are femi- 



Nouns ending in al, ail, change I or il into ux for the plural ; as, 
inal, evil ; maux, evils ; cheval, horse ; chevaux, horses ; canal, canal } 
canaux, canals ; travail, labour ; travaux, labours. 


masculine Terminati 

FEMININE Terminations. 


There are Six hundred and thirty-two nouns ending in HE, Two 
hundred and twenty-three of which are masculine ; the most com- 
monly used are, 
un Adultere, an adultery ; 
V Albatre, alabaster; 
F Ambre, amber ; 
unAmphitheatre, an amphitheatre 
un Anniversaire, an anniversary j 
un Autre, a den ; 

un Arbre, a tree ; 

un Arteie, an artery ; 

un Astre, a star; 

V Atmosphere, the atmosphere ; 

un Atre, an hearth ; 

un Auditoire, an auditory ; 

un Augure, an omen ; 

du Babeure, buttermilk : 

du Beurre, butter; 

un Barometre, a barometer ; 

le Bien-etre, happy state; 

un Cadavre, a corpse ; 

un Cadre, a frame ; 

le Calibre, the bore; 

du Camphre, cumphire ; 

un Cancre, a crab ; 

un Candelabre, a chandelier; 

le Caractere, the character ; 

un C6dre, a cedar; 

le Certre, the centre ; 

un Chancre, a shanker ; 

du Chanvre, hemp ; 

un Chapitre, a chapter; 

un Chef-d'oeuvre, a masterpiece ; 

un Chiffre, a figure; 

du Cidre, cider ; 

un Cilindre, a cylinder; 

un Cimeterre, a cimeter ; 

un Cimetiere, a church yard; 

un Cintre, an arch; 

un Clystere, a glister ; 

un Coffre. a chest ; 

un Commentaire, a commentary ; 

un Concombre, a cucumber ; 

un Congre, a conger; 

un Corollaire, a corollary ; 

le Contraire, the contrary ; 

un Corsaire, a corsair ; 

du Cuivre, copper; 

le Decombre, the rubbish ; 

le Deiire, delirium ; 

un Depositaire, a depositary ; 

le Derriere, t/ie /wc/c pact ; 

un D6sastre, a disaster ; 

le Desordre, t/ie disorder ; 

le Diametre, t/ie diameter ; 

un Dictionnaire, a dictionary ; 

le Directoire, the directory ; 

un Douaire, a dowery ; 

un Empire, an empire ; 

un Emplatre, a plaster ; 

1' Equilibre, *7;e equilibrium ; 

un Etre, a feeing- ; 

un Exemplaire, a copy o/a taw/c; 

un Eiacre, a hackney coach ; 

un Fifre, a fife; 

un Formulaire, a formulary ; 

du Genievre, juniper ; 

le Genre, t/ie gender ; 

du Gingembre, ginger ; 

un GoufFre, a gMZ/; 

un Havre, a harbour ; 

V Hemisphere, the hemisphere ; 

un Hetre, a fceec/t tree ; 

un Inventaire, an inventory ; 

un Interrogatoire,an interrogatory 

de l'l voire, ivor*/ ; 

un Laboratoire, a laboratory , 

du Lierre, ivy ; 

un Lievre, a hare ; 

un Livre, a book ; 

le Lustre, the lustre ; 

un Luminaire, a luminary ; - 

le Maigre, the lean; 

du M arbre, marble ; 

le Mar tyre, martyrdom ; 

un Massacre, a massacre ; 

un Membre, a limb ; . 

un Memoire, a memorial ; 

du Mercure, mercury ; 

un Meteore, a meteor ; 

un Meurtre, a murder, 

le Ministere, the ministry ; 

un Mystere, a mystery ; 

un Monastere, a monastery ; 

un Monstre, a monster : 

un Murmure, a murm r ; 

du Nacre, mother of pearl ; 

un Navire, a ship ; 

le A rcc: ,-iire, the necessaries ; 

du Nitre, nitre ; 

un Nombre, a number ; 

un Observatoire, «» observatory ; 

un Opprobre, a repn 

un Orchestra, an orchestre; 

un Ordinaire, an ordinary ; 

un Ordre, an orae?- ,• 

le Parterre, (Ac pit o/a playhouse 

un Patre, a herdsman 

un Phare, a lighthouse ; 

du Phosphore, 

uneLivre, a pauna\ 

Fowr hundred 
and ?ii«e other 
nouns ending in re 
&tq feminine. 


emoue, memory 




Except bal, ball; detail, detail ; epouvantail, bugbear; evantail, Ian ; 
gouvernail, rudder; portail, portal ; serail, seraglio; the plural of which 
is formed by adding s to the singular ; bals, balls ; details, details ; 


MASCULINE Terminations. 

FEMININE Terminations. 

HE. du Phosphore, phosphorus ; 
du Platre, plaster ; 
duPoivre, pepper; 
un Pore, a pore ; 
lesPreliminaires, preliminaries ; 
un Presbitere, a parsonage house; 
un Promontoire, a promontory ; 
un Pupitre, a desk ; 
le Puvgatoire, purgatory ; 
un Refectoire, an eatlngroom ; 
un Registre, a register ; 
un Repaire, a den ; 
un Reverbere, a reflector ; 
un Sabre, a sabre ; 
le Sacre, the coronation ; 
duSalpetre, saltpetre; 
un Sanctuaire, a sanctuary ; 
un Sceptre, a sceptre; 
un Secretaire, a secretary ; 
unSeminaire, a seminary; 
un Sepulcre, a sepulchre ; 
un Sequestre, a sequestration ; 

le Sommaire, the compendium ; 

du Souftre, brimstone; 

du Sucre, sugar ; 

unTertre, a hillock; 

un Territoire, a territory ; 

un Theatre, a theatre; 

un Thermometre, a thermometer; 

un Timbre, a clock belt ; 

un Tire-bourre, screw of a ramrod. 

un Titre, a title ; 

le Tonnerre, thunder ; 

un Ulcere, an nicer ; 

le Ventre, the belly ; 

un Vertebre, a vertebra ; 

un Verre, a glass ; 

un Vesicatoire, a blister ; 

du Vinaigre, vinegar ; 

un Vocabulaire, a vocabulary ; 

un Vomitoire, a vomit ; 

le Vulgaire, the vulgar ; 

un Vulncraire, a vulnerary. 

Four nundred and 
nine other nouns 
pending in re are 

SE, There are Two hundred and fifty nouns ending in se, Fourteen 
of which are masculine; the most commonly used are, 
1' Aise, ease; unNarcisse, a narcissus ; 

un Carosse, a coach : le Parnasse, parnassus ; 

un Colosse, a colossus ; unThyrse, a thyrsis ; 

un Diocese, a diocess ; un Trapeze, a trapezium; 

le Malaise, uneasiness; unV&se, a vessel. 

Two hundred 
and thirty -six other 
"nouns ending in SE 
we feminine. 

TE. There are Three hundred 
nine of which are masculine 
un Acte, an act ; 
un Antidote, an antidote , 
un Arbuste, a shrub; 
un Aromate, an aromatic ; 
un Automate, an uutomaton 
unBuste, a bust ; 
unCassetete, a puzzlebrain 
un Ceste, a cestus ; 
un Compte, an account ; 
unConte, a tale; 
un Contraste, a contrast; 
le Culte, the worship ; 
unDecompte, a discount; 
le Demerite, dement; 
le Doute, the doubt ; 
un Entr'acte, an interlude; 
F Escompte, the discount; 
le Faite, the top ; 
le Faste, pomp; 

and seventy -five nouns in TE, Thirty- 
; the most commonly used are, 

un Geste, a gesture ; 

un Gite, the seat of a hare ; 

unlnceste, an incest; 

unlnsecte, an insect; 
; unLabyrinthe, a labyrinth; 

un Manifeste, a manifesto ; 
; unMecompte, a misreckoning ; 

le Merite, merit ; 

unMyrte, a myrtle; 

F Omoplate, the omoplate ; 

un Pacte, a pact ; 

un Poste, a station ; 

un Precepte, a precept ; 

unPretexte, a pretext; 

le Reste, the rest ; 

un Squelette, a .skeleton; 

le Texte, the text; 

unTirebotte, a bootjack; 

le Tumulte, tumult. 

Three hundred 
and thirty-six other 
nouns ending in TE 
) are feminine. 

la Poste, post office. 

NE, There are Forty-two nouns ending in ve, Four of which are 

un Conclave, a conclave; un Glaive, a sword ; 

un Fleuve, a river ; un Rere, a dream. 

1 Thirty -eight other 
nouns ending in ve 
are feminine. 



epGiivantails, bugbears; eventails, fans; gouver nails, rudders; portails. 
portals; seraih, seraglios; and bkail, cattle, the plural of which is 

MASCULINE Terminations. 

FEMININE Terminations. 


There are Ten nouns ending in XE, Five of which 
are masculine. 

un Axe, an axis; un Paradoxe, a pa radox :| The other Five nouns ending 

1' Equinoxe, the equinox; le Sexe, the sex; >in XE are feminine. 

le Luxe, luxury ; * 

ZE. There are Tiro nouns ending in ze, One of which is 

masculine, viz. du Bronze, bronze. One fern. viz. de la Gaze, gauze. 

Some nouns fern inine are formed in the same manner as* the feminine of adjectives, hy 
adding e mute to the masculine, or by changing the termination ; these are ; 
1st. The nouns denoting erode, profession, business, §c. as, 

un Acteur, 
un Berger, 
un Boucher, 
un Comfc'dien, 
un Cuisinier, 
un Marchand, 
unOuvrier, &c. 

an actor ; 
a sliepherd ; 
a butcher ; 
a baker ; 
a player ; 
a cook ; 
a grocer ; 
a farmer ; 
a dealer ; 
a workman ; 

une Actrice, 
une Bergere, 
une Bouchere, 
une Boulangere, 

an actress, 
a shepherdess, 
a female butcher, 
a female baker. 

une Comedienne, a female player. 
une Cuisiniere, a female cook. 

2d. The following, as being the most 

un Amant, 
un Ami, 
un Chat, 
un Chien, 
un Chanteur, 
un Citoyen, 
un Compagnon, 
un Cousin, 
un Danseur, 
un Uiable, 
un Ecolier, 
un Epoux, 
un Hcritier, 
un Ile'ros, 
un Hote, 
un Ivrogne, 
un Lapin, 
un L.t':vrier, 
un Lion, 
un Loup, 
le -Maitre, 
le Marie, 
un Menteur, 
un Orphelin, 
un Parent, 
un Paysan, 
un Sultan, 
un Veuf, 
nn Voisin, 

a lover ; 

a male friend ; 

a male cat ; 

a dog ; 

a male singer ; 

a citizen ; 

a male companion ; 

a mule cousin ; 

a male dancer ; 

a mule devil ; 

a male scholar ; 

a husband ; 

an lieir ; 

a hero ; 

a landlord ; 

a drunken man ; 

a jew ; 

a buck rabbit ; 

a greyhound ; 

a lion ; 

a male wolf; 

the master ; 

the bridegroom ; 

a man who lies ; 

a male orphan ; 

a male relation ; 

a countryman ; 

a male prisoner ; 

u sultan ; 

a tyger ; 

a male guardian ; 

a widower ; 

a male neighbour ; 

une Epiciere, 
une Fermiere, 
une Marchande, 
une Ouvriere, 

frequently used ; 
une Amante, 
une Aniie,- 
une Chatte, 
une Chienne, 
une Chanteuse, 
une Citoyenne, 
une Compagne, 
une Cousine, 
une Danseuse, 
une Diablesse, 
une Ecoliere, 
une Epouse, 
une Ileritiere, 
une Heroine, 
une Hotesse, 
une Ivrognesse, 
une Juive, 
une Lapine, 
une Ltvrette, 
une Lionne, 
une Louve* 
la Maitresse, 
la Alarii'e. 
one Menteuse, 
une Orpheline, 
une Parente, 
une Paysanne, 
une Prisonniere, 
une Sultane, 
une Tigresse, 
une Tutrice, 
une Veuve, 
une Voisine, 

a female grocer, 
a female farmer. 
a female dealer, 
a workwoman. 

she wlio loves. 

a female friend. 

a female cat. 

a bitcl:. 

a female singer. 

a citizeness. 

a female companion 

a female cousin. 

a female dancer, 

a female devil. 

a female scholar. 

a wife. 

an heiress. 

a heroine. 

a landlady. 

a drunken woman. 

a Jewess. 

a doe rabbit. 

a greyhound bitch. 

a lioness. 

a female wolf. 

the mistress. 

the bride. 

a woman who lies. 

a female orphan. 

a female relation* 

a countrywoman. 

a female prisoner. 

a sultana. 

a tygress. 

a female guardian. 

a widow. 

a female neighbour. 




An article is a sign prefixed to a noun, to shew the sense in which 
that noun is used. 

These signs are various, and generally derive their appellation from the 
office which they perform in the sentence. They are called in this treatise 




The article must be of the same gender and number as the noun 
which follows it ; this is called agreement of the article with the noun ; ex. 



The a 
of The i 
to The * 

Some 5 

A « 

This S 








mon Vin. 

5 ton Vin. 
^ son Vin. 


Her son Vin. 
Ourf ^ notre Vin. 
Your ^ votre Vin. 


of the 
to £/ie 


some to 

la Gloire. 
dehh. Gloire. 
a la Gloire. 

de la Gloire. 

une Tflwse. 

, 2 CETTETtfSSe. 

mac * 

ma Gloire. 
g ta Gloire. 
^ sa Gloire. 
sa Gloire. 
g notre Gloire. 
your % voire Gloire. 
their? leu r Gloire. 




Masculine and Feminine. 

of the 
to 2/ae 

les Plaisirs. 
des Plaisirs. 
aux Plaisirs. 

some pa des Plaisirs. 

these \ 

ces Plaisirs. 

mes Plaisirs. 
tes Plaisirs. 
ses Plaisirs. 
ses Plaisirs. 
nos Plaisirs. 
vos Plaisirs. 
their LEVRsPlaisirs 


If the noun which follows the article is singular, and begins with a 
vowel or h mute\, whether it is masculine or feminine, melody requires 


« L* 

S LE, 


.o AU, 




son sa; 

la ; as, T/ie 
deLA; ofTAe 

a la; to 2%e 

TVh's or T/ztfi 

His or Her 

Honneur. m. 
© rfeL' Honneur. 
^ d l' Honneur. 
5 cet Honneur. 
ft! mon Honneur. 
g» ton Honneur. 
5 son Honneur. 

l' Amitie f. 

de l' Amitie. 

a . l' Amitie. 

cette Amitie. 

mon Amitie. 

ton Amitie. 

son Amitie. 

The article must be repeated before every noun in french, agreeably 
to the gender and number of each noun, though the nouns are in the same 
sentence, and though the article is not repeated in english ; as, 

TAe brother, sister and cousins. LEfrere, la soswr e£ les cousins. 

Some wine, glory and pleasures, du wra, de la g-Zozre e£ des plaisirs. 

* See page 61, a table of the words called article. t See note * page 31 

.£ h mute is marked through these exercises with an apostrophe, this mark ' before it, 

ARTICLE a?ld NOUN. 191 


The names of persons and places, i. e. of cities, towns, villages, §c. 4fc 
are used in french as in english, without any of the signs called article ; as, 
I have seen Ceesar, J'ai vu Cesar, (a) 

Rome. Rome. 

The statue o/Csesar, La statue de Cesar, 

at Rome. X RomcfbJ 

But the names of countries and provinces which are used without 
an article in english, require, in french, the definite article le, la, les ; 
du, de la, des; au, a la, aux, the same as common names ; ex. 
I have seen France, J'ai vu la France, 

Italy. l' Italic 

The beauties (^/France, Les beautes de la France, 

of Italy. de l' Italic 

It belongs to France, &c. It appartient a la France, fyc. (c) 

Yet the names of countries and provinces are used without the 
article, when they come after verbs denoting- dwelling or movement; such 
as, to be in, to live in, to go to, to come from. 

In these instances, in, to, are expressed by en, and from by de ; as, 
I am going to France, Je vais en France, 

to Italy. en Italic 

I have been in France J'ai ete en France, 

in Italy. . en Italic 

I come from France, Je viens en France, 

from Italy. d' Italic (d) 

(a) Some names of -persons, derived from common Barnes, such as, Le Bnin, Le Blanc, 
Le Aoir, La Porte, La Grange, La Fontaine, 6cc. are always preceded by an article, but 
that article is considered as a syllable of the name, and never varies. 

(b) Except le Caire, Cairo ; le Catelet, la Chapelle, la Ckaritf, la Ferte, la Fleche, le 
Havre, la Havanne, Havannah ; la Have, the Hague ; la Hague, le Mans, la Mecque, 
Mecca ; le Plessis, le Pui, le Quenoi, la Kochelle, which require the definite article, for we 
say, Je viens du Havre. I come from Havre. Je vais a la Rochelle. I am going to Kochelle. 

(c) Some names of countries, which take their name from their capital city, such as, 
Alger, Algiers ; Avignon, Genes, Genoa ; Geneve, Geneva ; Florence, Maroc, Morocco ; 
Naples, Orange, Tunis, Tripoli, Venise ; or from the name of some person; as, St. Domin- 
gue, St. Domingo ; St. Vincent, &c. do not require the article. 

(d) From this rule must be excepted the countries discovered by the navigators, and 
some countries in Asia and Africa, which are never used without the article. The most 
essential to be known, on account of their being frequented by the Europeans, are 

1' Archipel, Archipelago. la Floride, Florida. le Mississipi, Mississipi. 

lesBarbades, Barbadoes. la Grenade, Grenada le Mogol, Mogul Emp. 

le Bengal, Bengal. laGuadeloupe,G\\ndalo\ipe.iesMoluques, Moluccalsles. 

la Bermude, Bermuda. h\G uicnne, Guiana. la Nigritie, rterr«,Nigritia. 
le Brhil, Brasil. 1' hide, India. la ]\'ouvelle Jlngte-NewEngland. 

la Califournie, California. 1' Indosian, lndostan. le Paraguai, Paraguay, 

le Canada, Canada. laJumaique, Jamaica. le Pehponese, Peloponesus. 

la Caroline, Carolina. leJapon, Japan. la Pensylvanie, Pensylvania. 

le Chili, Chili. le Levant, The Levant, le Pe'rou, Peru. 

la Chine, China. laLouisiune, Louisiana. lesPhilippines, ThePhil. Isles. 

la Coc/ii»c/iiHe, !tfarrinigue,Martinique. la Sonde, Sunda. 

le Congo, Congo. idMixique, Mexico. la Virginis, Virginia. 

For wo say; J' ai ete au Canada. I have been hi Canada. Je vais a la Jama'ique, au 
Mfoique, au Pe'rou, &;c. I am going to Jamaica, to Mexico, to Peru, &c. Je viens du 
Japon t de la Chine, des bides, $c. 1 come from Japan, China, the Indies, &c. 

192 article and noun. 

THE, LE, LA, LES ; DU, de LA, DES ; AU, a LA, AUX. 
/ Every common name used in a general sense, i. e. implying* the 
whole* of the substance spoken of, or in a particular sense, i. e. im- 
plying" some particular sort* of the substance, requires before it one of 
the definite signs le, la, les ; du, de la, des ; au, a la, aux, agreeably 
to the gender and number of the noun ; ex. 

general sense, no article in english before the noun. 
I like wine, J'aime le vin, 

glory, la gloire, 

money, l' argent, 

pleasures. les plaisirs 

The love ojfwine, of glory. L 1 amour du vin, de la gloire, fyc. 

He owes it to wine, to glory. II le doit au vin, a l\ gloire, $c. 
particular sense, in english the before the noun. 
This is ike wine ] Void le vin, 

the glory T ,., la. gloire, ., . 

., b J >I like. , b . }que i aime. 

the money l argent, l J 

Tliese are the pleasures] les plaisirs 

A glass of the wine I like. Un verre du vin que f aime. 

_ OF expressed by DE ; not by du, de la, des. 

q In the above examples you see of expressed by du, de la, des, but 
observe that thispreposition coming' aftera noun used in a partitive sense ,* 
can not be expressed by du, de la, des, which would then particularize* the 
substance spoken of, and mean of the; it must be expressed by de only, 
without any regard to the gender or number of the noun ; so we say, 
We have a pipe of wine, Nous avons une pipe de vin, 

plenty of money, quantite d argent, . 

a variety (^pleasures. une variete de plaisirs. 

Not, une pipe du vin, quantite de l' argent, Sfc. which would mean a 
pipe of the wine, quantity of the money, &c.f 

N. JB. In this rule must be included the following words which, though 

* When you speak of a substance, you either mean it Whole, or in Parts. 

If you mean the Whole of the substance of which you are speaking, the noun that 
names it, is said to be used in a General sense ; as, Wine cheers the heart of man, i. e. that 
substance in general known by the name of Wine, cheers the heart of man. 

If you mean some Particular sort of the substance of which you are speaking, the 
noun is said to be used in a Particular sense; as, The wine which we drank was good ; in 
speaking thus, I do not mean to say, that all the substance called wine is good, for 
there is bad wine, but that particular sort which we drank was good. 

If you neither mean the whole, nor any particular sort of the substance spoken of, but 
a certain Portion, or Quantity of it ; as when you say, Give me some wine, A glass of wine ; 
i. e. a portion of the substance called wine, the noun is said to be used in a Partitive sense. 

f" It appears from the foregoing examples that, when two nouns come together in 
french, they must be connected by some sign, and this sign is determined by the sense 
in which the nouns are used. 

If, as in the first instance (rule 7.), the noun's are used in an unlimited signification, 
they must be connected by the sign which denotes that idea, viz. du, de la, des. 

But if, as in the second instance (rule 8), the extent of the second noun is determined 
by the fit st, then a simple preposition is sufficient to connect them. 



they have no sign after them in english, require in french the connective 
particle de to unite them to the noun which follows them; 

assez, enough ; as, Assez 

beaucoup, much, many ; (e) 

combien, how much, how many ; 

tant, so much, so many ; 

autant, as much, as many ; 

plus, more; 

moins, less ; 

trop, too much, too many ; 

PE Y' \little, few ; 

GUERE,) ,J ' 

PAS, ]. . 

hio, not; 
point, j ' ' 

jamais, never ; 

de via 

Beaucoup D 








one re 

pas, 01 




de gloire. 
de plaisirs. 

de vin. 
d' argent. 
de gloire. 
be plaisirs. 
de vin. 
d' argent. 

de gloire. 

de plaisirs. 

Every common name used in a partitive sense* i. e. implying' only J-J 
a portion of the substance spoken of, requires one of the partitive signs 
du, de la, des, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 
We have some wine, Nous avons du vin, 

some glory, de la gloire, 

some money, de l' argent, 

some pleasures. des plaisirs. 

N. B. The sign some is often understood in english before collective 
substantives, such as, men, bread, meat, money, clothes, wine, fruit, 
pleasure, 6)C. but the corresponding sign can not be omitted in french, and 
it must be repeated before every noun ; as, 

We have wine, glory, money, pleasures; i. e. some wine, some c]'c. 

Nous avons du vin, de la gloire, de i? argent, des plaisirs. 

Exception. SOME, ANY expressed by DE ; not by du, de la, des. 
The. partitive signs du, de la, des, require the noun immediately after I (J 
them, therefore, if a noun used in a partitive sense is preceded by an 
adjective, use de before that adjective without any regard to gender or 
number, instead of du, de la, des before the noun ; as, 
We have excellent wine, Nous avons d' excellent vin, 

fresh glory, de nouvelle gloire, 

very good money, de tres bon argent, 

true pleasures. wvrais plaisirs. 

But if, agreeably to the general rule, the adjective comes after the noun, 
Ihen the noun resumes its proper *ign, viz. du, de la, des; as, 
Nous avons du vin excellent, We have excellent wine, 

de la gloire bieji aquise, well acquired glory, 

de l' argent comptant, ready money, 

des plaisirs champetrcs. rural pleasures. 

(e) Much, Many, are expressed by Beaucoup or by Bien, with tins difference < nljr, 
that Beaucoup requires DE alter it, and Bien requires du, de la, des ; so Ave say, 

Beaucoup de vin, de gloire, d' urgent, do pluisirs. 
Or, Bien du tin, de la gloire, de 1' argent, des plaisirs. * Sec note * page 192. 




194 article and noun. 


A, AN; UN, UNE. 
A, an denoting* individuality, i. e. one only of the substance spoken 
of, is expressed in french by the number un, une, and no distinction is 
made between a and one ; as, 

A or one bottle. une bouteille. 

A or one pound. une Uvre. 

A or one dozen. une donzaine. 

A or one hundred. un cent, (f) 

But a, an before the names of Measure, weight, Number and periods 
of time, used in a collective sense, i. e. not denoting individuality, is not 
expressed by un, une, it is expressed by le, la ; as, 

Wine sells at six shilling's a bottle; he vin se vend six shelins la bou- 

i. e. six shillings j^er bottle, teille ; not, une bouteille. 

Butter twenty pence a pound ; Le beurre vingt sous la Uvre ; 

i. e. per pound, not, une Uvre. 

Eggs a shilling" a dozen ; Les ceufs un sheliii la douzaine ; 

i. e. one shilling per dozen. not, une douzaine. 

Oranges a guinea a hundred ; Les Oranges une guinee le cent; 

i. e. one guinea per hundred, not, une guinee un cent. 

I go to town once a day ; Je vais a la ville unefois lej.vv, 

i. e. each day, or daily. or par jour ; not, un jour. 

Three times a week, or weekly. Trois fois la semaine, or par sem. 

By these words a bottle, a pound, a dozen, a hundred, I do not mean 

thato?ie single or individual bottle, pound, dozen or hundred sells at that 

price ; but each bottle, pound, dozen, or hundred ; nor that I go to town 

one single day or week ; but each day, each week. 

The demonstrative words, ce, cet, cette, ces are used in the same 
instances as the corresponding signs are in english ; they serve to point 
out the objects we name, and follow the same rule as le, la, les ; ex. 
I like this or that wine, J'aime ce vin, 

this or that beer, cette Mere, 

this or that money, cet argent, 

these or those fruits. ces fruits. 

N. B. ce, cet, cette, ces do not express that local distinction which 
is implied in the words this, these; that, those ; so, if you wish 
to make the same distinction in french, you must add to the noun, ci 
to denote the nearest object, and la to denote the remotest ; as, 
I prefer this wine to that, Je prefere ce vin - ci a celui-hk. 

this beer to that.* cette biere-ci acelle-hk. 

I prefer that wine to this, J e prefere ce vin- lA acelui-ci. 

that beer to this,* cette biere-hk dcelle-ci. 

this money to that, cet argenl-ci a celui -la. 

those fruits to these. ces fru its- l a a ceux - ci. 

(f) Any number prefixed to a noun may be considered as an article, since, like the 
article, it serves to determine the acceptation of that noun ; as, Deux hommes, two men; 
1'tois femmes, three women ; Quutre livres, four books ; Six bouteilles, six bottles, &c 

* this, that, these, those are also pronouns ; see note (p) page 89. 


article and NOUN. 195 



These words follow the same rule as the article le, la, les ; they 1^* 
agree in gender and number with the noun which follows them; so, 
Her father, is, son pere. His or her son, son fils. 

His mother, sa mere. His or her daughter, sa Jille. 

The possessive article my, thy, his, her, our, your, their is 
expressed by the definite le, la, les, when prefixed to the name of any 
part of the body, after a verb denoting" a natural action of the body ; as, 

I open my "j J"' ouvre ) 

Thou openest thy >mouth. Tu ouvres >la bouche ; 

He opens his J II ouvre J not, ma bouche* 

Or when the verb denotes an action done upon the body ; as, 

I have cut my | Je me suis \ 

Thou hast cut thy >finger. Tu t' es \coupe le doigt* 

He has cut his J II s' estf J 

Never say ; J'ai coupi mon doigt ; Tu as coupt TON doigt ; II a coupe* SON doigt, fyc. 

N. B. Observe that in speaking of an action done upon the body, the 
person on whom the action is done must be denoted by a personal pro- 
noun ; so, if the verb is not reflective, i.e. if the agent does not act upon 
itself, as it does above, one of the pronouns me, nous, te, vous, lui, 
leur, agreeably to number and person, must be added to the verb ; as, 
{my J II u j 

He has cuuthy >finger. II r' >a coupe le doigt. 

[his or her J II lui j 

(our "j 77 nous ] 

He has cud your >fingers. II vous \a coupe les doigts. 

[their J II leur J 

Never say ; II a coupt mon doigt ; 11 a coupt ton doigt ; II a coupt son doigt, fyc. 

If, in instances similar to the above, i. e. before the names of the parts 
of the body, the possessive words my, thy, his, her, our, your, 
their come with the verbs, To have a pain, Avoir mal ; To hurt, se 
Faire mal; To be cold, Avoir froid ; To be warm, Avoir chaud ; they 
are expressed by au, a la, aux ; as, 

I have a pain in my ] J' ai 


Thou hast a pain in thy /finger. Tu as >mal au doigt, 

He has a pain in his J II a J not, d mon doigt.* 

I have hurt my 1 Je me suis ] 

Thou hast hurt thy >hand. Tu *r' es \fait malk la main; 

He has hurt his J 11 s' est\ J not, d ma main. 

My feet are ) J' ai 

Thy feet are Wul. Tu as% > froid aux pieds ; 

His or her feet\ J II or elle a J not, d mes pieefc. 

* When I say, J'oticrc la bouche, I open </ie mouth ; the hearer understands that it is 
of my own month that I am s>>. aking, for ifit was the mouth of another being, I should 
name that Doing. Again, Je me suis coupe le doigt, corresponds with the engUsh, J hare 
cut myself in the linger ; and J'ui mal AC doigt, with, 1 have a train in the linger. Hero 
also the possession being sufficiently determined by the pronoun me, or by the verb 
J'ai. any other possessive expression would he Superfluous ; however, those arc idioms 
which practice alone can render familiar. f See 237 rule. t See 239 rule. 

N 2 

196 article and noun. 

1 / Its and their neuter, are also expressed by le, la, les, and the 
pronoun en is added to the verb, when the noun to which they are pre- 
fixed is not governed by the same verb as the noun to which they refer; as, 

That tree is fine, but its fruit is good for nothing'. 

Cet arbre est beau, mais le fruit iivn vaut Hen; i. e. the fruit of it. 
But they are expressed by son, sa, ses, leur, if the nouns are governed 
by the same verb ; as, 

I like that tree, its shape and 27.9 leaves. 

Xaime cet arbre, s a forme et ses feuilles. 

\ Q The possessive mon, ma, mes must be prefixed to names of kindred and 
friendship, when we call or answer any one by those names ; as, 
Come here, brother. Venez ici, mox frere. 

I can not, sister. Je ne saurais, bia sceur. 

J[ y The article is left out in french, when expressed in english, at the title 
page, or before any of the parts of a book ; as, 

A french grammar. Grammaire francaise. 

The preface. The first part. Preface. Premiere partie, 

2t\j The article a, an which comes after what, is omitted in freneh ; as, 
What a man ! Quel hommel not Quel un homme! 

What a woman! Quelle femme ! - Quelle uw&femme! 

JdL The article a, an coming before hundred or thousand, followed 
by a noun, or relating to a noun,* is not expressed in french, the words 
cent and mille having the property of an article*; as, 

I have won a thousand guineas; J'ai gagne mille guinees ; 

Will you have a hundred of them? En voulez-vous cent? not, un cent. 

2dL No article is used in french, before a noun added to illustrate or 
explain another noun ; and the article which is prefixed to such nouns 
in english, must be omitted in french; as, 

Zaira a tragedy of Voltaire. Zaire tragedie de Voltaire. - 
Paris the capital of France. Paris capitate de la France. 
Never, Zaire une tragedie; nor Paris la capitate fyc. 
But if we left out the first noun, we should say; J'ai vu une trage'die 
2iO de Voltaire. Tai vu la capitate de la France. 

The article a, an is also omitted in french after some neuter verbs, such 
as Eire, to be; Devenir, to become; se Faire, to turn; Passer pour, to 
be reckoned, to pass for ; the noun which follows these verbs being con- 
sidered as an adjective which serves to illustrate their nominative -, as, 
Is he a Frenchman? Est-il Francais? 

He passes for a German. II passe pour Allemand. 

His father is a merchant. Sonpereestnegociant ; not,UN negoc. 

But the article must be expressed, if the noun is attended by an adjective 
or by a relative pronoun, for it then returns into the class of substantives ; 
His father is a wealthy merchant. Son pere est UN riche negociaut. 

2,4: No article is used in french before a noun which, being joined to a 
verb, forms only one idea with that verb ; as, Avoir peu'r, to fear, to be 
afraid ; Avoir mat, to ache, to have a pain ; Avoir raison, to be right, 
to be in the right, &c. ; these expressions are found in the dictionaries. 

* See note (f) page 194. 

article and NOUN". 197 

Hon to place two nouns together. 

Sometimes two noVns come tog-ether, having a dependence on each j&d 
other, and forming- a kind of complex idea ; as, 

John's horse. The princes sword. The lady's gown. A silk gown. 

The English have Tiro ways of using these nouns; they say, 
I.The horse of John. The sword of the prince. The gown of the lady. A gown of silk. 
2. Johns horse. The prince's sword. The lady's gown. A silk gown. 

The French, on the contrary, have only one of these modes of placing 

two nouns together ; they, as in the }st instance, always place first the 

noun which is the subject of discourse, with du, de la, des, de, or X 

before the second noun, agreeably to the sense in which it is used; as, 

John's horse. Le cheval de Jean ; i. e. the horse of John. 4. rut. 

The prince's sword. L'epee du prince; the sword of the prince." 

The lady's gown. La robe de la dame; the gown of the lady. 7 

A silk gown. Une robe de sole; a gown of silk. 8 rule. 

Sometimes however the order of the nouns could not be changed in the Ji\) 
above manner in english, without changing also the meaning ; for ex. these 
expressions, a wine glass, a Tea spoon, could not be turned into a Glass of 
wine, a spoon of tea ; yet the nouns require this order in french : instead 
of changing the order of the wordj to alter the idea, as the English do, the 
French change the preposition, and instead of de, they use a ; so, 

A glasn of wine, is, Un verre de vin ; and 

A wine glass, is, Un verre A vin ; i. e. a glass used for wine.* 

N. B. When the nouns are compounded of the words Fair, foire ; 
Market, marche, and in speaking of messes, and the ingredients which they 
are made of, the two nouns are connected by au, a la, aux ; as, 

The hay market. Le marche au foin ; i. e. the market for hay. 

Some cream tarts. Des tartes a la creme ; tarts made with cream. 

Sometimes the name of a country is changed in english into an Jdj 
adjective^ and prefixed to the name of its production ; as Spanish wine, 
French brandy, English beer, Dutch cheese, &c. ; that adjective must be 
expressed by the substantive in french, and placed after the name of 
ihc production, connected by the preposition de ; as, 

Spanish wine. Vin D'Espagne; i.e. wine of Spain. 

French brandy. Eau-de-vie de France; i. e. brandy of France. 

Before the name of a country, after a noun denoting dignity or au- ^Jo 
liicrify, such as emperor, king, prince, Sfc. of is expressed by de ; as, 
The emperor of Russia. L'cmpereur de Russie. 

The parliament o/England. Le parlement d' Angleterre. 

A Her any other noun, of is expressed by du, de LA, des ; as, 
The south of France. Le sud de la France. 

The north of England. Le nord de l? Angleterre. 

* This rule is not without some exceptions, for Ave say, Un pot de ckambre. a chamber 
pot: Uiiefillede diamine, a chamber maid ; Un bound de unit, a nightcap ; tin mouchoir 
de voche, a pocket handkerchief ; In cheval de carosae, a coach horse ; Un cochon de lait, 
h suckling pi^, &c. these few exceptions v.ill be learnt by reading, and in conversation. 

A, B. Many of these compound names are expressed by a single word in french ; as, 
Coachman, Cocker ; Footman, Laquais; Countinghouse, Comptoir ; Coachhouse, Hemiw. 
These expressions are found in the dictionaries, and will be learnt by reading. 




198 CHAP. IV. 


An adjective is a word added to a noun, to denote some quality oi 
circumstance belonging to that noun ; as, good wine, fine flowers. 

The adjective must be of the same gender and number as the 
noun to which it is added; as, 

That is a handsome man. Voila un bel homme. 

That is a handsome woman. Voila une belle femme. (g) 
N. B. A past participle, used to qualify a substantive, follows the 
same rules ay an adjective; ex. 

He is very well made. II est tres bien fait. 

She is very well made. Elle est tres bien faitc 

When an adjective qualifies several nouns singular of the same gender, 
that adjective must be ofthe same gender as those nouns, and plural;8ls, 
My father and brother are gone out. Mon pere el monfrerc sont souths. 
My mother and sister are gone out. Ma mere et ma smir sont sortie. 

But if the nouns are of different genders, the adjective must be of 
the masculine gender, and in the plural number; as, 
My father and mother are gone out. Mon pere et ma mere sont sortis. 
He found his son and daughter dead. II trouva son fits et safille morts. fhj 

(g) The feminine gender of an adjective, or of a participle used adjectively, is formed 
by adding e mute, that is to say, e not accented, to the masculine ; as, 

loved ; pretty j lost ; great ; fine ; last ; precise ; little ; learned. 
Masc. aim6, joli, perdu, grand, fin, dernier, precis, petit, savant. 

Fern, aimee. jotie. perdue, grande. fine, demiere, precise, petite, savante. 


E. Adjectives ending in e mute, are the same for both genders ; as, Un honnete homme , 
an honest man. Une honnete femme ; an honest "wsoman. Un jeune homme aimable ; ai> 
amiable young man. Une jeune femme aimable; an amiable young woman. 

I. The feminine of beni, blessed, is benite ; that of favor i, favourite, is favorite. 

U. The feminine of beau, fine ;• nouveau, new ; mou, soft ; fou, mad ; is belle, nouvelle, molle, 
folle, from bel, nouvel, mol, fol used before a noun masculine beginning with a vowel. 

C. The feminine of blanc, white ; franc, frank ; sec, dry ; caduc, decayed 5 public, public ; 
grec, greek ; turc, turkish ; is blanche, frunche, seche, caduque, publique, greque, turque. 

D. The feminine of nud, naked ; crud, raw ; is nue, crue ; and that of verd, green, is verte. 

F. Adjectives ending in/, change /into ve for the feminine ; as, 

Masc. bref, brief ; neuf, new ; naif, candid ; actif, active ; plaintif, sorrowful. 
Fern, breve, brief; neuve,new ; naive, candid ; active, active ; plaintive, sorrowful. 

G. The feminine of long, long, the only adjective ending in g, is longue. 

L, N, 1 Adjectives ending in el, eil, vl, un, ien, on, as, ais, es, et, os, ot, double the final 
S, T, J consonant, and take e mute for the feminine gender ; as, 

cruel; rosy ; null ; ancient ; good ; big ; fat ; thick ; clean ; foolish. 

Masc. cruel, vermeil, mil, ancien, bon, gros, gras, dpais, net, sot. 

Fern, cruelle. vermeille. nulle. ancienne. bonne, grosse. grasse. £paisse. neite. sotte. 

Except the adjectives of nations ; as, francais, french ; anglais, english ; kcmauvais, 
Dad ; niais, silly ; ras, shorn ; complet, complete ; discret, discreet ; inquiet, uneasy ; 
replet, replete ; secret, secret; which follow the general rule, francaise, anglaise, mau- 
vaise ; c\c. frais, fresh ; tiers, third ; which make fraiche, tierce ; and benin, benign ; 
malin, mischievous ; which make benigne, maligne, in the feminine. 
X. Adjectives ending in x, change x intose for the feminine ;• as, 

Masc. heureux, happy ; paresseux, lazy ; jaloux, jealous ; faux, false ; 

Fern, heureuse, happy, paresseuse, lazy, jalouse, jealous. f ausse, false. 

Except doux, sweet, soft ; which makes douce ; and vicux, old, which makes vieille. 

N. B. The plural of adjectives is formed like that of nouns, by adding s to the singular. 

(h) When the adjective is not separated from the nouns by a verb, some authors make 

it agree with the last noun , thus, II trouva son fils et sa file mortc ; but they except tho 


Adjectives in english are generally placed before the noun, in french Om 
Lhey are generally placed after it; as, 

A black coat. Un habit noir. 

A well made man. Un homme bien fait. 

'Hm, french language. • La langue fr.anc.aise. 

Except these adjectives, which are generally placed before the noun ; Oz> 
premier, 1st; second, 2nd ; and other adjectives of number. 

beau, bel, m.\fine, 
belle, fern. [handsome. 

BON, m. BONNE, f. good. 

grand, great, large. 

gros, m. grosse, f. big. 

jeune, young. 

JOLX, pretty. 

mauvais, bad. 

She is a handsome woman. 

She has a good husband. 

me chant, wicked. 
meilleur, better. 
meme, same. 


petit, little, small. 

plcsieurs, several. 

tout, all, whole. 

vieux, m. vieille, f. old; as, 

Cest une belle femme. 

Elle a un bon mart. 

But if any one of the above adjectives comes with another adjective o4: 
that can not be placed before the noun, they must both be placed after, 
connected by a conjunction; as, 

A handsome, amiable woman. Une femme belle et aimable. 

A good, complaisant husband. Un mari bon et complaisant, (i) 

adjectives which express union ; as, II trouva son fits et safrfle re'unis, RECONCiLies, &c. 
These exceptions and exceptions of exceptions are very difficult for learners to retain ; 
therefore I would advise them to follow the general rule, which is perfectly agreeable 
to the fundamental principles of the french language. 

(ij The rules for the placing of adjectives are not very strictly adhered to, especially 
in poetry. Even in prose many adjectives may be placed either before or after the noun, 
according as their position is more agreeable to the ear, of which a learner can be no 
judge ; so his surest way is to follow the rules, and to notice in reading, tbose adjectives 
which he finds sometimes before and sometimes after the noun. Yet custom, for want 
of other expressions, has fixed a place for some adjectives which must be attended to, as 
the placing the adjective before or after the noun changes the idea; the most common are, 

Un brave homme. A well behaved man. 

Un homme brave. A courageous man. 

De braves gens. Well behaved people. 

Des gens braves. Courageous people. 

Un bon homme. A simple man. 

Un homme ban. A good naturcd man. 

Un honnete homme. An honest man. 

Un homme honnete. A civil man. 

D' honnetps gens. Honest people. 

Des gens honnetes. Civil people. 

Un gentil homme. A noble man. 

Un homme gentil. A genteel man. 

Un galant homme. A liberal man. 

Un homme galant. A galant. 

Un grand homme. A great man. 

Un homme grand. A tall man. 

Un plaisant homme. Anodd sort of a fellow. 

Un homme plaisant. A pleasant man. 

Un vilain homme. 
Un homme vilain. 
Un pauvre homme. 
Un homme pauvre. 
Une cruel le femme. 
Une femme cruelle. 
Une sage femme. 
Une femme sage. 
Une grosse femme. 
Une femme grosse. 
Vnfurieux animal. 
Un animal furieux. 

A disagreeable man. 

A niggardly fellow. 

A man without genius. 

A poor man. 

An unfeeling woman. 

A cruel woman. 

A midwife. 

A wise woman. 

A big, fat woman. 

A woman with child. 

A huge creature. 

A fierce animal. 
Une certuine nouvelle.A certain piece ofnews. 
\Jne nouvelle certuine. True or sure news. 
Ue nouveau vin._ Fresh wine. 

Du vin nouveau. Wine newly made. 

La morte eau. The neap tides. 

De l'eau morte. Standing water. 

The adjective Cher placed before the noun signiucs dear , affectionate ; as, Moncher pere, 
my dear father ; placed after it, it signifies of high price ; as, Un livre cher, a dear book. 

New is both Neuf and Nouveau ; Neuf is said of things newly made ; as, A new coat, 
Un habit neuf, i. e. made of new cloth ; un livre neuf, a new book, i. e. a book tliat lias 
not been used, &c. Nouveau is said of things newly invented, of new productions ; as, 
Un habit nouveau, a coat of a new fashion ; Un nouveau livre, or un livre nouveau, a new 
Dook, i. 6. a new production. Un nouvel habit rae?.ns a new dress. 


OO The adjectives of number, premier,^/^; second, deuxieme, second , 
troisieme, third; quatrieme, fourth ; cinquieme,^/^, Sfc. are placed 
in french as in english, before the noun ; as, 

The first day. Le premier jottr. 

The ybwrt'A month. .Le quatrieme 77102*5. 

OO But when the adjectives Third, Fourth, Fifth, sixth, Sfc. are used as a 
distinction to some personage ; as, George the third, Henry the eighth ; 
or to date the months ; as, July ]4th, November hth ; they are changed 
into the substantive numbers Deux, Ti'ois, ouatre, cinq, six, fyc. 
If used as a distinction, they are put after the name of the personage, as ; 

George the third. George trois, i. e. george three. 

Henry the eighth. Henri iiuit, i. e. henry eight. 

If used as a date, they are put before the name of the month, joined to it by 
de ; as, July 1427?,. • Le quatorze de JuilleL 

November bth. Le cinq de Novcmbre.(k) 

O/ Adjectives of Measure and Dimension, such as, nigh, Tall, low, Deep, 
Thick, Big, wide, Broad, Long, short, c}c. which are placed after the num- 
ber in english, must be placed before it in french, joined to it by de ; as, 

A room twelve feet long, and ten broad. 

Une chambre longue de douze pieds, et large de dix ; 
JLiteral. A room long of twelve feet, and broad often. 

A wall ten feet high, and two feet thick. 

Un mur haut de dix pieds, et epais de deux; 
Literal. A wall high often feet, and thick of two. 

N. B. The adjectives of Measure and Dimension are frequently ex- 
pressed in french by their substantives ;f then the words remain in the 
same order in french as they are in english, but both the number and 
the noun of measure must be preceded by de ; as, 

A room twelve feet long, and ten broad. 

Une chambre de douze pieds de longueur, et de dix de largeur. 
Literal. A room of twelve feet of length, and often of breadth. 

A wall ten feet high, and two feet thick. 

Un mur de dix pieds de hauteur, et de deux d'iPAissEUR ; 
Literal. A wall often feet of height, and of two of thickness. 

But observe that when the adjective is changed into its substantive, the 
verb etre must be changed into avoir, and de is omitted before the 
number; as, Our room is twelve feet long, and ten broad. 
Adject. Notre chambre est longue de douze pieds, et large de c?2.r. 
Subst. Notre chambre a douze pieds de longueur, el dix de largeur ; 

i. e. Our room has twelve feet 0/ length, and ten of breadth. 
Adject. Ce mur est haut de dix pieds, et epais de deux. 
Subst. Ce mur a dix pieds de hauteur, et deux d epaisseur ; 
i. e. This wall has ten feet of height, and two of thickness. 

(k) Except Premier in dating the days, and Premier and Second when used for a dis- 
tinction ; for we do not say, Le un de Janvier, the one of January ; hut, Le premier de 
Janvier, Le deux, Le trois, §c. nor do we say, George un, George one ; George deux, 
George two ; hut George -premier, George second, and then, George trois, George three; 
George quutre, 6;c. 

t The suhstantive may he formed hy adding ur to the adjective when it ends with a 
vowel; as, Large, largeur ; and eur when it ends with a consonant 3 as, Haut, liauteuv, o>e 



The adjective can not be separated by an article from the noun which OO 
it qualifies, therefore those articles which come between the adjective and 
the noun in english, must be placed before them in french; as, 

Such a man. un tel homme; not tel un homme. 

So great a thing. une si grande chose. 

Except tout, all, whole, which requires the article after it; as, 
All his time. Tout son terns. 

The whole day. Tout le jour. 

A whole day. Tout un jour* 

Except also, when the adjective is used to distinguish some particular 
person from another person of the same name ; as, 

Peter the cruel. Pierre le cruel. 

Cato the elder. Caton L'ancien. 

Alexander the great. Alexandre le grand. 

By prefixing to an adjective, an article of the same gender and num- Oi) 
ber as the noun to which it refers, that adjective has often the property 
of a substantive, and the words .man, woman, people which are ex- 
pressed in english, may be omitted in french; as, 

The wise man is happy. Le sage est heureux. 

He is a troublesome man. Cest un importun. 

She is a little brown woman. Cest une petite brune. 

The great; the covetous people. "Les grands; les avares.t 

As an article prefixed to an adjective without a noun, gives to it 4U 
the property of a substantive, so when the article is taken from a 
noun, that noun assumes the power of an abjective ; for example, 
I know a poet. 

I speak of a philosopher. 

Here the words poet a::d philosopher are substantives, because they 
name the objects spoken of, consequently they require an article ; so, 

Je connais un poete. 

Je parte d'un philosophe. But when I say, 

The man I speak of is a poet and a philosopher. 

He is a poet, but he is not. a philosopher. 
The substance I am speaking of is man, the words poet and philoso- 
pher are Only attributes of that substance, and they no more require an 
article than if I said; the man I speak of is witty, is wise) so the French, 

If homme dont je parle est poete et philosophe. 

II est poete, mais it iiestpas philosophe. 

A philosopher is seldom a poet, but a poet is seldomer a philosopher. 
Philosopher in the 1st part of the sentence is zsubstant. in the 2nd an adj. 
Poet'm the 1st p art of the sentence is an adjective, in the 2nd a substantive , ; 
So the French, 

Ranment un philosophe est poete, mais plus rarement un poete 
est philosophe. (See the 23rd rule.) 

; And if tout is governed by a preposition, the preposition must be placed before 
TOl T, and the article after ; as, 

Of tlic whole regiment. Do tout le regiment. To the whole fleet. A toute ixflotte. 

t This rule extends to many adjectives, but not to all ; they should by taken notice 
of in reading. 







The same words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also, by the means 
of certain adverbs prefixed to them, to compare their qualities. 

The quality of a substance, when compared with another, is either 
superior, inferior, or equal to the other ; this is called comparative* 

Or the quality is raised above, or lowered below several others, and 
this is called superlative. 

of comparatives. 
The comparative of superiority more before the adjective, or r or 
er added to it, as more strong- or stronger, is formed in french by plus 
before the adjective;* as, 

My horse is more strong or stronger than yours. 
Mon clieval est plus fort que le voire. 

The comparative of inferiority less before the adjective, is formed 
in french by moins before the adjective;?* as, 
My horse is less strong- than yours. 
Mon cheval est moins fort que le voire. 
The same comparative formed by so before the adjective, and as after 
it, is expressed, so before the adjective by si, and as after it by que ; as, 
My horse is not so strong as yours. 
Mon cheval n'est pas si fort que le votre. 

The comparative of equality as before, and as after the adjective, is 
expressed, as before the adjective by aussi, and as after it by que ; as, 
My horse is as strong as yours. 
Mon cheval est aussi fort que le voire. 


The superlative formed by most or least before the adjective, or by 
st or est added to it; as, most strong or strongest, is formed in french 
by adding le, la, les to the comparative words plus, moins ; as, 
Comp. stronger, plus fort, m. plus forte, f. 

Sup. strongest, LePLUS fort, LaPhus forte, Les plus forts, Les plus fortes. 
Comp. Less strong, moins fort, m. moins forte, f. 
Super. Least strong, Le moins fort, La moins forte, lcs moins forts, 
Les moins fortes, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as, 
My pony is the strongest of my horses. 
Mon bidet est le plus fort de mes chevaux. 
My mare is the least strong of the two. 
Ma jument est la moins forte des deux.(l) 
N. B. The comparison of adverbs is formed like that of adjectives ; as, 
Strongly, Fortement. More strongly, plus fortement. 
Most strongly, le plus fortement. Less strongly, moins fortement, Sfc 

* Except meilleur, better: pire, worse, adjectives, ^ , • , „ A .. , 

MiEUX, better; pis, worse, adverbs, l wluch f, re comparatives of 

t Except moindre, less, J tnemselves. 

(I) Observe what is said, note * page 33, that two of the signs called article, can 
not be prefixed to the same noun ; so, 

My strongest horse ; is, Mon plus fort cheval ; Not, Mon le plus fort cheval. 

Observe also, that if the adjective is placed first, the article needs not to be repeated 
before the noun ; but if tbe noun is first, the article must be repeated before the adjec- 
tive ; as, It is the strongest horse I have seen. 

Cest le plus fort cheval quefaie vu; or C'est le cheval le PLUS fo^t quefaie vu. 



When the comparison runs between two parts of a sentence, an ~rD 
article is added to the comparative in english ; as, 

The more you study, the more you learn ; 
This article is omitted in french; 

plus vous etudiez, plus vous apprenez. 
And the adjective or noun which, in these instances, comes before 
the verb in english, must be placed after it in french ; as, 

The longer the day is, the shorter is the night. 

plus lejour est long, plus la nuit est courte ; 
Literal. More the day is long, more the night is short. 

The more pojmlous a country is, the richer it is. 

plus un pays est peuple, plus il est riche ; 
Literal. More a country is populous, more it is rich. 

The comparative words plus, moins, si, aussi must be repealed 40 
before every adjective, though they are in the same sentence; as, 
She is as rich and handsome as her cousin. 
Elle est aussi riche et aussi belle que sa cousine. 

The comparative words plus, moins, moindre, meilleur, mieux, 4/ 
pire, Pis require ne before the verb which follows them; as, 

This is better than I thought. 

Ceci est meilleur queje ne j)ensais. 
However ne is not required if the following verb is in the infinitive, 
or if it is preceded by a conjunction ; as, 

It is greater to forgive than to revenge. 

II est plus grand de pardonner que de* se venger. 

I am better now than when I was in town. 

Je me porte mieux a present que quand felais a la ville. 

The particles by and than coming after the comparative, or after the 4o 
adverbs more, less followed by a word denoting quantity, not quality, 
are expressed by de, not by que or par; as, 

It is stronger by much. // est plus fort de beaucoup. 

It costs more than ten guineas. II coute plus de dix guinees. 

The preposition in, after & superlative in english, is expressed in french 4i/ 
in the same manner as of, agreeably to the rules on the article; as, 
He is the richest merchant in London. 
Cest leplus riche ncgociant de Londres ; i. e. of London. 
She is the most virtuous woman in the city. 
Cest lafemme la plus vertueuse de la ville; i. e. of the city. 

The superlative followed by the relative or definite pronoun, qui, que, 0\j 
dont requires the following verb in the subjunctive mood; as, 
She is the prettiest woman that was at the ball. 
Cest la plus jolie femme qui fut au bal. 
He is the handsomest man (hat I have ever seen. 
Ccst le plus bel homme que /aie jamais vu. 

9 Tho same preposition which follows the comparative must be repealed after QUE: as 
We are- more inclined to revenge, than to forgive. 
Nous sommes PLOT partes a nous venger Qu'fi pardonner. 



A pronoun is a word used to represent a noun, as when I say 1 in- 
stead of naming my oion name ; thou, you, he, she, it, they instead 
of naming that of another being. 

There are various sorts of pronouns, generally known by the names of 



As there are three perso?is in grammar, so there are three sorts of 
words to represent them, but sometimes the same person is represented 
by several words, as appears from the following table. 

Agents or nominatives of Verbs. 

objects of Verbs, or of Prepositions.* 

1st per. 









2nd per. 




YOU ; 












3rd p, f. 







3rd p. n. 


IL, m. 
ILS, to. 

ELLES. /. 


LE, to. 
LES, m 


EN, Y. 
EN, Y. 

3rd pers 




ves ; 



And as these words are not used indiscriminately, it is necessary to 
atteud to the following: observations. 

* In every action there is an Agent, doer, or performer; as I write, I teach, Thou 
teachest. He teaches, The master teaches ; and if the action is of a nature to be commu- 
nicated, there is also generally a Patient or receiver ; as, I write a Letter, I teach You, Him, 
Her, Them, French, English, fyc. This Agent or doer, in grammar, is called the NOMINA- 
TIVE of the verb, and the Patient or receiver, is called the object ; so, I, Thou, He, The 
master are nominatives ; Letter, You, Him, Her, fy. are objects of the verb. 

Until now I have avoided speaking of Cases, because if a case be what it seems to be, a 
modification or variation from the original word, it is evident that in french there are no 
cases in nouns; and it is astonishing that grammarians should still persist in giving six cases 
to our nouns, as is clone in Latin. Whether a noun be the giver orreceiver of an action, i. e. 
whether it be the nominative or the object of the verb, it remains invariably the same; for ex. 
Mon frere aime voire soeur. My brother loves your sister. 

Votre soeur aime mon frere. Your sister loves my brother. 

In the first instance, Frere, brother, is the nominative of the verb ; in the second, it is 
the object. Sour, sister, in the first instance, is the object of the verb ; in the second, 
it is the nominative ; and in both instances, the words are the same. 

But it is not so with the Personal, and Relative pronouns. The same substantive, when 
the object of the verb, is not always expressed by the same word as when it is the agent 
or nominative; so we do not say, 

II aime elle, elle aime IL ; He loves she, she loves he ; 

we say, II Vaime ELLE L'aime; He loves Iter, she loves him. 

If it be asked why this variation in the pronouns and not in nouns ; it may be answered, 
that the pronouns having been invented to prevent the tiresome repetition of the same 
noun, if there had been only one word to supply its place, the repetition of that word 
must have been too frequent, and only half the inconvenience would have been removed. 


Agents, or nominative Pronouns. 


These pronouns are sometimes singly the nominative of a verb; as i 

am, rhou art, ue is ; sometimes jointly with another substantive- ; as, 

row and / are ; He and u/s brother are ; and sometimes they are used 

absolutely without a verb; as, Who is there? J. 

When I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they are attended by a verb 5 1 
that agrees with them in number and person, they are ; 



HE, lT,m. m 




THEY, mas. 








THEY, fern. 


These words keep the same place in the sentence in trench as in english ;t ex. 

I am, Thou art, He is, she is. Je suis, tu es, il est, elle e^. 
Am J? Art thou? is 7*e? is she? Suis-jv? jgs-tu? £^-il ? jss^-Elle? 

If 7", thou, he, she, we, you, they are joined to another substan- Q£ 
tive* for a nominative to the sawe i>er&, or if they are used without a 
verb to ajrree with them, they are; 


27/0 tf, TOI. THEY. urns. EUX. 


TW, VOUS. THEY, fern. ELLES; ex. 

It. conjunction with another substantive: 
You and I are ready. vous et moi nous sommes prets. 

He and his sister are ready. lui et sa soeur sont prets. 

You and they are ready. vous et eux vous 1 -? etes prets. 

They and their friends are here, eux e£ /e?/?-s amis sont ici. (m) 

WITHOUT a verb to agree with : 

Who is ready to go ? I. Qui est p ret a partir? moi. 

It is I who will go first. C es£ moi 07/i wvzi le premier 

It is Ae who will go first. C" cs< lui qui ira le premier. 

It is they who will go first. Ce sont eux qwi iront les premiers. 

When a personal pronoun is the agent or nominative of several verbs, £)<j 
it is generally repeated with each verb; as, 

/ say and maintain that, &c. Je dis et je soutiens que, 8fc. 

He is poor, and will always be so. Il estpauvre, et il lesera tovjours.% 

* Observe that hy substantive I do not mean nouns only, I mean also the personal pro- 
nouns ; for the word which represents a substantive, is as much a substantive as the word 
which names it. t See the verbs, page 106 and following. 

(n) The pronouns moi, toi, Nors, vous are sometimes added to Je, Tu, Nous, Vous, 
to point out more clearly a contradistinction ; as, 

You will write and i will read. Vous ecrirez, et MOI je lirai. 

You come from Paris, and we are going there. Vous venez de Paris, et nous nous y allons. 

A'. Jl The words, Myself, Thyself, &c. which are often used hy way of emphasis at 
I he end of a sentence ; as, 1 will do it myself: are expressed, Myself, Moi-meme; Thy- 
self, TOl-meme; Himself, tvi-meme; Herself, ELLE-meme ; Ourselves, KOUS-mtmes , 
Yourselves, xovs-memes; Themselves. Evx-memes, m. ELLES-memes, f. 

X If the verbs are in the same tense, and used in the same sense, as in the example, / 
say and maintain, the pronoun may be omitt'd before the second verb, .1 i: dis et soutiens; 
but if the verbs are in different tenses, as in the other example, He is pair, and will 
always be so; or if the verbs are used in different senses, i. e. one affirmatively and tne 
other negatively, the pronoun must be repeated. 




Now let us see when me is me or moi ; thee, te or toi; niM t le 
or lui; her, la or lui; them, les, leur, eux, elles. 

The objective pronouns are always attended by some verb or 
preposition which governs them. 

They are placed sometimes before the verb, and sometimes after 
it; and it is the place which they keep in the sentence that determines 
which word is to be used* 

The order which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 


Ot When the objective pronouns me, thee, us, you, him, fyc. are 
governed by a verb, place them immediately before that verb, and express 


to ME; 

to THEI 

US, \ 

to US; ] 

to YOU; ] 







to HIM, 
to HER; 

to THEM; 








SE; thus, 

He looks -at < 





him, or it. 

her, or it. 


Does he look at me? 
He does not look at me. 
Does he not look at me ? 

to IT, 
to THEM, 

of IT, 
of THEM, 

THEMselves , J 

7/me regarde. 
II te regarde. 
II nous regarde. 
II vous regarde. 
II le regarde. 
II la regarde. 

11 les regarde. 

me regarde-t-il ?* 

12 ne me regarde pas. 

Ne me regarde-t-il pas? 


Observe, that if the objective pronouns are governed by a verb 
compounded of the auxiliary verbs avoir or etre, and of a participle 
past, they must be placed before the auxiliary verb, not between the 
auxiliary and the participle ; thus, 

to me. 

to thee. 

to us. 
He has spoken <to you. 

to him, to her. 

to them. 

of it, of them. 
Has he spoken to me? 
He has not spoken to me. 
Has he not spoken to me? 

II m' a parle. 

II x'f a parle. 

II nous a parle. 

II vous a parle. 

II lui a parle. 

II leur a parle. 

II en a parle. 

u* k-t-il parle 9* 

II ne m' a pas parle. 

Ne M'A-t-z7 pas parle ? 8pc. 

This t is added for the sake of melody ; see note * page 92. t Se*e note * page 28 


The order which the objective pronouns keep with the verb. 

1** Exception. When the objective pronouns me, thee, us, you, £)0 
him, her, it, them are governed by the imperative of a verb used 
in a commanding sense, i. e. without a negation, the pronouns which re- 
present them are piaeed immediately after the verb ; 

In these instances me is expressed by moi, and thee by toi. 

Bat if the imperative is used in a forbidding sense, i. e. if it is at- 0/ 
tended by a negation, the pronouns must be placed immediately before 
the verb, agreeably to the general rule ; 

Then me is expressed by me, and thee by te; ex. 

Imperative commanding, 55 ride. Imperative FORBIDDING, 57 rule. 

Look at we. Regarde-*ioi. Ne me \ arde ms §- 

thyself. toi. Ne te J ^ o 

Look at vs. Regardez-Bovs. JVeKOUsj ^ z £ 

yourself. vous. Ne vous j ° M o^ 

Let us look at him or it. Regardons-tt. Ne le 1 'Z 

her or it la. JVe la \regardons pas. J" 

^e??z. les. (n) Ne les J p 

2nd Exception. The objective pronouns are not always the object £)o 
of verbs, they are sometimes governed by a preposition which some 
verbs require to unite them to the substantive which follows them ; then 
the pronoun being the object of 'the preposition, not the object of the verb, 
it is placed after the preposition, and me is expressed by moi; thee, 
by toi; him, by lui ; her, by elle ; us, by nous; you, by vous; 
them, masc. by eux ; them, fern, by elles; ex. 
He came to me. II vint h moi. 

He complained of thee. II se plaignit de toi. 

He applied to him, to her, to them. Ils'adressa a lui, a elle, a eux, &c. (o) 

(n ) With two imperatives governing the same pionouns, to avoid monotony, we say 
Donnez-LL-MOI, on me le vendez. Give it me or sell it me. 
Voyez-LE, et le consolez. See him, and comfort him. 

Co) Some difficulty arises here with respect to the preposition A, which, like the pre- 
position TO, is generally implied in the pronoun ; for we say 

It me donna un Here, lie gave me a book ; instead of 

11 donna un Hire a MOI ; He gave a book to me. 

Je lli pretai de V argent, I lent him money ; instead of 

Je pretai de f argent a lui ; I lent money to him. 

But in some instances this preposition can not be left out; for though we say, He gave 
me a hook ; I lent HIM money ; we could not say, He came ME j 1 went him ; we must 
say, He cane to ME ; I went to HIM. 

The verbs which require the preposition A to unite them to the pronoun, are the follow- 
ing ; 1st, all the RKFLECT1 I'E VERBS, which, as they always have a pronoun attached 
to tliem for their object, can not govern another substantive, without a preposition; as. 

// 9,' est adresse' a MOI, a TOI, &c. He has applied to me, to thee, §c. 

Ne xousfiez pas a LUI, a ELLE, kc. Do not trust him. her, b\c. 

'idly, A few NEUTER VERBS which also require a preposition to unite theni to the 
pronoun which attends them. The most frequently met with are : 

ALLER, to go ; as, N'allez pat I LOI. Do not goz\i him. 

HOI RE, to drink ; Je hois a vols. 1 chink to yon. 

COURIR, ACCOURIR, to run ; Uaccourfa nous. He is running to us. 
DESCENDRE, to go or come down ; Etle discendit a moi. She came <1, > a to ne. 
ETR I-, to be, iriz. to belong ; Ceci est a iax. This belong b to litem. 

MONTER, to go or come up ; Je monterai a ELLE. 1 shall go up to her. 

PEN SER, to think ; nous. Think of us. 

RECOURIR, to have recourse ; Ueeourez a r.i \. Have recourse to them 

VEN1R, to como ; Its vinreni <i MOI. They came to me. 


The order which several objective pronouns keep together. 

J\) When several objective pronouns are governed by the same verb, a 
precedency must be given to some of them. 

If, agreeably to the general rule, the pronouns are placed BEiOREthevcrb, 

ME. ^ 


TE, \have the precedency over le, la, les, y, en. 

\ UUo, 




s ! 

have the precedency over lui, leur, y, en. 

R mate the jirecedency over y, en. 
Y has the precedency over en 

Will he give him or it to me, 
her or it to me, 
them to me ? 

He promised him or it to us, 
her or it to us, 
them to us, 

Will he not lend it to you, 
her or it to you, 
them to you ? 

He will send it to me there, 
some to me there, (p) 
some to you there. 

He will not send it him or her, 
any to him, to her, (p) 
them to them. 


ME le 


Ne vous le 
Ne vous la 
Ne vous les 

II ME L ? Y 


i7 ne le lui 
II ne lui en 
II ne les t^eurJ 

« 2?romis. 
pretera-t-il pas? 

envera pas* 

{){) But if, agreeably to the b6th rule, the pronouns are placed after the 
verb, in which instances moi, toi are used instead, of me, te, then 
LE, \ 

J ES Y Lave th e precedency over moi, toi ; as, 
Y J 
Send him, or it to me. Envoy ez le-moi. 
her or it to me. LA-3101. 

2Aem to me. les-moi. 

them to me there. les-y-moi.* 

Ol Observe also that if me, thee after an imperative, are followed by 
some, of it, of them, they are not expressed by moi, toi. as above ; 
me some, me of it, 8fc. are expressed by m'en ; thee some, $c. are ex- 
pressed by t'en, whether they come before or after the verb ; ex. 
He has sent me some. II m'en a envoy e. send me some. Envoyez-M'vnu. 
Doest thou remember it ? t'en souviens-tu? Remember it. souviens-TEN. 

* See, page 78, 79, a table which shews how to arrange seiwal pronouns together, 
(p) some, any, implying of it, o/them, are rendered by EN. 



As there are only two genders in french, the masculine and the femi- Q*2 
nine, the neuter pronouns it, they, them must be expressed by il, 

ELLE, ILS, ELLES, LE, LA, LES, the same as HE, SHE, THEY, HIM, HER t 

them, masculine or feminine, agreeably to the gender of the noun which 
they represent ; so we say, 

Of a man or a coach ; 
Il vient; je le vois, He or it is coming ; I see mm or it. 

Of a woman or a watch; (See note h, page 80.) 

Elle est belle; regardez la. She or it is fine; look at Her or it. 
N. B. It is often used in an impersonal sense, i. e. without reference 
to any substantive mentioned before ; as, 

It is glorious, shameful, necessary, proper, &c. 
In these instances, It is always expressed by il, or by ce. 
It is expressed by il, if the verb is followed by an adjective ; as, 
It is glorious, shameful, necessary, proper, &c. 
Il est glorieux, honteux, necessaire, a propos, 8fc. 
It is expressed by ce, when the verb is followed by a substantive, 
either with or without an adjective; as, 

Is it you ? It is he. It is his son, It is a shameful thing. 

Est-CE vous? C'est lui. C'est sonjils. C'est une chose honteuse. 
not, Est-\L vous? IL est lui. il est soiifils, means he is his son. 

Though lui and leur may be said of beings that have life, such as OD 
brutes and plants; as, 

That tree is withered, give it some water. 
Cet arbre estfletri, donnez lui de I'eau ; 
They can not be said of lifeless beings, commonly called things; (q) 
in speaking of things, to it, to them must be expressed by Y; as, 
She loves reading, she gives all her lime to it. 
Elle aime la lecture, elle y donne tout son terns. 

Lui, elle, eux, elles, after a ])reposition, are said only of persons ; ()4: 
in speaking of brutes or things, the preposition must be changed into some 
adverb which implies the meaning of both the preposition and pronoun ; as, 
Take this horse, and get upon it. 
Prenez ce cheval, et montez dessus, not sur lui. (q) 
If an adverb can not be found to supply the place ofthe]jreposilion* give 
another turn to the sentence, by which the preposition will disappear; as, 
He is come with it; II l' a apporte, i, e. he has brought it. 
not, II est venu avec lui, which would imply a person, not a thing. 

(q) Except those that are generally personified, such as Heaven, Fortune, Providence, 
the Elements, some Virtues and Vices; as, 

Love is the tyrant of reason, yet there are people who sacrifice every tiling to il. 
L'amour est le liran de la raison, cependant il y a des gens qui LUI sacrijient lout. 
Or when in a metaphorical sense, we attribute to things, what in a proper sense can only 
be attributed to persons ; so, speaking of a Sword, we say ; 

Je LUI dok la vie, I owe my life to it. 
Of a Book; Ces livres me coutent clier, muisje LEUR dois mon instruction 
These books cost me dear, but 1 owe my instruction to them. 
But in speaking of the same things without giving rational attributes to them, wo 
could not use lui, leur, we must use Y ; as, 

It is an old sword, but I have got a new hilt put to it. 
C'est une vieille £p£e, maisj'Y ui fait mettre une garde neuve. 
* You find in the dictionaries the words which are both prepositions and adverbs. 








He, she, it, they coming with the verb be, followed by a substait- 
twe, are generally expressed by ce ; as, 

He is an officer. c' est un officier. 

She is a seamstress. c' est une couturiere 

They are merchants. ce sont des negotiants. 

If the substantive which follows the verb, denotes rank, state, bade, or 
profession, he, she, they maybe expressed by il, elle, ils, elles, 
but the article must be left out; as, 

Il est officier. elle est couturiere. ils sont negotiants. 
not, IL est UN officier. elle est une couturiere. ils sont des negotiant's, (see 23 rule.) 

He, she, they, htm, her, tiiebi are sometimes used without refer- 
ence to any noun expressed before them, but imply the words man, 
woman, or people understood ; in this sense they are expressed, 

IIE ' \by celui; SIIE > \by celle ; THEY " \by ceux ; as, 

HIM,) a HER,) J THEM,) * 

He who can live dishonored, does not deserve to live, i. e. the man who 
Celui qui peut vivre deshonore ne merite pas de vivre. 
I have met her whom you wished so much to see, i. e. the woman whom 
J'ai rencontre celle que vous souhaitiez si fort devoir. 
N. B. The pronouns celui, celle, ceux, and the relative qui, que, 
dont which attends them, must not be separated, as the corresponding 1 
Words are sometimes in english ; they must be placed together ; 
They are mistaken who think that riches make men happy. 
ceux qui pcnsent que les richesses rendent les hommes heureu.vse trompent. 
i. e. They who think that riches make men happy are mistaken.'* 

His, her, their are also sometimes used in the same sense as the 
above pronouns, i. e. implying- the words Man, woman, or people under- 
stood, and are then expressed, 

his, by de celui; her, by de celle ; their, by de ceux ; as, 
We 90 always blame their conduct who do not succeed. 
O)i Q0 blame toujours la conduite de ceux qui ne reussissent pas. 
i. e. We blame always the conduct o/ those, via. of the people who do not succeed. 

When an objective pronoun is governed by several verbs, that pronoun 
must be repeated with every verb by which it is governed ; as, 

She loves and esteems yon. Elle vous aime et vous estime. 

Speak or write to her Parlez lui ou lui ecrivez. 

It sometimes happens that the verb by which the objective pronouns 
are governed, is preceded by another verb ; as, 

I can not do it; He will not give it me; You may lend it to him. 
In these instances, it is better to place the pronouns before the last verb 

than before the first; so, instead of saying, 

Je ne le puis pas faire; say, Je ne puis pas le faire. 

II ne me le veut pas donner ; II ne veut pas me le donner.] 

* These sentences may alsobe expressed without changing the order of'the words ; thus 
CEi!X-la se trompent qui pensent que les richesses rendent les homines heureux ; 

or, C'est se tromper que de penser que les richesses rendent les homines heureux. 

But these expressions are more adapted to poetry and oratory, than to conversation. 

t This rule is not strictly adhered to by french writers, especially ancient authors ; 
however it makes the sentence clearer, and it is the surest for a foreigner, as there are 
no exceptions to this rule, and there are several to the other, which he might be liable 
fco mistake. 



Le, la, les, en, y are often used when the corresponding words are / U 
not requisite in english; for example, in answer to these questions; 

Are you Mr. B ? Etes-vous monsieur B ? 

Is that your house ? Est-ce la voire maison? 

Are these your gloves ? Soni-ce ici vos gants ? 

It would not be sufficient in french, as it is in english, to answer with 
the auxiliary verb only, and say, Oui, je suis ; Yes, I am. 

Non, ce 7i est pas ; no, it is not. Oui, ce sont ; ves, they are. 
We are obliged to add one of the above pronouns, and say ; 

Oui, je le suis. Non, ce ne i/esi pas. Oui, ce les sont.(r) 

You have got fine apples. Vous avez de belles pommes. 

Will you have some ? (of them), en voulez-vous quelques-unes ? 

Yes, give me a few. i. e, (of them) . Oui, doiinez m'EN quelques-unes. 
N. B. And if the auxiliary verb with which the question is asked is 
attended by another verb, that verb must also be repeated ; as, 

Has he done it? Ua-t-il fait? 

No, he has not, i. e. (done it). Non, il ne Ha pas fait. 

Do you remember it? Vous en souvenez-vous? 

Yes, I do, i. e. (remember it). Oui, je m' en souviens. 

Are you going to the play? Ailez-vous a la comedie? 

No, I am not, i. e. (going there). Non, je n' y vais pas. 

If the pronoun is added to represent a noun, it must be one of the Words / A 
le, la, les, agreeably to the gender and number of that noun; as, 

Are you the son of Mr. A? Etes-vous le fils de monsieur A ? 

Yes, I am, i. e. (the son). Oui, je le suis. 

Are you the daughter of Mrs. B ? Etes-vous la fille de madame B? 

No, I am not, (the daughter). Non, je ne la suis pas. 

Are these your gloves ? Sonl-ce ici vos gants ? 

Yes, they are, i. e. (my gloves). Oui, ce les sont. 

But if the word to be represented is an adjective, an adverb, or a whole 
sentence, le is used without regard to gender or number ; a.-, 

Are you married, sir? Etes-vous marie, .monsieur? 

Yes, I am, i.e. (married). Oui, je le suis. 

Are you married, Madam? Etes-vous mariec, Madame? 

No, I am not, i.e. (I am not so). Non, je ne le suis pas. 

Are you contented, Ladies? Etes-vous contentes, mesdamcs? 

Yes, we are, i. e. (we are so). Oui, nous le sommes. 

En, y, which are generally applied to things, may, in answer to a ques- 
tion or a command, be applied to persons, en instead of de moi, de tot, 
de nous, de vous, de lui, ^'elle, c/'eux, tZ'elles; y instead of a moi, 
a toi, a nous, a vous, a lui, a ei.le, a eux, a elles ; as, 

Remember me. Souvenez-vous de moi. 

I will, i. e. (remember you) Je w'en souviendrai. 

Have you thought of us? Avez-vous pense a nous? 

Yes, we have, i.e. (thought of you). Oui, nous y avons pensc. 

(r) If the answer is made with the pronouns ///■,', SUE, THl.Y, relating to persons 
LUI, ELLEj ecx, RLLBS added to the verh, render the other words unnecessary ; 
Is that your brother • Yes, he is. Is that your sister ? JNo, she is not. 

lM-ce la voire f lire ! Oui, e'est U ; l. Est-ce la voire socur ? A'on, ce n'est pas ELLE. 






212 SECT. IT. 

RELATIVE or distinctive PRONOUN 
When who, whom, whose, that, which come after one or several 
substantives which they particularize, they are expressed, 
<J WHO, ] The man who ) U homme qui 

| # THAT, >QUI; The horse that >comes. Lecheval qui 

? WHICH,) The chaise which J La chaise qui 

<3 WHOM, ) The man whom 1 U homme que 

§*• THAT, >QUEj The horse which >Isee.Cs) Le cheval que }jevois. 
r- WHICH,) The coach that J Le carosse que 

(see note m, puge 82.) 
© WHOSE,) The man of whom 1 L* homme dont} 

^ of WHOM, >DONT; The horse of which >I speak. Lecheval DONTp purle. 
"" of WHICH,} The chaise of which J La chaise dontj 

Qui, que, dont, whatever be the order of the corresponding words in 
english, must be placed immediately after the noun to which they relate ; 
Is the gentleman come, who is* 42 to dine with us ? 
Le monsieur qui doit ui diner avecnous, est-ilvenu? 
i. e. the gentleman who is to dine with us, is he l3i come ? 

JV". B. dont, besides being placed immediately after the noun to which 
it relates, must be followed by a substantive in the nominative ; as, 
He is a man whose probity is known. 
C'est un homme dont la probite est connue, or, dont on connait la fyc. 

If whose is followed by a noun governed by a preposition, it can not 
be expressed by dont, it must be expressed by duqvEL, de ^quelle, 
desqvELS, e/esQUELLEs, agreeably to gender and number,' as, 

He is a man on whose probity one may rely ; i.e. on the probity of whom 
Cest un homme sur la probite duquel on pent compter ; 
not, C'est un homme dont sur la probite, nor sur la probite dont.(%/ 

(s) The distinctive words whom, that, which are often left out ; as, The man 1 saw, 
for the man whom I saw ; The wine we drank, for the icine which we drank ; but the corre- 
sponding words QUI, QUE, dont must never be omitted, and if they are the nominative, 
or the object of several verbs they must be repeated with each verb ; as, 

The man I saw, i. e. whom I saw. L' homme QVEje vis. 

The wine we drank, i. e. which we drank. Le tin que nous Mimes. 

The woman I speak of, i. e. of whom I speak. La femme BotiTje parle. 

(t) When a relative pronoun comes after two nouns, and relates only to one of them, 
if the noun to which it relates is not the last in french, who, whom, that, which must 
be expressed by ZeQUEL, ZaQUELLE, ZesQUELS, /esQUELLES ; of whom, of which, by 


a toQUELLE, flwxQUELS, ttuxQUELLES, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun, to 
avoid the ambiguity that might arise from qui, que, dont, which are generally under- 
stood to relate to the last noun ; as, 

This is that young man's sister of whom we were speaking. 

Void la sxur de cejeune homme DE LAQUELLE nous parlions. 
But this being done for the sole purpose of removing the ambiguity which would arise 
from qui, que, dont j if a relative pronoun, coming after two nouns, was followed by 
a verb, or by an adjective that would sufficiently denote to which noun it refers, it would 
be better to use qui, que, dont, than lequel, laquelle, &c. which are rather formal 
expressions ; the following sentence, for example, would not be ambiguous , 

That young man's sister who is so handsome. 

J/U sozur de cejeune homme qui est si belle ; qui being determined by belle. 
But, if these words can not be used without obscurity, the principal object of a lan- 
guage being to express our thoughts with precision, elegance must yield to perspicuity. 

>il vie 



After any preposition but of, or a preposition synonymous to it, / " 

Whom is expressed by QUI, for both genders and numbers; 

Blase. SING. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 




agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; as, 
The man with whom ) L'homme avec qui 1 

The horse on which >he is. Le cheval sur lequel \il est. 
The chaise in which J (it) La chaise dans laquelleJ 

The man from whom ) L'homme de qui 

The horse from which >he comes Le cheval duquel \il vient 

The chaise from which) fvJLa chaise de laquelle 

The man to whom 1 L'homme a qui 

The horse to which >he goes. Le cheval auquel )il va. 

The chaise to which J (x)La chaise a. laquelle 

Who, whom used absolutely, i.e. without reference to a noun mentioned / / 
before, imply the word person understood, and are expressed by qui ; as, 

Who has done that ? 
i. e. what person has done that? qui a fait celaY 

I know whom you mean; 
i. e. what person you mean. Je sais qui vous voulez dire. 

Whose used absolutely, implies also the word person understood, 
If it can be changed into of whom, it is expressed by de qui; as, 
Whose daughter is she ? 
i. e. of whom is she the daughter? De qui est-ellejille? 

I know whose relation she is. 
i. e. of whom, or of what person. Je sais de qui elle est parente. 
If Whose can be changed into to whom, it is expressed by a qui ; as, 
Wliose house is that? 
i. e. to whom does that house belong? A qui est cette maison? 

I do not know whose it is. Je ne sais pas h qui elle est. 

(u) After a preposition, which, relating to the word Thins;, is expressed by QUOI ; as, 
It is a thing of which I did not think. C'est tine chose a quoi je ne j)ensais pas. 
I r»ee nothing to which lie can apply. Je ne vois rien a quoi il pnisse s'appliquer. 

(v) With a verb denoting dwelling or movement, even in a figurative sense, which, 
after a preposition, is generally expressed by od ; as, 

The city in wh'ich I live. La ville dans laquelle, or ouje demeure. 

The happiness to which I aspire. Le honheur auquel, or ouj'aspire. 

But we could not say, Le bonheur oujepense, the happiness on which I think ; because 
penser does not denote movement ; we must say, Le bonheur AUQUEL je pense. 

In the same sense, from which is expressed by d'ov, and through which, hyparov ; as, 
The country from which I come. Le pays duquel, or d'ouj'e viens. 

The town through which I have passed. La ville par laquelle, or par oil j 7 ai passi. 

(x) The distinctive word which coming after an Indefinite expression, or after a Noun 
without an article in french, can not be rendered by any of the relative words which cor- 
respond with it in english ; so these sentences, 

J have obtained leave, which was the only thing that I asked ; 1 can not be. 

The earth is ravaged through ambition which is the scourge of mankind, [translated, 

J'ai obtenu permission qui or laquelle faa it la scale chose que je demanduis ; 

On ravage la terre par ambition qui or laquelle est lejUau du genre humain : say, 

J'ai obtenu permission, e'etait la settle chose que je demandais. 

On ravage la terre par ambition, et l'AMBITION est lejleatt, du genre humain. 




Which interrogative. 

In an interrogative sentence, which requires three distinctions 

Which interrogative is either joined to the noun like an adjective, 
i.e. without the help of bl preposition ; as, 

which man? which carriage? which horses? 
Or like a substantive, it is joined to it by the preposition of ; as, 

which of the men ? which of the carriages ? which of my horses? 
Or like a pronoun, it is used absolutely after the noun ; as, 

It is one of these men ; which is it? 

I came in one of these carriages. Jrc which did you come? 

Which interrogative joined like an adjective, i. e. without a prepo- 
sition, to the noun to which it relates, is 

1 Masc. sing. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 


Of, from WHICH; de QUEL, de QUELLE, de QUELS, <fo QUELLES 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 
Which man "j quel homme 1 

Which carriage >do you prefer? quelle voiture\preferez-vous? 
Which horses J quels chevaux J 

Which interrogative joined by a preposition to the noun to which it 
relates, or coming after it absolutely t i. e. without a noun, is, 

Masc. sing. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern 


Of , from WHICH ; duQXJEL, de la QUELLE, des QUELS, desQUELLES 
To, at WHICH; auQUEL, a la QUELLE, auxQUELS, auxQUELLES 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; as, 

Which of these men j_. lequel de ces hommes | , „ 

Which of the coaches > I laquelle des voitures J^ J J"' 

Which of my horses J P ' lesquels demes chevaux} vo s 

Which is the tallest ? lequel est le plus haut? 

Which is the finest ? laquelle est la plus belle ? 

Which are the best? lesquels sont les meilleurs? 

§][ Which sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that or 
those understood ; as, 

Which of these horses shall I ride ? 

You may ride which you will, i. e. that which you will. 

This demonstrative word can not be omitted in french, and which 
as including the two words, is expressed by 

CELUI que, m } THAT ^ fc7 . £EUX qoe, m 1 ^ 

CELLE que, /. J CELLES que, /. J 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; as, 
VVhich of these horses shall I ride? Lequel de ces chevaux monterai-je? 
Ride which, i. e. that which you will. Montez celui que vous voudrez. 
In which carriage will you go? Dans quellevoiiurevoulez-vous oiler? 

I will go in which you please. J'irai dans celle Qij'i7 vous plaira, 

* The pronoun may be either singular or plural, agreeably to the number that is meant; 
for ex. Which of these horses will you ride'? may be translated 

lequel or lesquels de ces chevaux voulez-vous monter f 
lequel meaning one borse; lesquels meaning that the person is to :>ide more than one. 


What requires the same distinctions as which. 

What followed by a noun, or relating to a noun mentioned before, is 0^5 

Masc. SING. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 


Of, from WHAT; de QUEL, de QUELLE, de QUELS, de QUELLES 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; as, 
What man ] quel homme \ 

What/ carriage > will you have? quelle voiture>voulez-vous? 
What horses J quels chevaux) 

What are your reasons ? quelles sont vos raisons? 

What used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun mentioned, £jQ 
Implies the word thing understood, and is expressed by que or by quoi. 

What is expressed by que, when it is the object of a verb; as, 
What are you doing there? que faites-vous Id ? 

I do not know what to say to her. Je ne sais que lui dire.(y) 

What is expressed by quoi, when it is governed by a preposition, or 
used as an interjection ; ex. 

What do you meddle with? De quoi vous melez-vous? 

What! you have not done yet. quoi! vous riavez pas encore fini. 
What sometimes implies the demonstrative pronoun that, and the Q-± 
distinctive which ; it is then expressed, 
Nom. What, ce qui ; Always do what is right; i. e. that which is right. 

Faites toujours ce qui est juste. 
Objec. What, ce que ; What I say is true ; i. e. that which I say is true. 
ce Q,UEJe dis est vrai.fzj 

But with the prepositions of, to, or any preposition that is synonymous 
to them, it is necessary to consider whether the preposition comes before 
or after what ; for, 
Of what is de ce qui, jl speak of what is true ; i. e. of that which, Sfc. 

de ce QiiE;\Je parte de ce qui est vrai. 
Wiia t of is ce dont ; as, What he speaks of 'is not true ; i. e. that of which 

ce dont il parte liest pas vrai. 
To what is a ce qui, J Apply to what is useful ; i. e. to that which is, &c. 

a ce que ; I Appliquez-vous h ce qui est utile. 
Wha t to is ce a quoi ; ns,What you apply to is not useful ; i. e. that to which 
ce a quoi vous vous appliquez ?i' est pas utile. 

(y) WHAT, in this sense, used interrogatively, is generally expressed in conversa- 
tion by qu'est-ce que, an idiomatical expression ; as, 

Whut do you say ? que dites-vous, or qu'est-ce que vous dites ? 

What are you doing? que faites-vous, or qu'est-CE que vous faites? 

And with the verb de, it is always expressed by qu'est-ce que j as, 

What is it ! qu'est-ce que c'est? 

What is that to you ? qu'est-ce que cela vous fait ? 

(z) Though the words ce qui, cr. que, being compounded of the pronoun substantive 
CE, and of" the distinctive QUI, que, should have two verbs either to govern or to be go- 
verned ; yet, when these words come before the verb ETllE followed by another verb, 
or by a noun in the plural number, another CE must be put before etre ; as, 

What vexes me is, that he will not study. CE QU I mefdche, c'«sl ait'U ne vent pus ttudier. 
What 1 detest most, are idle people CE que je dtsteste le phis, CE soul U& oisifs. 





Masc. sing. Fern. 

Masc. PLUJR. 



le MIEN, 


les MIENS, 



Of, from MINE; 


de la MIENNE, 

ties MIENS, 



To, at 


au MIEN, 

a la MIENNE, 

aux MIENS, 




le TIEN, 


les TIENS, 



HIS, i 

le SIEN, 


les SIENS, 




le NOTRE, 

la NOTRE, 

les NOTRES, 




le VOTRE, 

la VOTRE, 

les VOTRES, 




le LEUR, 

la LEUR, 

les LEURS, 





The possessive pronouns le mien, le tien, le sien, fyc. must be of 
the same gender and number as the noun which they represent ; ex. 
Your hat is better than hers, i. e. her hat. 
Votre chapeau est meilleur que le sien. 
My watch is not so fine as his, i. e. his watch. 
Ma montre n'est pas si belle que la sienne. 

The possessive words mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, 
Theirs do ?wt always represent a noun mentioned before them ; they are 
often used instead of the personal pronouns me, thee., him, her, us, 
you, them, with the verb be, meaning- to belong; as for example, 
This book is mine, i. e. belongs to me ; in this sense mine, thine, his, 
iiers, ours, yours, theirs are expressed by a moi, a toi, a lui, 
a elle, a, nous, a vous, a eux, m. a elles,/! ; as, 
This book is mine. Ce livre est a moi ; i. e. belongs to me. 

is thine. est a toi ; to thee. 

is his. est h lui ; to him. 

is hers. est a elle ; to her. 

is ours. est a nous ; to us. 

is yours. es^avous; to you. 

is theirs. est a eux, m. a elles, f. to them, (aa) 

The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, 

theirs, by an idiom peculiar to the english language, are sometimes 

joined to the noun to which they relate by the preposition of ; as, a 

friend of mine ; a book of yours ; this possessive pronoun can not 

be expressed by the possessive pronoun in french ; it must be expressed 

by the possessive article mes, tes, ses, nos, vos, leurs placed before 

the noun, which must always be plural in french ; as, 

A friend of mine. un de mes amis ; i. e. one of my 

of thine. un de tes amis ; one of thy 

of his. un de ses amis ; one of his 

of hers. un de ses amis; one of her 

of ours. un de nos amis ; one of our 

of yours. un de vos amis ; one ofyout 

of theirs. undo, leurs amis; one of their j 

Never say ; Un ami de mes, nor Un ami des MIENS ; Un ami de TES ; Un ami de ses, &c. 

(aa) Yet when a question is asked with est-ce; as, est-ce la votre livre? Is that 
your book 1 we may answer, Oui, c'est le mien, or il est a moi, Yes, it is mine, est-ce 
la, sa maison ? Is that his house 1 No, it is not his, it is his sister's ; Non, ce n'est pas la 
sienne, c'est CELLE de sa soeur, or Elle n'est pas a lui, elle est a sa soeur. 

SECT. IV. 217 

Masc. sing. Fern. Masc. PLUR. Fern. 



of the same gender and number as the noun which they represent; ex. 
Bring my hat and that of my sister; i. e. the hat of &c. 
Apportez mon chapeau et celui de ma sceur. 

He has lost his watch and that of his brother ; i. e. the watch of &c. 
II a perdu sa montre et celle de son frere. 

Have you seen these (bb) gloves and those which I had on yesterday? 
Avez-vous vu ces gants et ceux que j avals hier? 


a local distinction which celui, celle, ceux, celles do not express; 
therefore, when a distinction is to be made between two objects, the 
adverbial particle ci, here, to denote the nearest object, and la, there, to 
denote the remotest, must be added to these pronouns ; as, 

This hat is better than that. 

Ce chapeau-ci est meilleur que celui-la ; i.e. this hat. here — that there. 

That watch is not so fine as this. 

Cette montre-LA n' est pas si belle que celle-ci; i. e. as this here. 
But the particles ci, la, being added merely to discriminate the objects, 
if the demonstrative pronoun is followed by a relative pronoun, or by a 
noun in the possessive state, which makes the distinction sufficiently clear, 
these particles would be useless, and they must be left out; as, 

This hat is better than that of your brother. 

Ce chapeau-ci est meilleur que celui de voire frere. 

This watcii is not so fine as that which you have lost. 

Cette montre-ci 71 est pas si belle que celle que vous avez perdue. 

If this, that are not followed by a noun, nor relate to a noun men- oU 
tioned before, they imply the word thing understood, and are expressed, 
THIS, by CECI; THAT, by CELA ; as, 

This is good ; i. e. this thing is good. ceci est bon. 

That is better ; i. e. that thing is better. cela est meilleur. 

(lb ) It is not unnecessary perhaps to recall here to the attention of the learner, that 
lli<- words this, that, these, those have already been seen in the chapter of articles, 
ami he must take care not to confound them. 

If this, that, these, those are followed by a noun, they have the property of a 
demonstrative article, and are expressed by CE, cette, ces, as has been seen, rule 1. 
Ce vin, CETTE gloire, ces plaisirs. ITiis wine, That glory, Those pleasures. 
If this, that, these, those do not point out a noun after them, but represent one 
mentioned before, they are pronouns, and are expressed by celui, celle, ceux, celles, 
agreeably to the gender and number of the noun which they represent ; as, 

ll a perdu sa montre et celle de son frere. lie has lost his watch and thatot his brother. 
If this, that do not point out a noun after them, nor represent one mentioned before, 
they may be considered as substantives implying the word thing, and are expressed, 
this, by ceci ; that, by cela ; as, 

CECI est bon,muis CELA est meilleur. i.e. This thing is good, but that thing is better. 

N.B. that, joining two sentences, is a conjunction, and is always expressed by que; as, 

I know that he is conn'. ./< sals au'i/ est vena. 

This conjunction is often understood in english, but itmust always be expressed infrench; 

Do you think ho is come ! Vtnsez-vous au'<7 soit venuf [see conjunctions.] 




218 SECT. V. 

One, we \ used in an indefinite sense, i. e. not relating to any 

they, people) particular person, are expressed by ON. 

N. B. ON is always the nominative of a verb, and though it represents we/they, 
people, which are plural, it requires the verb in the 3rd person sing, ; as, 

m says, { qn ^ . ^ Qn& note* p. 38.) 

They say, people say. J J K l J 

The following and other like indefinite expressions, are also ex- 
pressed 'in french by ON, with the verb in its active sense; as, 
It was said. on disait; i. e. one said. 

It has been reported. on a rapporie ; one has reported. 

The english passive verbs used indefinitely, require the active signifi- 
cation in trench, with ON for nominative; but by adding- on to the sen- 
tence, the nominative of the verb in english, becomes its object in french; 
J have been told that news has been received.) i. e. one has told me that one 
on ma dit quoN a reru des nouvelles ; J has received news. 

*)0 Oneself, ) 

Himself used indefinitely , >are expressed by Soi; as, 
Itself after a preposition J 

Every one thinks well oihimself.Chacun a bonne opinion de soi. 

Virtue is amiable of itself ] La vertu est aimable de soi. 

Some, repeated in a sentence of two parts, is in the first part Les uns, 
in the second part les autres ; as, 

Some laugh, some cry. les uns rient, les autres pleurent. 

Somebody, some one is Quelqu'un for both genders; as, 

Somebody has taken my book, quelqu'un a pris mon livre. 

I/O Some, any, few followed by a noun or a pronoun in the possessive, 
state, a«re expressed by Quelqu'un, quelques uns, m. quelqu'une, 
quelques unes, f agreeably to gender and number; as, 

Take some of these oranges. Prenez quelques unes de ces oranges. 
Give me a few of them. Donnez-nten quelques unes. 

*J S Nobody, not any body, personne ; ] . , c . 

' ' >require Ne before the verb; 


Nobody loves that man. personne N'aime cet homme. 

He trusts nobody whatever. II ne sefie a qui que ce soit. 

Something is Quelque chose ; as, 

He gave me something good. Ilmedonna quelque chose dcbon(cc) 

Nothing, not any thing, Rien ; lrequire Ne before the verb'; 


Nothing is more agreeable. rien n'est plus agreable. 

He applies to nothing whatever. II ne s 'applique a quoi que ce soit. 

None, not any, followed by a substantive in the possessive state, are 
expressed by Aucun, m. aucune,j£ with Ne before the verb ; as, 

None of your sisters is come, aucune de vos sceurs N'est venue, 

(ce) quelqu'un. personne, quelque chose, rien followed by an adjective or a 
past participle, require DE after them ; as Somebody wounded. Quelqu'un de blessi. 
Something good. Quelque cliose Dfc h on. Nobody come. Fersonne de venu. Nothing 
new. Mien de uouveau. 







None, Nul ; ) used absolutely, are synonymous to personne and 
not one, Pas unJ require nc before the verb ; as, 

None are free from faults. nul Nest exempt de defauts. 

Not one believes it. p as un, or personne Ne le croit(dd) 

Each, joined to a noun, is expressed by Chaque for both genders ,• as, JLUJi 
Each boy had a shilling. chaque garcon cut un shelin. 

Each girl earned six pence. chaque Jllle gagna six sous. 

Each, folloiced by. a noun in the possessive state, or relating to a noun IlJeJ 
already mentioned, is Chacun, m. chacune, f. as, 

Each of these books has its price, chacun de ces livres a son jjrix. 

Put them each in their places. Mettez-les chacun a sa place. 

Every, followed by a noun, requires a distinction. 1 f\A 

If every denotes individuality, it is expressed by Chaque ; as, lU-x 

Every language has its properties, chaque langue a ses proprieles; 
i. e. each language has &c. 

If every denotes a totality, it is expressed by Tout, m. toute,^ 
Every man is fallible, i. e all men ; tout homme est faillible. 

Every one requires the same distinction as every. 

Every one, implying every one taken individually, is Chacun ; 

Every one lives after his own way. chacun vit a sa maniere. 
i. e. each person lives &c. 
Every one, implying every one collectively, is Touts, m. toutes,^ 

Every one of them were taken; \Tls furent touts pris, m. 
i. e. they were all taken. )Elles furent toutes prises, f. 

Every body is Tout le monde ; as, lOt) 

Every body speaks ill of her, tout le monde parte mat d'elle. 
She speaks ill of every body. Elle parte mal de tout le monde. 

Every thing is expressed by Tout; as, 

Every thing is right. tout est Men. 

She complains of every thing. Elle se plaint de tout. 

Any body, any one, used in the sense ot some body, some one, are lliO 
expressed by Quelqu'un ; as, 

Has any body asked for me? quelqu'un m'a-t-il demande? 

Any body, any one, used in the sense of Every body, are expressed by 101/ 
Tout le monde, or il n' v a personne qui nc; as, 

Any body will tell you the same, i. e. every body will &c. 

tout le monde vous dira la meme chose; 
or, il n\ a personne qui nc vous disc la meme chose. 

With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, or after a comparative, any 110 
body is expressed by Personne, but without nc, because personne 
attended by Ne, signifies nobody ; as, 

Did ever any body see that! personne a-t-il jamais vu cchi I 

He will do it better than any body. 11 lefera mieux que personne. 

(dd) rien, aucun, pas un, personne followed by qui, que, dont require the foi- 
tcradng verb in the subjunctive ; ns, 
Have you found nothing that suits you 1 N'avez-vous ironic iuen qui vous convienne '.' 

1 do not know any body who can do it. Je ne connuis personne qui pui.-^e le J, 



Ill Any thing, in the sense of something, is Quelque chose ; as, 

Has any thing happened ? Est-il arrive qufi.que chose ? 

1 1<« Any thing, used in the sense of Every thing, is expressed by tout; 
Do any thing you please. Faites tout ce qu'il vous plaira. 

1 lO With a verb denoting' admiration or do?j&£, ^a t f thing is expressed by 
Rien, but without jve ; for nze/i attended by Ne, expresses nothing ; as, 
Is there any thing finer ! Y a-t-il rien de plus beau I 

114 Whoever, whosoever joined to a substantive, or relating to a sub- 
stantive before mentioned, is expressed by Quvi.que, qvELsque, m. 
quelle^, quelles^, f. with the verb in the subjunctive ; and if 
the nominative is a noun, it is placed after the verb ; as, 
Whoever that man is, I shall have him punished. 
1 1 ft quelque soit cet homme, je leferai punir. 

110 Whoever, whosoever, whomsoever, meaning any person soever, is 
expressed by Qui que ce soit, with a relative pronoun after it, and the 
verb in the subjunctive ; as, 

Whoeverh-as done it, he shall repent of it; i. e. whoever that person be; 
qui que ce soit qui Vaitfait, il s*en repentira. 
Whomsoever you meet, do not stop ; i. e. whosoever that person be; 
qui que ce soit que vous rencontriez, ne vous arretez pas. 

lit) JViioever, whomsoever, meaning; Every body, is Touts ceux ; 

He stops who?nsoever he meets. IlarreteTOUTS ceux qitil rencontre. 
N. B. In proverbial sentences, whoever is Quiconque ; as, 

Whoever is rich is every thing-. quiconque est riche est tout. 

1 *J Whatever, whatsoever, with a substantive, requires a distinction. 
* If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is 
the nominative of a verb, it is expressed by QUEL^e, QUELsgi/e, m. 
QUELLEqwe, quelles^c, f. with the verb in the subjunctive, and if the 
nominative is" a noun, it is placed after the verb ; as, 
Whatever his reasons are, they will not be heard. 
quellesque soient ses raisons, dies ne seront pas ecoutees, 
If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is the 
object of a verb, whatever, whatsoever is expressed by Quelque, sing. 
quelques, plur. for both genders, with que after the substantive, and 
the verb in the subjunctive ; as, 

Whatever reasons he gives, he will not be excused. 
quelques raisons qu'il donne, il ne sera pas excuse. 

\o Whatever, whatsoever, implying whatever a thing may be, is ex- 
pressed by Quoi que ce soit, with a relative pronoun after it, and the 
verb in the subjunctive ; as, 

Whatever happens let me know it ; i. e. whatever the thing be Sfc. 

quoi que ce soit qui arrive, faites-le-moi savoir. 

1 ly Whatever, whatsoever, implying Any thing, or Every thing, is ex 
pressed by Tout ce qui, nomin. tout ce que, object, as, 

Whatever is right, is not always approved ; i. e. every thing that &c, 
tout ce qui est bien n'est pas ton jours approuve. 
Do whatever you will ; i. e. any thing, or every thing you will. 
Faites tout ce que vousvoudrcz. 




Other is Autre, substantive and adjective, of both genders ; as, 

Give me an other pen. Donncz-moi une autre plume. 

Others think differently. D'autres pensent differemment* 

Each other, one another ; 121 

masc. sing. fern. • masc. PLURAL. fern. x 

Vun V Autre, V une Y Autre, les 17ns les Autres, les unes les Autres ; 

of, from ONE ANOTHER ; 

Yun de Y Autre, Yurie de Y Autre, les uns des Autres, les unes des Autres; 

to, at ONE ANOTHER; 

Yun a l'/iufr-e, l'i/ne a l'^Mfre, les uns aux Autres, les cmes aux Autres; 

agreeably to gender and number ; but observe that the preposition which 
comes before one another in english, must be placed between the two 
words Z'un, Z'autre in french ; as, 

They can not live without one another ; i. e. the one without the other. 
lis ne sauraient vivre 1'un sans 1'autre, m. Tune sans 1'autre, f. 

Both; mas. sing. fem. masc. tlur. fern. 

Vun etV Autre, V 'une et V Autre. Touts deux, routes deux ; -\ 

of, from BOTH; \JtSA 

de I un et del' Autre, de I' une et de V Autre, de Touts deux, de routes deux; Vdduai ob 
to, at BOTH; J J ts 0,, '» 

a Vun et a V Autre. a Vune et a V Autre, a Touts deux a. routes deux; J 

Your sisters are both right. 

Vos sceurs ont raison 1'une et 1'autre, or ont toutes deux raison. 

BOTH; les uns et les Autres, les unes et les Autres; "| Speaking of* greater 

of, from BOTH; des Uns et des Autres, des unes et des Autres; kSTSSffiSSSo 

to, at BOTH; aux uns et aux Autres, aux unes et aux Autres ; J parties/" as, 

The French and the Dutch are united, let us beat both. 

Les Franpais et les Hollandais sont unis, battons les uns et les autres. 

Either; m. sing. fem. masc. plural. fem. 

Vun ou V Autre, Vune ou V Autre, les uns ou les Autres, les unes ou les Autres; 

of , from EITHER ; 
de Vun ou de V Autre, de Vune ou de V Autre, des uns ou des Autres, des Unes ou des Autres ; 
^ to, at EITHER; 
a Vun ou u V Autre, a Vune ou a V Autre, aux uns ou aux Autres, aux unes ou aux Autres; 

Either of them will come. 

L'un ou 1'autre viendra, m. 1'une ou 1'autre viendra, f. 

You may use either of them. 

Vouspouvez vous sermr de 1'un oizde 1'autre, m. de 1'un Eo?^de 1'autre,/ 

Neither, not either ; fem. 

masc. sing. fem. masc. plural. Ni les unes 

Ni Vun ni V Autre, Ni Vune ni V Autre ; Ni les uns ni les Autres, [ni les Autres , 

of, from NE1 Til ER ; m des unes 

Ni de Vun ni de I' Autre, si de Vune ni de V Autre ; Ni des Uns ni des Autres, [ni des Autres, 

Jo, at NEITHER; ai aux unes 

N i a V un ni a V A utre, si a V une ni a V Autre ; Ni aux uns ni aux Autres, [ni aux A litres. 

These words require Ne before the verb which attends them ; as, 

I care lor neither of them. 

Je ne me. soucieni de 1'un ni de 1'autre, m. ni de 1'une ni de 1'autre, /. 

N. B. When these words are the nominative of a verb, they are gene- 
rally placed after the verb, and ils or elles is added to the verb ; as, 

Neither of them will come. 
Ni 1'un nz 1'autre ne viendra ; or ils neviendront ni 1'un ni 1'autre, m. 
Ni 1'une nz 1'autre neviendra; or elles ne viendront ni 1'une ni 1'autue,/. 

* In proverbial sentences, others after of, to is generally rendered by AUTRVI ; as, 
J)o not do to others what you would not like to be done to. 
iV&faites pas a AUTRUI ce que vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vous fit. 









222 chap. vi. 



A verb expressing either being or acting, necessarily implies a subject 
or agent, generally known in grammar by the name of nominative. 

The verb must be of the same number and person as the agent, or 
nominative; this is called agreement of the verb with its nominative; as, 

Singular, Plum I. 

I speak. Je parlc Nous parlous. 

Thou speakest. Tu parlcs. Vous parlcz. eg 

#e M II 1 T- J& \ : *S 

Sfe 1? £Wej ' M/e4 PARLe ^' ft 

My brother £- Mon frere) - TJfes freres) , oo 

When tjto or wore substantives in the singular are the nominative 
of the seme verb, that verb must be in the plural number; as, 
My sister and he speak french. Ma sceur et lui parlent franca is. 

If the substantives which are the nominative of the verb, are of dif- 
ferent persons,* the verb does not agree with either of them; we add 
nous or vous to the sentence with which we make the verb agree. 

We add nous, if there is in the sentence a substantive* of the Jirst 
person; as, 

He and I speak french. Lui et moi nous parlous fraugais; 

i. e. he and I we speak french. 

We add vous, if there is in the sentence a substantive* of the second 
person, and none of the first; as, 

You and they speak french. Vous et eux vous uarlez fran^ais ; 

i. e. you and they you speak french. 

If the nominative of the verb is the relative pronoun Qui, the verb must 
be of the same number and person as the substantive* to which that 
pronoun relates; as, 

It is / who speak best. C est moi qui parle le mieux 

It is thou who speakest best. C* est toi qui paries le mieux. 

It is he who speaks best. C" est ltji qui parle le mieux. 

It is we who speak best. C est wous qui parlons le mieux. 

It is you who speak best. C est vous om parlez le mieux 

It is they who s£>ea& best. Cesont eux yz/z parlent le mieux. 

If Qui refers to several substantives of different persons,* it agrees 
with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second 
in preference to the third ; as, 

It is you and / who speak best. C est vous et moi qui parlons le mieux. 

It is you and /^e who speak best. C es£ vous et lui qui parlez le mieux. 

The collective substantives La plupart, infinite, nombre, quantite, 
troupe, multitude followed by another substantive, require the verb of 
the same number as that second substantive ; ex. 

Most people are of that opinion. 

La plupart du monde pense ainsi, or Laplupart des gens pensent ainsi. 

Le quart, Le tiers, La moitie require the verb in the singular ; as, 
One fourth of my books are lost. Le quart de mes livres est perdu. 

See note * page 205 

VERB. 223 

PLACING of the NOMINATIVE witfl the VERB. 

In a declarative sentence, i. e. when a question is not asked, the nomi- I oJ, 
native oi' the verb is placed in french as in english, before the verb ; ex. 

I speak french well. je parle Men frangais. 

He speaks french well. il parle bienfrangais. 

My brother speaks french well. Mon frere parle bien frangais. 

My sister speaks french well. Ma sceur parle bien frangais. (ee) 

But when the sentence is interrogative, it is necessary to consider 
whether the nominative of the verb is a noun or a pronoun. 

If, when you ask a question, the nominative of the verb is one of LOtJ 
the pronouns je, tu, il, elle, nous, vous, ils, elles, on, or ce, this 
pronoun is placed in french, as the corresponding words are in english, 
immediately after the verb; ex. 

Do I speak french well ? Parle-JE bien frangais ?* 

Does he speak french well ? Parle-t-ih bien frangais ? 

Does she speak french well ? P«r/e-t-ELLE bien frangais ? 

Do people speak french well ? Parle-t-ON bienfrangais ? 

If, when you ash a question, the nominative of the verb is a noun, lO-i 
that noun is placed before the verb, the same as in declarative sen- 
tences ; but to shew that a question is asked, one of the pronouns il, 
elle, ils, elles, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun, must 
be placed immediately after the verb ; as, 

Does my brother speak french well ? Mon frereparle-t-iL bien frangais? (ff) 
Does my sister speak french well? Ma sceur parle-t-ELLE bien frangais 9 
Do my brothers speak french well ?Mes freres parlejit-iLs bienfrangais? 
Do my sisters speak french well? 3Ies aceursjy cirlent-ELLEs Men fran gais? 

(ee) The nominative is generally placed after the verb in a declarative sentence. 

1. When the verb is used as a parenthesis ; ex. 

You are wrong, said her mother to her. Vous avez tort, lai dit sa MERE. 

2. When the sentence begins with tei , or A ins I ; as, 

Such was his advice. TEL etait son AVIS. 

Thus ended the business. ainsi se tennina /'affaire. 

3. When the nominative is attendedby several words which can not 1: .•-. paTutM from it, 
or can not he placed before the verb, without suspending the sense of the sentence ; 

D' un cotl on voyait une riviere oil se FOR ittAlENT des ILES bordies ae tilleus fleuris. 
On one side was seena river from which sprung islands lined with lime trees in bloom. 
J.u COOLENT mille RUISSEAUX qui distrilmcnt par tout une eau claire. 
There a thousand rivulets run which carry every where a clear water. Fenelon. 
These sentences would not be so clear, if they were expressed thus : 

J)' un v6td on voyait une riviere oil des ILES bordees de tilleus fleuris se FORMAIENT. 
La, mille RUISSEAUX, qui distribuent par tout une eau claire COUI.ENT. 

4. When the verb is preceded by que, se, or ou ; as, 

The money which my father sent me. L' argent QUE vienvoya mon perf. 
The field where the battle was fought. Le champ ou se donna la BATA1LLE. 

5. Je, nous, tu, vous, il, ils, elle, ELLES, on, ce are generally placed after the 
verb, When the sentence begins with one of these words, ainsi, so, therefore; AU MOINS, 
ut least ; en vain, in vain; a peine, hardly; peut-etre, perhaps ; as, 

You were hardhj gone, when she came in. A peine 6tiez vous sorti qu'elle entra. 
* Except the pronoun Je, when the verb to which it is joined ends with several conso- 
nants, so instead of saying; couRs-je? do Irani MENTS-je? do 1 lie'/ DORS-jef do I 
sieepr which are hard to pronounce, we say, est-ce que je cours/ est-ce que je ments f 

(ff) When an interrogative sentence begins with que, (tvhat); ou, (uhere); we gene- 
rally place the noun after the verb, without adding a pronoun to it; as, 
Oil est votre frere? Where is your brother? On est votre sceur? Where is your sister 1 
Qvzfait votre here VlVhat is your brother doing? Que fait votre sceur IWhat is your &cc t I 



224 VERB. 


When we declare that a thing- is, or is not, or that it is, was, will be, or 
would be in our power to have it so, this manner of expressing ourselves 
is called indicative or declarative. 

J' AI, I have, 1 

T QTTTQ T I now, to-day, this week, this month, this year, 

JeoUIo, 1 am, > this age, in any period of time not entirely 

Je PARLE,* I speak, or am speaking ; 3 ela P sed -t 

The present tense in French does not differ from the same tense in 
english ; it expresses the being or acting at the time in which we are; as, 
I now have. I now am. I now speak, or am speaking. 

A present j'ai. A presentee suis. A present je parle. 


compound of the PRESENT. 
J' AI EU,^ I had, or have had, l, ately> t0 . dav , this week? &c in any period of thne> no| 

J' AI ETE, I was, have been J entire 'y elapsed; this is i!/ie nearer <i»i« /o <A<? pre?™*. 

J' AI PARLE, I spoke, did spealc, have spoken ; 
If we speak of an action recently past, without mentioning the time in 
which it passed, or if we mention a period! which is still lasting, such as, 
£o-day, this week, this month, this year, &c. the action being past, and 
the period of time mentioned being still present, we make the verb partake 
of both the present and past tenses, by adding the past participle to 
the present tense of the auxiliary verbs avoir or etre ; ex. 
no time mentioned. 

Were you ever at Paris? 
turn, Have you ever been at Paris? Ayez-vous jamais ete a parts? 

No, I never was there ; % 

turn, No, I have never been there. Non,je n'y ai jamais £te. 

I had no opportunity to go ; 
turn, I have had no opportunity &c. Je ?i\i pas eu occasion oVy alter. 

Did you ever see Buonaparte? 
turn, Have you ever seen b.? Ayez-vous jamais vu Buonaparte ? 

period mentioned, but not elapsed. 

I was at your house this morning ; 
turn, I have been at your house &c. J'ai £te chez vous ce matin. 

Did you find any body there ? | 

turn, Have you found any body &c. Y ayez-vous trouve" quelqu'un ? 

I saw your sister, and spoke to her; 
turn, I have seen your sister, and &c. J'kiYWotre sceur, etjeluiki parle. 

Did you not see my mother ? 
turn, Have you not seen &c. ? N' ayez-vous pas vu ma mere ? 

* In order to render the elucidation of this interesting part of the language more ob- 
vious, I have laid down the two auxiliary verbs avoir, to Have ; and etre, to Be, which 
are generally found the most embarrassing, and the familiar verb parler, to Speak, which 
may serve as a model for all the rest. 

t A period of time is a certain quantity of time, the duration of which is fixed and agreed 
upon, and which being elapsed, that period ceases ; such as a Day, a Week, a Fortnight, 
a Month, a Year, an Age, the four seasons of the year, Spring, Sununer, Autumn, Winter; 
or any other portion of time, the beginning and end of which can be ascertained. 

t The french generally use the participle e'te, instead oi the participle alee, to ex- 
press that a person has gone to a place whence he is returned. 

VERB. 225 



J' EUS, I had, ) yesterday, last week, last month, last year, a fortnight ago, m anj period of time 

Je FUS I Was ( zntoely past; thii is the retnulesttiirvii from the present. 

Je PARLA1, I spoke, did speak ; 
If we speak of an action past, in a period of time which is also en- lO/ 
tirely past; such as Yesterday, last week, a fortnight ago, last month, 
last year, any year previous to that in which we live, then both the time 
and action being past or accomplished, we use the perfect tense of the 
verb ; viz. eus, fus, parlai ; as, 

I called at your house yesterday. Je passai hier chez vous. 
Did you find any body there ? Y trouyates-vous quelqu'un ? * 

I saw your sister and spoke to her. Je vis voire sceur et je lid parlAt. 
Did you go to the ball with her? AllXtes-vous au bal avec elle ? * 
No, I did not; i.e.gothere.< roRuleN - B -> Non,je n'y allai pas. <<°R ule * B -> 
Did you not speak to my mother? Ne parlates-vous pas d ma mere? 
Yes,l did ; i.e. speak to her. l70Rnle " B > Oui,je lid parlai. (70RuleNB - 

J' AVAIS, I had, 

imperfect tense. 

then, at that time, when that happened, in a time imperfect or uncertain. 

/' ETAIS, I was, j 

Je PARLAIS, I spoke, did speak ; 

The imperfect is used in three different instances. 

1st. When we speak of an action that was passing, and consequently j.OO 
imperfect or incomplete at a time we allude to, though at the time in 
which we relate it, it is perfect or accomplished, we use the imperfect 
tense of the verb: viz. avais, etais, parlais, &c. 

These instances are generally expressed in english by the gerund or 
present participle in ing added to was or were; as, 

What were you doing there? Que faisiez-vous la 

I was writing to a friend. Jecrivais a un ami. 

I was getting ready to go out. Je ra'APPRETAis a sortir. 

I was going to call upon you. J'allais passer chez vous. 

I was talking of you just now. Je parlais de vous tout a Vheure. 

I was going out, as you came in. Je sortais, comme vous entriez. 

2nd. When we wish to denote that the action of which we speak was JLOy 
habitual, or has been reiterated, we must use the imperfect. 

In these instances, the english verb may be changed into the infinitive, 
with did use, or used, before it; as, 

Where did you walk in London 
wz.Where did you to walk &c. Oii vous promeniez-iws d Londres? 

I generally walked in the park. [le pare. 

or, I used to walk &c. Je me promenais ordinairement dans 

I often met frenchmen there, 
or, I used to meet &c. J'y rencontrais souvent des franca is. 

I always spoke french with them. 
or, I used to speak &c. Je parlais toujours francais avec eux. 

* It. is not necessary in order to use the past Jonses, that evevy verb should be at- 
tended by an expression denoting a time past ; it is suflicient that the time be men- 
tioned or alluded to at the beginning of the discourse, because the mind naturally goes 
back to the period >vhich has either been mentioned or alluded to. 


226 VERB. 


3rd. Another very extensive use of the imperfect is in descriptions 
for whenever we describe the qualities of persons, or things, the state, 
place, situation, order, disposition in which they were in a time past, we 
use the imperfect ; as, 

Where were you yesterday? Oil etikz-vous hier? 

I was in the country. Jetais a la campagne. 

I was 241 not well.* Je ne me portais 241 pas Men. 

I had a bad head- ache. J'avais grand mat a la tete.* 

Was the country pleasant? La. campagne tikw-elle agreable? 

Yes ; but it was 240 rather hot. Out; maisil faisait 240 un pen chaud. 

N B. Observe however, that if the duration of the state, &c. which we 
wish to describe was limited to a period of which the end was known, we 

* The greatest difficulty attending the past tenses is how to discriminate this last in- 
stance of the imperfect from the perfect, i. e. how to distinguish an action from a state of 
being, and indeed the distinction is sometimes so nice, that it is not surprising foreigners 
should err in the use of them ; for example, 

FIRST instance. SECOND instance. 

I was very wet in going into the country. I was so icet that; I could not stay 
He was killed in falling from his horse. He WAS dead when we found him. 
He HAD his leg carried off by a cannon ball. He HAD also a wound in his breast. 

was and had in these various instances can not he expressed hy the same tense in 

When, in the first instance, I say ; I was very wet in going into the country ; He was 
killed in falling ; He had his leg carried off c\c. I am relating facts, events which hap 
pened, of the end of which a perfect idea may he formed, and these must he expressea 
by the perfect. 

But when, in the second instance, I say ; J was so wet that I could not stay ; He was 
dead when we found him; He HAD also a wound in his breast; I no longer express the facts 
themselves, of being wet, of being killed fyc. hut describe a state of being, i. e. I was in a 
wet state : He was in a dead state ; He was in a wounded state, the duration of winch is 
not limited to any time, and can not be ascertained, and these are expressed by the im- 
verfect; thus, 

FIRST instance." SECOND instance. 

Je FUS tres mouilU en allant a, la campagne. J' ETAis si mouill'6 que je ne pus pas rester. 

II FUT tut en tombant de cheval. II etait mort quand nous le trouvdmes. 
II EUT lajambe emportee d'un coup de canon. II avait aussi une blesswre a. la poitfine. 

In order to elucidate this still more, and try the rules that have just been laid down, 
let us peruse apiece of history where the difference between a narration and a descrip- 
tion, a fact and an incident, will appear obvious. 

Calipso could not console herself for the Calipso ne pouvait 140 se consoler du d£- 

departure of Ulysses. In her grief, she con- part d' Ulisse. Dans sa douleur, ell'e se trou- 

sideredher immortality as a misfortune. Her vait 140 malheureuse d' etre immortelle. Sa 

grotto no longer resounded with the sweet grotte ne resonnait 140 plus du doux chant 

harmony of her voice. The nymphs who de sa voix. Les nymphes qui la servai- 

attended her, dared not to speak to her. She ent 140 n' OSAIENT' 40 lui parler. Ella se 
often walked alone upon the flowery turf PROMENAIT 139 souvent seule sur les ga- 

which an eternal spring diffused round her zons fleuris dont un printems tternel cor- 

island ; but these charming abodes, far from dait 140 son He; mais ces beaux lieux, loin 

assuaging her grief, served only to recall the de mude'rer sa douleur ne faisaient 1S0 

sad remembrance of Ulysses, whom she had que lui rappeler le triste souvenir d' Ulisse 

so many times seen by her side. Frequently q^i' elle y avait 140 vu tant de fois aupres 

she stood motionless on the beach of the sea, d'elle. Souvent elle DEMEURAIT 130 i'mmo- 

which she watered with her tears, and she bile sur le rivage de la mer qu' elle arro- 

was incessantly turned towards that quarter SAIT 139 de ses larmes, et elle ETAIT 140 sans 

where the ship of Ulysses,plowingthe waves, ce.sse tournie vers le coti cu le vaisseau d' 

had disappeared from her eyes. All on a Ulisse, fendant les ondes, avait 140 disparu a 

sudden, she perceived pieces of a ship ses yeux. Tout & coup, elle appercut 137 le» 

which had just been wrecked ; then she debris d'un navire qui venAIT 140 de faire 

I>escried two men at a distance, one of naicfrage ; puis elle decouvrit 137 de loin 

VERB- 227 


should not use the imperfect ; we should use either the compound of the 
present or the perfect, according to the period mentioned, or alluded to ; 
for though I should say, 

J'etais malade ce matin. I was ill this morning'. 

J ! avais hier grand mat a la tete. I had a bad head-ache yesterday 
I would not say : 

«T£tais malade, butfki ete malade toute la matinee. 

J'avais mal a la tete, but/Eus mat a la tete toute lajournee; 
Because the state which I describe is known to have ended with the 
period mentioned, viz. la matinee, la jour nee. 

whom was seemingly in years; the other, deuxhommes dont V un paraissait 140 dg£ ; 
though a youth, resembled Ulysses. He had V autre, quoique jeune, ressemblait 140 a 
his sweet and lofty look, with his size and Ulisse. 11 avait 140 sa douceur et safierU, 
majestic deportment. The goddess UNDER- avec sa taille et sa d-marche majestueuse. 
stood that it was Telemachus the son of La deesse comprit 137 que c'etait 140 Te7e- 
th'at hero, but she could not find out who maque fits de cehe'ros,maiselle ne put 137 d£- 
that venerable man was by whom Telemachus couvrir qui etait 140 cet homme v6n£rable 
ilms accompanied. dont Ttlemaque etait 140 accompagni. 

Now, if we select from the above passage the facts that constitute the ground of the 
nirration, we shall find them to be these : 

Calypso, standing on her island, perceived the wreck of a ship; then she descried two men, the one 
young and the other old. She understood the young one to be Telemachus, hut she could not recognise 
the other. And the verbs expressing these facts are in the perfect. The verbs which form only inci- 
dents, such as the description of Calypso and her island, of Telemachus and his shipwreck, and which 
might be left out of the narration, without impairing it,but not without strippmg it of its beauties, are in 
the imperfect. 

Let us examine another piece of the same author, in which there will be more narra- 
t'on, and less description, or more facts and fewer incidents. 

Telemachus, relating the manner in which lie escaped the danger of being taken by 
the Trojan fleet, says : 

The affability and the courage of the sage La douceur et le courage du sage Mentor 
Mentor charmed me ; but I was still more ™ e CHARM erent 137 ; mais je fus 137 encore 
surprised, when I saw with what address he hl( ; n V^mrpns, quandjevis™' avec quelle 
, ,. , j. :■, t> a j. *i_ adresse il nous delivra 137 des Iroyens. 

delivered us from the Trojans. At the Dam k moment mi u cieL COMMEN5 / IT i38 

moment when the skies began to clear, and a s >£ c i a i rcir et que i es Troy ens, nous voyant 
the Trojans, having a nearer view of us, would de plus pres, n' auraient pas manque" de nous 
infallibly have known us ; he observed one of reconnaitre ; il REMARQUA 137 un de leurs 
their ships that was almost similar to ours, vaisseaux qui etait 140 presque semblable au 
which the storm had separated from the rest, notre, et que la temptte avait 140 £cart6. La 
Her poop uHtfadorned with particular flowers. W e en etait" couronn^e de certaines 
He hastened to put upon our poop garlands of fl eurs - 7 II se HATA 13 ' de mettre sur notre 
flowers similar to theirs. He fastened them P 0U P e des ^onnes de fleurs semblables 11 
,. ,„ . , «„ . ™ A , J . , les ATTACH A ld ' lui meme avec des bandelettes 

himself with fillets of the same colour as those de la mime coulmr que celles des TroyenSt 

of the Trojans. He ordered all our rowers to J7 ordonna 137 a. touts nos rameurs de se 

stoop as much as they could along their baisser le plus qu'ils pourraient ic long da 

benches, that they might not be known by leurs bancs, pour n'etre point reconnus des 

the enemy. In this manner we passed through ennemis. En cet Hat nous passames 137 au 

the middle of their fleet, and whilst they were milieu de leur flotte, et pendant que les vents 

drivenby the impetuosity of the winds towards imp6tueux les poussaient 138 vers I'Afrique, 

Africa, we made all our endeavours to reach nousFlMES 137 les derniers Efforts pour arrivcr 

the neighbouring coast of Sicily. There in- sur la cote voisine de Sicile. Nsmsy arri 

deed we arrived; but &c. vames 137 en effet ; mais §c. Fenelon. 

The narrative part of this history is ; the affability &c. of the sage Mentor charmed me, but I rcrnt still 
more surprised when I saw with what address he delivered us from the Trojans. He observed one of their 
ships with flowers. on her poop. He hastened toput similar howers upon ours. He fastened them himself 
with fillets of the same colour as those of the Trojans. He ordered all our rowers to stoop along their 
benches, that we might not be known by the enemy. In this manner we passed through the middle of 
their fleet, and made all our efforts to reach the coast of Sicily, where we arrived fyc. by which you see 
that all the verbs which are necessary to the train of the narration, because they declare facts, are in th 
perfect tense, those which denote only incidents, are in the imperfect. 




228 VERB 

T AURAI, I shall, will have, 1 

Jo Wft AT T shall imll hp V soon - b * and by, tomorrow, new week, next month 

Je b^ivAl, l snail, ww, De, > & in u t 

JePARLERAI, I s/uz/*, wi/f speak ; J • 

The future tense is used in french as in english, to express what is 
to happen in a time to come; as, 

I will call upon you by and by. Je passerai tantot chez vous. 

The present tense is sometimes used in both languages, instead of the 
future ; so we say, 

Oil allez-vous ce soir? "Where do you go this evening? 

for, Ou irez-vous ce soir ? Where shall you go this evening? 

N.B. But if two verbs denoting futurity come in the same sentence, 
the second verb can not be put in the present tense in french, as it is 
sometimes in english, it must be put in the future; as, 

Call upon me, when you are ready ; the time for calling and for being 
ready, having yet to come, I would not say in french, 

passez chez moi, quand vous etes pret, which would denote that the 
person is ready at the time I am speaking ; I must say, 

passez chez moi, quand vous serez pret, i. e. when you will be ready. 

I will call as soon as I have dined. 

Je passerai aussi tot quefkVRAi dine; not, aussi tot que j\i dine, 
winch would denote that the person had dined at the time he is speaking. . 

This generally happens after the words when, as soon as, as long, as after. 

J' AURAIS, I should, would have, ) rr ,, . rT 

SERAIS, I should, would be, \ * ££%££ E£ SS ^ 

PARLERAIS, I should, would speak;) ^ PP 

The conditional has also the same properties in french as in english; 
it denotes that a thing would be done, if some condition was granted ; as, 
I would call there, if I could. J'y passerais, si je pouvais. 

After the conjunction if, SI; shall, will must not be considered as 
signs of the future, nor should, would as signs of the conditional of the 
verb which follows them ; will is then the present tense, and would the 
imperfect of the verb to WILL, to be willing, and they must be ex- 
pressed, will by the 'jwesent, and would by the imperfect of the verb 
VOULOIR, with the following verb in the infinitive in french ; as, 
I iv ill go with you, if you will come with me; i. e. if you are willing to come 
J'irai avec vous, si vous voulez venir avec moi.* \.(g£j 

I would go with you, if you would come with* me ; I. e. if you were willing 
J'irais avec vous, si vous vouliez venir avec moi* [to come. 

N. B. If should is the sign that follows if, it must be left out, and 
the following verb put in the imperfect ; as, 

Ifhe should come, what should I say to him? SHI yen kit, que luidirais-je'? 

* In these examples, you see will used first as a sign of the future of the following verb, then as the 
present of the verb to will ; would first used as a signoi the conditional, then as the imperfect of the verb 
to will. If the learner finds himself embarrassed how to distinguish the verb from the sign, let him try 
to substitute in the place of will, would some verb of *.hc same meaning, ;'. e. denoting will, wish, inclina- 
tion, dusire, such as please, like, choose, be willing; and he will know by the sense it will make, which is 
the verb and which is the sign. See also note * page 143. 

(gg) If SI is used for wht.ther ; shall, will must he expressed by the future, and 
SHOULD, WOULD by the conditional ; as, 

Do you know whether he will come? Savez-vous s' il viendra 1 

J want to know whether he icould come- Je veux savoir s' il VIENDRAI7 1 . 

VERB. 229 


It has been said, (p. 224,) that when we declare that a thing- is or is 
not, or that it is in our power to have it so, that mode of expression is 
called indicative, or declarative ; but if the thing spoken of is not 
asserted to be or not to be ; if it is mentioned only as a thing which may 
or may not be, and is not to be depended upon, this mode of expression is 
called potential, conjunctive, or subjunctive.* 1 < ff 

If we speak of an action the event of which is uncertain, which is 14*) 
generally the case when, in a sentence of two parts connected by the 
conjunction que, the first part is either interrogative or negative, 
or is attended by some expression denoting doubt ; as for ex. when I say; 

Do you think your sister will come ? 

I do not think she will come to-day. 

If I hear that she comes, I will let you know ; 

In which instances it remains uncertain whether the person will come 
or not ; this uncertainty is imparted in french, by putting the verb in tlie 
second part of the sentence in the subjunctive ; thus, 

Pemez-vons que voire sceur vienne ? not, viendra. 

Je ne pense pas qiielle vienne aujourd'hui; not, viendra. 

Si fapp rends qu'elle vienne, je vous leferai savoir. 

viendra and vient would assert as a fact, what the first part of the 
sentence shews to be doubtful. 

N.B. With respect to interrogative sentences, it must be observed, 
that it is only when we wish to impart ignorance or doubt cf the thing 
inquired after, that the subjunctive is required after them ; for if we knew 
that a thing is or will be, and only enquired whether the person to whom 
we speak knows it likewise, we should use the indicative; as, 

Doyounot believe that she will come? Necroyez-vousp as qu'elle viendra? 

Do not you know that she is married ? Nesavez-vouspas qiielle est mariee ? 
which sentences express the same idea as these ; 

She will come, do you not believe it ? She is married, do not you know it? 

* A few examples will make the difference between the indicative and subjunc- 
tive moods more obvious : 

They say that peace is made. I believe that peace is made. 

By these expressions I declare, in a. positive manner, that, in the opinion of some person, the thing of 
which I am speaking (peace) does or does not exist, and this positive assertion must be made with the 
indicative; thus, 

On dit que la paix EST faite. Je crois que la paix est faite. 

But by these expressions ; 

Do they say that peace is made ? I do not believe that peace is made. 
I do not assert that peace does or docs not exist; I either declare that I am ignorant of it, or that I 
doubt its existence; but a thing may exist, though I am ignorant of it; it may exist, though I am not con- 
vinced of its existence, and this uncertainty, whether the thing is or is not, is imparted to the hearer by 
means of the subjunctive mood ; 

Dit-on que la paix soit faite'/ Je ne crois pas que la paix SOIT faite. 

Again, I know somebody who will lend me money. He promised th-athe icould lend m.c some 
These are positive assertions, and they must be made with the indicative ; 
Je connais quelqiCun qui me PRETERA de I' argent. 
II a pranns quil m'en prEterait. But in these other instances ; 
I seek for somebody who will lend me money. 
Do you know any body who would lend me money 1 
It is not asserted whether the thing I am speaking of, will, or will not be, i. e. whether the money wili 
be lent or n<it; the event remains uncertain, and this uncertainty must be expressed by the subjunctive ; 
Je cherche quebqu'un qui me prete, or qui veuille me preter de I'argent. 
Connaissez-vous quelqu'un qui VOULUT me preter de V argent ? 
The indicative mood (says Harris) which, in all grammars, is the first in order, is also the first, both in 
dignity and use; it is this which publishes our sublimest perceptions, which exhibits the soul in her 
purest energies, superior to the imperfections of desires and wants, whivh includes the whole of time and 
its minutest distinctions. 

As to the potential (subjunctive') mood, it is only of a subordinate nature, and it implies but a dubious 
ar.d conjectural assertion; whereas that of the indicative is absolute, and without reserve. (Hekmfs, 
page 158, 159.) 





The subjunctive mood is required after all verbs arid adjectives, de- 
noting will, wish, desire, command, fear, wonder, surprise, astonishment, 
joy, gladness, grief, sorrow, in short, after all expressions which denote 
any passion or emotion of the mind;* as, 


I will have you do that. 
I wish you may succeed. 
I desired it to be got ready. 
I am afraid he will spoil it. 
I am surprised he is not here. 
I am g7ad you are come. 
I am som/ he has not seen it. 

Je veux oue vows fassiez cela. 
Je souhaite que vous reussissiez. 
J'ai ordonne" qu'on le prepare. 
Je crains qiCil ne le gAte. 
Je suis surpris quHl ne soit pas id. 
Je suis bien aise que vous soyez venu. 
Je suis' fskhe" qu'il ne Z'ait pas vu. 

The subjunctive mood is also required in fr'ench after the following 
verbs and adjectives, though they neither denote doubt nor passion ; 

iqueje le voie. 

quejy aille. 

// FAUT 

11 est TEMS 

Cest le seul ami quej'ME 


II est a propos 


II est indifferent! 

II est cruel \que cela soit. 


It is material 
It is better 
It is sufficient 
queje lui parle. Itisj#£ 

It is necessary 

I must see him. 
It is time that I should see him. 
He is the only friend I have. 
It is becoming 

that I should go. 

►that I speak to him. 

quit le fasse. 

It is indifferent) 

It is cruel, >that it should be so. 

It is shameful J 

It is just 

It is unjust 

It is possible 

It is impossible 

►that hesnould do it. 

After an adjective in the superlative degree, (see 50 rule.) 
After rien, aucun, pas un, personne, (note dd, p. 219.) 
After quelque, qui que ce soit, quoi que ce soit, (114, 115, 
118 rules.) 

After the conjunctions afinque, quoique, &c. (see 218 rule.) 


* The ingenious Mr. Harris, (Hermes, p. 15, 16.) gives the following definition of 
the powers of the soul, which may throw some light upon this intricate subject. 

The powers of the soul may he included in those of perception, and those of volition 

By the powers of perception, I mean the senses and the intellect. By the powers of 
volition, I mean not only the will, but the several passions and appetites ; in short, all 
that moves to action, whether rational or irrational. 

If the leading powers of the soul be these two, it is plain that every speech or sen- 
tence, as far as it exhibits the soul, must of course respect one or other of these. 

If we assert, then it is a sentence which respects the powers of perception ; for what, 
indeed, is it to assert, hut to publish some perception, either of the senses, or of the intellect. 

If we interrogate, if we command, if we pray, if we wish, what do we but publish so 
many different volitions 1 for, Who is it that questions? He who has a desire to be in- 
formed. Who is it that commands 1 He who has a will, which he would have obeyed. 
"What are those beings who either wish or pray '.* Those who feel certain wants, either for 
themselves or for othejs. 

If then the soul's leading powers be the two above mentioned, and if it he true that all 
speech is a publication of these powers, it will follow, that every sentence will be either a 
sentence of assertion, or a sentence of volition. 

To this may be added that sentences of assertion require the indicative, and sentences 
of volition require the subjunctive mood after them. 

VERB 231 


The subjunctive mood being always subordinate to a verb that pre- 
cedes it,* its tenses are regulated by this foregoing verb. 


J* AIE, I have, may have, ) ^^ ,„.,. 

JeSOlS, I be, maybe, \ ******* pr««« «***»« o< a* udi- 

Je PARLE, I speak, may speak ; J 
The present of the s ubjunctive is used, when the verb which requires 1 4t O 
the subjunctive after it, is in the present ox future of the indicative ; as, 

^~ (I shall have time ? (que f me le terns? 

§ ?/? U il shall be ready? pensez-vous} que je sois pret? 

r [llR (i shall speak to her? Igweje lui parle ? 

^H 7/f^ * ^ ttte ^ me ' (<?we j'aie le tems ; 

s ., J till I am ready; II attendraJ <?we je sois pret ; 

3 wai (^till I speak to her, [qweje /wi parle. 


J' EUSSE, I had, might have, i 

Je FUSSES, I were, might be, \ Ui tt^ &e v " ftd ' imperfict > and eondtiunua 

Je PARLASSE, I spoke, might speak;) _ 

The perfect of the subjunctive is used, when the verb which requires JL~r«7 
the subjunctive after it, is in the perfect, imperfect, or conditional ; as, 
£j tt [till I ^«d time; (gz/e/EUssE Ze Zems; 

J • . J till I was ready ; 7/ attendit -I queje fusse pret ; 

r- (till I spoke to her. [queje lui parlasse. 

t-rr ftill I had time; (quej'EVSSE le tems ; 

% ... a ^< till I should be ready ; II attendait<{ queje fusse prU ; 
V> ° [till I should speak to her Igweje lui parlasse. 

PW Id f^ ^ ^^ time? T^/e/EUSSE Ze tems? 

*-h °" -a ^N I should be ready ? attendrait i'Zi ^ue j'e fusse pret ? 
r [till I should speak to her? (g^e je lui parlasse ? 

IV.-B. The perfect of the subjunctive is also used, though the fore- 1 OU 
going verb is in the present of the indicative, if after the subjunctive-there 
is another verb in the imperfect, or some conditional expression ; as, 

Do you think I might speak to her, if I went now ? 

Pensez-vous queje pusse lui parler, sij'y allais a present? 

I do not think I should have succeeded without your assistance. 

Je ne pense pas gue/EussE reussi sans ucZre secours ; "• e - if y°* J** no * 
And also when the action expressed by the verb is past ; as, a " 
It is no wonder that he was wicked. 

II iiest pas etonnant qiCil fut mechant. 

If, after a verb in the subjunctive, there is another verb, preceded 15 J 
by the conjunction que, that verb must also be in the subjunctive ; as, 
Do you think she expects that I shall come ? 
Pensez-vous quelle s'attende queje vienne? 

* Except in some sentences of wish, where the verb wish is understood ; as, 
God be blessed ! Dieu soit btni ! 

May you be happy ! POlSSlEZ-vous etre heureux! 

Would to God I hud never seen him! plut a dieu queje ne I' eusse jamais vu! 






232 VERB. 

gerund or present participle. 
AYANT. having.) 

ETATVt' b' [*•«• AYANT, ETANT, never change their termination. 

PARLANT, speaking; 

The gerund or present participle, joined to a noun, generally de- 
notes quality, and, like an adjective, agrees with it in gender and number; 
She is a charming woman. Cesi unefimme charmant?. 

She has engaging manners. Elle a des manieres ENGAGEANTes. 

But the gerund expressing the action, and not the quality of the sub- 
stantive to which it refers, does not require any agreement with it ; as, 

I saw her in coming home. Je la vis en venant au logis. (hh) 

I found them in walking here. Je les trouvai eh me promenant ici. 

N.B. If the substantive to which the gerund refers is the object of 
the verb, it is better to express it with the indicative ; thus, 

I found her coming here. Je la trouvai qui venait ici. 

I saw them walking. Je les vis qui se promenaient. 

The english gerund governed by a verb, or the prepositions of, from, 
at-, for, after, with, without, is expressed by the infinitive in french ; 
I see him coming. Je le vois venir or qui vient. 

Without bringing his book. Sans apporter son livre. 

I was prevented from doing it. On rria cmpeche de le faire. 
I was tired with waiting. J'etais las d'ATTENDRE. 

After having stayed so long. Apres avoir reste si long terns. 
I was afraid of being too late. Je craignais d'y etre trop tard. 

The gerund, so often used in english with the auxiliary verb be, to 
render an action more definite, can not be expressed by the gerund in 
french ; the auxiliary verb must be left out and the gerund be made into 
a verb, in the same tense and person as the auxiliary verb is ; as, 
I am speaking. Je parle ; never, Je suis 

Thou art speaking. Tu parles ; Tu es 

He is speaking. II parle ; II est 

I was speaking. Je parlais ; J'etais 

I shall be speaking. Je parlerai ; Je serai. 

The gerund, when used as a substantive in english, i. e. preceded by 
an article, can not be expressed by the gerund in french ; it must be ex- 
pressed by a noun, if a noun synonymous to the verb can be found ; as, 

Let us go a walking. Allons a la promenade. 

Her singing was much admired. Son chant fut fort admire. 

He gives all his time to gaming. 11 donne tout son terns au jeu. 

That is the cause of hisbeingpoor. Cest la la cause de sa pauvrete. 

If a noun synonymous to the verb can not readily be found, give 
another turn to the sentence ; as, 

What is the reason of your coming so late? 

Quelle est la raison que vous venez si tard ? i. e. that you come fyc. 

The empoverishing of some is the enriching of others. 

Ce qui appauvrit les uns enrichit les autres ; i. e. what i?npoverishes. 

(hh) En is the only preposition which the g wand admits before it in french, therefore 
the preposition BY, which is often prefixed to it in english, must be expressed by EN ; as, 
They saved the city by surrendering. Us sauverent la ville E-N se rendant. 

You gained his esteem by forgiving him, Vous avezgagni son estimeEfi lui pardonnant. 

Pee the coniu- 
I gations, p. 1 12. 




ETE, been, N.B. ETE never vanes its termination. 

PARLE, spoken; 1 ~ ly 

The past participle joined to a noun, has the property of an ad- 1 oj 
jective, and agrees in gender and number with that noun ; 

A well made man. un homme bien fait. 

A well made woman. unefemme bien faitc. 

After the auxiliary verbs avoir and etre, a distinction must be made. ~i rc> 

After etre, fo ££, the^a.^ participle must be of the same gender lOO 
and number as the nominative of the verb; ex. 

il est bien fait. ils sont bien faits. 

elle est bien faitc. elles sont bien f Aires. „, 

After avoir, to have, the ^?«s£ participle does zzo£ agree with the 1 0*^ 
nominative of the verb; so we say, 

il a bien fait. ils (m* Men fait. 

elle a foera fait. elles out bien fait. 

In these instances you must consider whether the participle has an ob- 
ject, and whether this object comes be/ore or after the participle. 

If the participle comes before its object, it does not require any 
agreement with it; but if it comes after the object, it must agree like 
an abjective in gender and number with that object ; ex. 


My brother has made a mistake. Monfrere a fait une faute. 
My sister has made a mistake. Ma soeur a fait une faute. 
My brothers have made a mistake. Mes freres out fait une faute. 

participle after its object. 
Here is the mistake he has made. Void la faute gw'z'Z a faitc. 
Here is the mistake she has made. Void la faute qu'elle a FAiTe. 
Here is the mistake they have made.Voici la faute </w'z7s oh£ faitc. 

iV. 5. Observe that the participle agrees only with its direct object (see 162 rule) ; for if the object is 
governed by a preposition expressed or understood, the participle does not agree with that object; so, 
though we say, II nous a vus, he has seen us ; we coitld not say, II nous a dits des nouvelles, he has told 
us news ; we must say, il nous a dit ; because nous is here used for a nous, to us. -■ s\ f\ 

Sometimes after the participle preceded by an object, there is a verb 1 OU 
in the infinitive, then it is necessary to consider whether the object is 
governed by the participle, or by the infinitive which follows it. 

If the object is governed by the participle, the participle must be 
of the same gender and number as that object ; ex. 

The letter I have given him to copy. Z<2lettre queje lui ai donnee a copier. 

If the object is governed by the infinitive which follows the parti- 
ciple, the participle has no agreement with the object ; as, 

The letter I have told him to copy. La lettre queje lui ai dit de copier.* 

The participles plu, pleased; du, owed, ought; pu, been able; and 11)1 
voulu, been willing ; do not agree with the object that precedes them, 
because the infinitive of the foregoing verb is understood after them ; ex. 

Je lui ai rendu touts les services quefai pu, lui rendre understood. 

I have done him all the services that I have been able, to do understood. 

* If you are uncertain whether the object is governed by the participle, or by the in/initive which 
follows it, transpose the words, and see after which the object may more properly be placed. 

If the object can be placed after the participle, a.s in the first instance, The letter / nave given him t<i 
copy, which may be turned, / have given him the letter to copy; the participle given governs the object 
letter, and it must agree with it. 

If the object comes more properly after the infinitive, as in the second instance, The letter I have told 
him to copy, which might be turned, / have told/nm to copy the letter, (not, the letter to copy) the object 
letter is governed by the infinitive to copy, and the participle has no agreement with it. 






234 VERB. 


When a verb governs two substantives (see note * page 205) one 
of them is the direct object of the verb, and does not require any prt 
position; the other is an indirect object, and requires a preposition, 
expressed before a noun, and generally implied in the pronouns * ; as, 

I gave her a nosegay. Je lui ai donne un bouquet. 

Q. I gave what ? A. a nosegay. To whom f to her. 

Nosegay is the direct object of the verb ; to her is the indirect. 

Do not tell your mother of it. Ne le dites pas a voire mere. 
Do not tell what ? do not tell it. To whomf to your mother ; 
For it is the thing you tell, not the person you tell it to, which is the object of the verb. 

When a verb governs two objects, the direct object is generally 
placed before the indirect; as, 

I gave your sister a nosegay. Jai donne un bouquet a voire sceur. 

Yet the indirect object must be placed first, if by placing it last, it made 
the meaning equivocal ; for example, we say, 

Elle ajette son bouquet dans la rue. 

She has thrown her nosegay into the street; but we do not say : 

Elle ajette le bouquet que vous lui aviez donne dans la rue. 

She has thrown the nosegay which you had given her into the street ; 
because, dans la rue, after donne, might be understood that the nosegay was 
given in the street, not that it was thrown into the street ; we say : 

Elle ajette dans la rue, le bouquet que vous lui aviez donne. 

She has thrown into the street, the nosegay which you had given her.t 

The same noun may be governed by two verbs which are both used 
without ^PREPOSITIONS which require both the same preposition; as, 

They attacked and took the place. Its attaquerent et prirent la place. 

But if one of the verbs requires a preposition after it, and the other 
docs not, or if the two verbs require different prepositions, the noun 
must be made the object of the first verb, and an objective pronoun must 
be added for an object to the second verb ; so we could not say : 

lis attaquerent et se rendirent mattres de la place. 

They attacked and made themselves masters of the place ; because Rendre 
maitre requires a preposition after it, and Attaquer does not ; we say : 

lis attaquerent la place, et s'en rendirent maitres. 

They attacked the place, and made themselves masters of it. 

The same verb may likewise govern several parts of a sentence, 
provided they are used in the same sense ; as, 

I expect much from him, but still more from you. 

Tattends beaucoup de lui, mais encore plus de vous. 

But if one of the parts is affirmative, and the other negative, the verb 
must be repeated in the second part ; as, 

I expect every thing from you, and nothing from him. 

J'attends tout de vous, et je ^attends rien de lui. 

Some verbs govern indifferently the infinitive or the subjunctive mood ; 
but if they govern two verbs, they must be both in the same mood; as, 
I will prevent him from going out, and from doing you any harm. 
Je Vempccherai de sortir, et de vous faire du mat; or 
J'empecherai qu'il ne sorte, et qu'il ne vous fasse du mat. 

* See a table of the pronouns, page 74. t The English should pay particular attention to ihic 

rule j they are very apt to act contrary to it, both iu speaking and writing. 




Passive verbs require de or par before the noun which they govern. 
They require de, when the verb expresses an action wholly qfthe mind; as, 

Your brother is loved and esteemed by all who know him. 

Voire frere est aime* et estime de touts ceux qui le connaissent. 
They require par, when the bodily faculties participate in the action; as, 

He was beaten by a sailor, and robbed by a soldier. 

II a ete battu par un matelot, et vole par un soldat 

But instead of these passive expressions, it is better in french to use 
Ihe active sense of the verb, and say : 

Touts ceux qui connaissent voire frere Raiment et Testiment. 

All those who know your brother love and esteem him. (ii) 

When two verbs come together, without being joined by a con- 
junction, the latter is governed by the former in the infinitive, 
sometimes with, and sometimes without a preposition. 

The preposition to, the sign of the infinitive mood in english, is ex- 
pressed by de, A, pour, in french, but not indiscriminately, (kk) 

(ii) Grammarians distinguish three sorts of verbs, which they call active, passive, 
and neuter. 

Active, when the action of the verb passes from the agent to some object; as, 

I teach your sister. 
Passive, when the receiver of the action is made the leading power of the verb ; this 
is done by adding the past participle to the auxiliary verb be ; as, 
Your sister is taught by vie. 
Neuter, i. e. neither active nor passive, when the whole energy of the verb remains in 
the agent, and is not communicated to any object; as, 

Tieae distinctions are common to all languages. 

But the English have a facility of changing active verbs into neuter verbs, which 
the French have not; for example, when I say ; 

We MET your brothers quarrelling : we parted them. 
Here met and parted are active, because the energy of the verbs met, parted passes from the agent we, 
to an object brothers ; if I take away the object, and say : we met, we parted; then met and parted are 
neuter, because the whole energy of the verb remains in the agent we. 

Again ; I opened the door; here opened is active, because it has an object, door, 
lite door opened ; here opened is neuter, because the action remains in the door itself. 
To leave out this object would not render the verb neuter in french, it would only make the sentence 

To answer the same end, and give to the verb a neuter signification, the French add 
to it an objective PRONOUN of the same person as the agent or nominative, by which means 
the whole energy of the verb remains in the same being ; hence the number of reflective 
verbs with which the french language abounds : so in the first instance, 
We met your brothers, we PARTED them; the French say: 
Nous REN CONTRA MES vos freres, nous les SEPARAMES. 
In the second, 

We met; we parted. Nous nous rencontrames \ Nous nous separames; i.e. 
we ourselves met; we ourselves parted. 

They stopped me; lis m'ARRETERENT. They STOPPED; lis s'arrete'rent; i.e. 
they stopped themselves. 

He OPENED the door; 11 OUVRIT laporte. The door OPENED; Laporte s'ouvrit ; i.e. 
the door opened itself. 

N. B. The genius of the french language requires also that some verbs which have a kind of passive 
or neuter signilication in english, should be made reflective, when we wish to shew that the action ex- 
pressed by the verb is not limited to the instance of which we speak, but is applicable to all instances of 
the same kind; for example: 

Ce mot n'EST pas bien PLACE; This word is not rightly PLACED; i. e. in this instance • 
II se PLACE ordinairemeut avant le verbe; It is generally placed before the verb ; i. . 
its usual place is before the verb. These instances may also be expressed by ON ; on le place ordinairc- 
vient avant le verbe. See 92 rule. 

(kk) When two verbs come togetlier, without a conjunction between them, the latter 
is governed by the former in the infinitive, whether the sign to be expressed or not. 





I OO To, before an infinitive, is expressed by de, when it can be changed 
into of or from, and the infinitive into the gerund or present participle ; 
N.B. This commonly happens after nouns used in a definite sense ; as, 
He has the pleasure of seeing her. II a le plaisir de la voir. 
She has the vanity to think so. Elle a la vanite de le penser.* 

* As this rule does not apply to all instances 

list of the verbs and adjectives which require de 

s' Ahstenir de, Abstain from. se 

Accuser de., Accuse of. 

Achever de, Finish to. se 

Affecter de, Affect to. 

Afflige de, Afflicted to. 

Aise de, Glnd to. 

Apprehender de, Fear to. 

s' Attendre de, a, t Expect to. 

Avertir de, Warn to. 

s' Aviser de, Bethink to. 

Blamer de, Blame to. 

Capable de, Capable of, to. 

Cesser de, Cease to. 

Charger de, Charge to. 

Charm£cie,1lsvia'e, De-lighted with. 

Commander de, Command to v 

Commencer de, u,t Begin to. 

Conjurer de, Entreat to. 

Conseiller de, j4dw'se to. 

Consoler de, Console for. 

Content de, Content to. 

Continuer de, a,t Continue to. 

Convaincre de, Convince to. 

Convenir de, Agree to. 

Craindre de. Fear to. 

Curieux de, Curious to. se 

Decourager de Discourage with. 

Defendre de, Forbid to. 

ge Depecher de, JVIafce /iaste to. 

Desesperer de, Despair to. 

Desirer de, TFis/i to. 

Determiner de, Determine to. 

Detourner de, Divert from. 

Differer de, Defer to, De/ai/ to. 

Dire de, TeiU to. 

Discontinuer de, Discontinue to. 

Disconvenir de, Disown to. se 

Dispenser de, Dispense with. 

Dissuader de, Dissuade from. se 

Doux de, I'leasant to. 

Ecrire de, TFrire to. 

s' Efforcer de, Endeavour to. 

Enjoindre de, Enjoin to. 

Empecher de, Prevent to. 

s' Empresser de, Eager to. 

Ennuye de, Tired of. 

Enrage de, Enraged at. se 

Entreprendre de, Undertake to. 

Essay er de, d,t Try to. 

Etonne de, Astonished at. se 

Eviter de, -4 void to. 

Excuser de, Excuse to. 

Exempter de, Exempt from. 

Exorter de, #,t Exhort to. 

Fache de, Stwr^/ to. 

Feindre de, Feign to. 

Finir de, Finish to. 

se Flatter de, Flatter to. se 

f As it sounds best, i. e. de to avoid the sound of sev 

in which to is expressed by de, here is a 
before the infinitive which follows them : 

Garder de. Take care to. 

Gronder de, Scold for. 

Hater de, Haste to. 

Heureux de, Happy to. 

Impossible de, Impossible to. 

Incapable de, Incapable of. 

Inspirer de, Inspire to. 
Juger a proposde, Thiiik proper to. 

Jurer de, Swear to. 

Juste de, Just to. 

Lasse de, Tired of, with. 

Libre de, 4t liberty to. 

Mander de, Se»d word to. 

Manquerde, Fail to. 

Menacer de, Threaten to. 

Meriter de, Deserve to. 

Necessaire de, Necessary to. 

Negliger de, Neglect to. 

Offrir de, 0#er to. 

Omettre de, Omit to. 

Ordonner de, Order to. 

Oublier de, Forget to. 

Pardonner de, Forgive for. 

Permettre de, Permit to. 

Persuader de, Persuade to. 

Piquer de, Pretend to. 

Plaindre de, PitJ/ to, for. 

Possible de, Possible to. 

Prescrire de, Prescribe to. 

Presser de, Press to. 

Prier de, Request to. 

Promettre de, Promise to. 

Proposer de, Propose to. 
Recommanderde, Recommend to 

Refuser de, Refuse to. 

Regretter de, Regret to. 

Rejouir de, Rejoice to. 

Remercier de, Thank for. 

Repentir de, Repent of, to. 

Reprocher de, Reproach for. 

Resoudre de, Resolve to. 

Risquer de, Risk to. 

Rougir de, R/us/i to. 

Satisfaitde, Satisfiedto, with. 

Sollicker de, Solicit to. 

Sommer de, Summon to. 

Soucier de, Care to. 

Souhaiter de, THs/i to. 

Soup^onner de, Suspect to. 

Souvenir de, Remember to 

Suffire de, Sufficient to. 

Suggerer de, Suggest to. 

Supplier de, Entreat to. 

SCir de, .Sure to. 

Surpris de, Surprised to. 

Tacher d«, Endeavour to. 

Tarder de, Eo»? to. 

Vanter de, Roast of. 
eral a, and a. to avoid the sound of Several ds 




To, before an infinitive, is expressed by A, when it can be changed 1 LM 
into in, and the english infinitive into the gerund or present participle ; 
N.B. This is generally the case after nouns used in a partitive sense ; as, 
He lias pleasure in seeing her. II a du plaisir k la voir. 
Is there vanity to think so ? Y a-t-il de la vanite k le penser?t 

t As this rule is not applicable to all instances in which to is expressed by A, here is 
e list of the verbs and adjectives which require A before the infinitive which follows them : 

s Abaisser tt, 

Accoutumer a, 

Admettre d, 

Admirable h, de* 

Affreux «, de* 

Agreable i\, de,* 

Aider «, 

Aimer d, 

Aise a, 

Am user a, 

Animer il, 
s' Appliquer d, 

Apprendre d, 
s' Appreter a, 

Aspirer a, 

Assidu a, 
s' Attach er a, 


Avoir it, 

Beau <), de* 

Bon a, de,* 

Charmant it, 

Chercher u, 

Condamner d, 

Condescendre a, 

Consister u, 

Stoop to. 
Accustom to. 
Admit to. 
Wonderful to. 

Dreadful to. k 
Agreeable to. 
Help to. 
Like to. 
Easy to. 
Amuse to, with 
Animate to. 
Apply to. 
Learn to. 
Get ready to. 
Aspire to. 
Assiduous to. 
6'dcfc to. 
Authorise to. 
Hare to. 
Fine to. 
Good to. 
Charming to. 
See/c to. 
Condemn to. 
Condescend to. 
Consist to, in. 

Contraindre a, de,f Compel to. 
Contribuer a, ContHbute to. 


Demander «, 

Depenser a, 

Dernier d, 

Desagreable a, 

Destiner d, 

Determiner a, 

Difficile a, de* 

Diligent a, 

l)isposer h, 

Donner a, 
s' Ecbauffer a, 
s' EfForcer H, 

Efl'royable a, de,* 

Employer a, 

Encourager a, 

End in a, 

Engager d, 

Enhardir a, 

Enseigner a, 
s' Etudier d, 

Eire u, 

Exact a, 

Ask to. 
Spend to, in. 
Last to. 

Disagreeable to. 
Destine to. 
Resolve upon. 
Difficult to. 
Diligent to. 
Dhpose to. 
Giie to. 
Heat to. 

Spend oneself to, in. 
Frightful Co. 
Employ to, (/se to. 
Encourage to. 
Inclined to. 
Induce to. 
Embolden to. 
7>ac/i to. 
Study to. 
lie to. 

E.TcUt tO. 

Exercer d, 

Exciter a, 

Exposer a, 

Eacile d, de,* 
se Fatiguer a, 

Forcer a, de,£ 

Gaguer a, 

Habile «, 

Habituer a, 


Hon-ible il, de* 

Inciter a, 

Jngenieux a, 

Inviter a, 

Laid u, 

Lent a, 

Manquer d, 
se Mettre a, 

IMontrer d, 

Obliger d, de,f 
s' Obstiner d, 

Occupe d, 
s' Opiniatrer a, 

Parvenir a, 

Passer il, 

Penser d, 

Perdre a, 

Persister d, 
se Plaire a, 

Porter a, 

Premier d, 

Preparer d, 

Pret a, 

Prompt <i, 

Propre d, 

Exercise to. 
Excite to. 
Expose to. 
Easy to. 
Get fired with 
Fores to. 
Gain to. 
Clever to. 
ylceurtom to. 
Heat ate to. 
Horrid to. 
Incite to. 
Ingenious to. 
Invite to. 
17-/1/ to. 
i'/oit- to. 
Omit to. 
6'et aftout to. 
6/ieio to. 
Oblige to. 
Obstinate to. 
JJai?/ to. 
Obstinate to. 
Arrive to. 
5pead in. 
Think of. 
Lose in. 
Persist in. 
Delight in. 
Induce to. 
E/rst to. 
Prepare to. 
Ready to. 
Quick to. 

e;* to. 

llecommencer a, Begin again to. 

llenoncer d, 
Kcsoudre d, 
Hester a, 
Keussir d, 
Servir a, 
Soigneux a, 
Songer a, 
Sujet d, 
Tacher ft, 
Tarder d, 
Tendre d, 
Terrible d 
Travailler d, 
Venir a, 


Renounce to. 
Resolve to. 
67 a «/ to. 
Succeed to, in. 
6'erte to. 
Careful to. 
jTfcinA of. 
Sabject to, apt to 
^4iw at. 
De/«?/ to. 
Te»d to. 
Terrible to. 
Jf o?/c to. 
Come to. 

• These adjectives require d, when the verb which precedes them has a personal no- 
minative ; they require de, when the nominative is impersonal ; ex. 

Cela est agrtable, bon, beau a voir, a dire, a faire, That is agreeable, fine to see, &c. 
II est agreable, bon, beau de voir, de dire, de /aire, It is agreeable, fine to see, <\.c. 

J De or d, as it sounds best in the active sense ; always de in the passive ; as, 
On m'a oblige de or a /e faire; They have obliged me to do it. 

J' ci 4t£ oblige de /e /n:>e ; I have been obliged to do it. 






To, before an infinitive, is expressed by pour, when the words in 
order, or with an intention, may be prefixed to it; as, 

I did it to fin order to) oblige you. JeVaifait rouR wwsobliger. 
We went there to see you. Nous y allames pour vous voir. 

N. B. The english gerund preceded by the preposition for, explaining 
why a thing- is done, is also expressed by the infinitive with pour;^ 
He was hanged for having robbed. II a He pendu pour avoir vole. 
He was flogged for telling lies. II a etefouette pour avoir menti. 
The infinitive is used without a preposition infrench, when it is 
the nominative of another verb; as, 

To be rich is nothing ; etre riche ri est rien ; 

To be happy is every thing. Le tout est d'etre heureux. 

The infinitive is also used without a preposition in french, after 
the following verbs : viz. 

aimer mieux ; J'aime mieux le faire. (II) 
aller ; Allons nous promener. 

appercevoir; Je Vappersois motjvoir. 
// assure /'avoir fait, 
II croit me tromper. 
II compte partir enpeu. 


croire ; 


devoir ; 
entendre ', 
espe'rer ; 
falloir ; 


oser ; 


penser ; 
pretendre ; 
retoitrner ; 


sembler ; 
souhaiter ; 


valoir mieux 
venir ; 
vouloir ; 

Daignez me dire quand. 
II declare le s avoir. 
II doit me /'envoyer. 
Je Ventends parler. 
Envoyez le chercher. 
J'espere le rencontrer. 
Ilfaut lui aider. 
Je m' imagine y etre. 
Laissez-le dire et faire. 
H nose /'avouer. 
IlparaU /'entendre. 
// a pense tomber. 
Pretend -il le faire ? 
77 n'a pas pu me le dire. 
Je reconnais /'avoir dit. 
Je vous regarde faire. " 
Elle retourna la voir. 
II sait ou la trouver. 
Elle semble avoir peur. 
Je souhaite la voir.* 
II soutient /'avoir vu. 

I would rather do it. 

Let us go to take a walk. 

1 perceive it move. 

He asserts to have clone it. 

He thinks to deceive me. 

He purposes to go soon. 

Deign to tell me when. 

He declares to know it. 

He is to send it me. 

I hear him speak. 

Send for it, or to fetch it. 

I expect to meet him. 

It is necessary to help him. 

I fancy myself to be there. 

Let him say and do. 

He dares not co??fess it. 

He seems to understand it. 

He had like to have fallen. 

Does he pre* end to do it? 

He could not tell it me. 

I acknowledge to have said it. 

I am looking at you doing it. 

She returned to see him. 

He knows where to find her. 

She seems to be afraid. 

I wish to see her. 

He maintains to have seen it. 

II vaut mieux lui ecrire.(7/J It is better to write to her. 
Viendrez-vous me voir? (mm) Will you come to see me ? 
Je vois venir voire sozur. I see your sister coming. 
Elle ne veutpas rester. She will not stay. 

(II) Aimer mieux, valoir mieux, followed by another verb in the infinitive, re- 
quire de before the second infinitive ; as, 

I would rather stay than go ; J' aimerais mieux rester que T)'y aller. 

It is better to go than stay alone ; II vaut mieux y aller que DE rester seul. 

* Souhaiter may also be used with de ; as, Je souhaite le voir, or de le voir; I wish to see him. 
(mm) Venir used for to be just, to have just, requires de before the following infini- 
tive ; and in the sense of to happen, it requires A : as, 

I have just seen her ; Je viens de la voir. 

If she should happen to know it ; Si elle veiudt A le savoir t 

VERB. 239 


If, by will, would, you wish to denote will, wish, desire, you must 1/3 
express them by the corresponding tenses of the verb vouloir, with the 
following verb in the infinitive; if you wish to express a determination, to 
make a positive assertion, will must be considered as the sign of the fu- 
ture, and would as the sign of the conditional of the following verb ; ex. 

My brother will not stay ; i ' 

viz. Is not willing to stay. )Mon frere ne veut pas tester. 

He positively will not stay. Mon frere ne restera pas. &l£?J. 

My brother would not stay; ] _ _ 

viz. Had no desire to stay. ) Mon f rere ne voul ait pas tester. 

Would he not stay, if I asked him? NenESTERkiT-ilpas^sijeFenpriais? 


If will have, would have are used to denote the wish, the desire 1/4 
to possess an object, they are expressed by the corresponding tenses of 
vouloir as above, and have is left out ; if they are used to denote not 
the wish to possess, but an assurance of the possession itself, they are express- 
ed by the future or by the conditional of avoir ; ex. 

My brother will have this book ; 1 „, 
viz. My brother wishes to have &c. )Mon frere veut ce livre. 

He will have it, if he behaves well. II /'aura, s'il se comporte Men. 
My brother would have this book ; ] „ r n s 
viz. My brother wished to have &c. ) Mon f rere V0ULAIT ce hvre ' 

He would have'xt, if he behaved well. II Taurait, s'il se comportait Men. 

N. B. If will have, would have, in the sense of wish, choose, are 
followed by another verb, the object of have becomes the nominative 
of the following vers, which must be in the subjunctive in french ; as, 

He will have his sister go with him :} r , , . 

i.e.He wishes that his sister should go. \ 11 VEUT V ue sa soeur AILLE avec lm ' 
He will not have her sfo?/ alone. line veut£>#s q^' elle reste seule* 
would have in the sense of chosen, wished, been willing, followed by 1 / D 
a past participle, is expressed by the imperfect or by the conditional of 
avoir with the participle voulu, and the english participle is expressed 
by the infinitive in french ; as, 

If you would have told him of it. Si vons aviez voulu le lui dire. 
He would not have believed me. II w'aurait pas voulu me croire. 
should, which is generally a sig?i of the conditional tense, is some- I/O 
times used,in the sense of ought, i. e. denoting duty or necessity, and is 
then expressed by the conditional tense of the verb devoir; as, 

Youshould go and see him (ought) .Vous devriez alter le voir. 
He should let me know it. II devrait me lefaire savoir. 

should have, and ought to have, followed by a past participle, J. / / 
are expressed by the conditional of avoir, with the participle du, and 
the english participle is expressed by the infinitive in french ; as, 
You ought to have seen him. Vous auriez du le voir. 

He should have let me know of it. 77 aurait du me le faire savoir. 

• When you say 1 will have you, or J would have you dn such a thing, it is not the person that you 
wish to have, but you wish that the person would do the thing you mention ; so we could not say, je 
vous veux, nor je veux vous avoir, nor je vous curai, which would mean that you want the person, not 
that you want the thing to be done ; we must say, je veux que vous fassiez telle chose 






240 VEKB. 


If may, might are used to denote power, may is expressed by the 
present of the verb pouvoir, viz. pais; and might by the conditional 
pourais, with the following- verb in the infinitive; as, 
; Imay or can see it, if I choose; w puis u . 

l. e. It is in my power to see it, if Sec J J [See note P3ge i 38 ] 

I might or could seek, if I chose;) T 7 T 

i. e. It wtrfrf 6* in my power to &c. K e P0URAIS le voir > Sl J e voulals ' 

If ma y, might denote a mere 'possibility, they may be expressed by the 
subjunctive of pouvoir, or the subjunctive of the following verb; as, 

Bring it, that I may see it; )Apportez-le, afin quejc le voie ; 

i. e. That it may be in my power to see J or, afin que je puisse le voir. 

He brought it, that I might see it ; )// Tapporta, afin queje le visse ; 
i. e. That it might be in my power Spc. ] or, afin queje pusse le voir. 
could have, might have followed by a past participle are ex- 
pressed by the imperfect or the conditional of avoir, with the participle 
PU, and the english participle is made by the infinitive in french ; as, 
If he could have come sooner. S'il avait pu venir plutot. 
He might have seen it too. II aurait pu le voir aussi. 

The present tense of the verb wish, followed by another verb in th- 
imperfect, or in the conditional, is expressed by the conditional of sou- 
haiter, and the verb which is in the imperfect, or in the conditional in 
english, must be in the perfect of the subjunctive in french; as, 
I wish she had seen it. Je souhaiterais o^'eZ/e Z'eut vu. 

I wish he would come. Je souhaiterais qu'il vouliit venir. 

I wish I had done it. Je souhaiterais /'avoir fait, (nn) 

must is conjugated throag'h its different persons, bat its representative 
falloir has only the third person singular of each tense, with il for 
nominative; then ihe no?ninative of must becomes the nomi native of the 
following verb, which must be in the subjunctive in french; as, 
I must do it. 11 faut queje le fasse. 

You must do it. 11 faut que vous le fassiez. 

My brother must do it. 11 faut que mon frere le fasse. 

It was necessary for me to do it. II fallait que je le fisse, &c* 
N. B. When the nominative of must is indefinite, the French leave it 
out, and put the following- verb in the infinitive ; as, 

One must be mad to think so. II faut etre fou pour le penscr. 
must have, meaning 1 need to have, is also expressed by falloir, and 
the nominative of must have is made the object of falloir; as, 
I must have money. II me faut de X argent. 

He must have books. II lui faut des livres. 

My brother must have a horse. II faut un cheval a mon frere. t 

(nn) When two verbs in the same sentence have the same person for their ?jo/«i/;a- 
tive, the French generally put the sectmd vep.b in the infinitive ; as, 
1 am afraid I shall, spoil it; Je crains de le gater. 

I wish I could do if; Je souhaiterais pouvoir le faire. 

* See the different modifications of falloir, p. 174. t See failoir, p. 175 


CHAP. VII. 241 


An adverb is to a verb what an adjective is to a noun ; it is a word 
added to the verb, to denote some circumstance belonging to it, or the 
manner in which an action is done; as, 

I walk fast. You walk slowly. He often reads. She seldom writes. 

There are adverbs of time, of place, of order, of quality, affirmative, 
and negative, but their properties being the same in both languages, it 
is needless to enumerate them here * 

Adverbs in general keep the same place with the verb in french as in 
english ; they are placed after the verb, when the tense is simple, and 
between the auxiliary and the participle when the tense is compound; as, 

I always esteem him much. Je testime toujours fort. 

I have always esteemed him much. Je Vai toujours fort estime'.-f 

N. B. The adverb expressing some circumstance of the verb, must 
be placed as near to the verb which it modifies, as can be done without 
infringing upon other rules 5 ex. 

I saw your sister yesterday. Je vis hier voire sceur. 

She speaks french very well. Elle parte tres bien frangais. 

She likes reading very much. Elle aime fort la lecture.% 

Some adverbs may be placed in english, either before or after the verb 1 04c 
which they modify; as, I often see him, or I see him often; but the 
corresponding adverbs must always be placed ^iteii the verb in french; as, 

I often walk alone. Je me promene sou vent seul. 

I seldom go to town. Je vais rarement a la ville. 

I always go into the country. Je vais toujours a la campagne. 

* Most of the adverbs are formed from the adjectives ; in english by adding ly; 
in french by adding ment; as, 


Wise, Sage. f Wisely, Sagement. 

Assured, Assure. Assured/^ Assurement. 

Polite, Poli. Polite/;/, Poliment. 

Assiduous, Assidu. Assiduously, Assidwncnt, 

But observe that merit requires a vowel before it ; so that, if the adjective ends with a 
consonant in the masculine, the adverb must be formed by adding ment to the feminine ; 



Geul:re\ise merit. 

Except also the adjectives ending in nt, which require nt to be changed into mment, as, 
Constant, . Constant. Constantly, Constammenf. 

Decent, Decent. Decently, Decemment. 

Diligent, Diligent. Diligently, DiWgemmcnt. 

Exc.Presentenu^jf, Present/;/ ; Lentemenf, Slow/y, which follow the general rule. 

f Observe only that the adverbs compounded of several words generally come after the par tictple, so 
we say, Je I'ai vu tres souvent. Je lui ai parl'e depuis peu. Vous etes venu L propos. Not, Je Vai tres 
souvent vu. Je lui ai depuis peu parte. Vous etes a propos venu. Yet, hi some instances, the ear alone 
is consulted; for we say,je I'avais tout a fait oublie ; I had quite forgotten it. Je ne iKe suis jamais si 
bien diverti ; I never diverted myself so well. These variations must be noticed in reading. 

$ The perspicuity of a sentence depends often upon the right placing of the adverbs ; 
for example, J'aime BEAUCOUP d. marcher. J'aime a marcher BF.MJCOUP. 

These two sentences, though they are formed with the same words, by changing the place of the adverb 
beaucoup, express two different ideas. J'aime beaucoupa marchor, means, I am fond a/walking; J'aime 
a marcher beaucoup, means, I like to walk a great deal. 

Again ; Je ne Vai pas fait pour vous aiplaire ; and, Je I'ai fait pour ne pas vous diptaire 
express also different ideas ; the first implies no design ; the second implies one, that of not 
displeasing. The English, in general, do not pay sufficient attention to the placing of the 




























Pretty, w 

hieh makes 






how, denoting admiration , is expressed by que, and the adjective or 
adverb which follows how, must be placed after the verb in french ; as, 
How pretty this is ! que ceci est joli ! 

How well it is done ! qv'il est bien fait I 

In asking a question how is expressed by comment, to denote the 
manner, and by combien, to denote number or quantity; as, 
How will you do that? comment ferez-vous cela 9 

How often have you done it? combien defois V avez-vous fait? 
how long, referring to the beginning of time, is expressed by com- 
bien; referring' to the duration, it is expressed by combien de tems ; 
and referring to the end, it is expressed by jusqu'a quand; as. 
How long have you been in France? combien y a-t-il que vous ETEsenFrance? 
or combien de tems avez-vous ete en France? 

N. B. Few learners make a distinction between these two ways of expression ; yet the ideas which 
they express are quite different. By the first, vous etes en France, it is understood that the person is in 
France stilt ; by the second, vous avez ete en France, it is understood that the person is no longer there. 

How long will) combien de tems resterez-vous? [. e. what length of time ? 
you stay? Jjusqu' A quand resterez-vous? i. e. until what time? 

* A list of adverbial expressions, which can not be expressed literally, as learners 
are apt to do, some of which are not to be found in the dictionaries ; 


There abouts, 
Here abouts, 
•Round about, 




On an average, 



Into the BARGAIN, 

better and better, 

A peu pres. 
Ici autour, 
A Ventour. 
A haute voix. 
A V amiable. 
A cote, a part. 
L'un dans I 'autre. 
En arriere. (falling) 
A reculons. (walking) 
Par dessus le marcM. 
De bonne heure. 
De mieux en mieux. 

So much the better, Tant mieux 


by and by, 




In DAY time, 
In open day, 
Every day, 
From day to day, 
Every other day, 
This day week, 
This day se'night, 

This day fortnight, 

This DAY month, 



By drops, 


In good EARNEST, 



For fun, 

For the future, 


On the ground, 

HAND over HEAD, 
HARD by, 
hardly ever, 


here and there, 
helter skelter, 

ours. HOURLY, 
uit. Every hour, 
llyaaujourd'huil5 jours. INADVERTENTLY, 
D aujour d'hui enquinze. inconsiderately, 
Ily a aujour d' hid unmois. TO all intents and 

De front. 


Par casfortuit. 

A bon march.6. 

Presque toujours. 


En pleinjour. 

Touts les jours. 

De jour en jour. 

De deux jours run. 
f Ily a aujour d'hui 8jc 
\ D' aujour d'hui en hi 

That excepted, A cela pres. 

FAIRLY, De bonne foi. 

How FAR, Jusqu' oil. 

As far as here, Jusqu'ici. 

As far as there, Jusque Id. 

afar off, De loin. 

After the FASHION, A la mode. 
After the French, A la francaise. 
The English fashion,^ I'Anglaise. 
At FIRST, D'abord. 

On the same floor, De plein pied, 
Within a fortnight, Dans quinze jour, 

En badinant. 

A I'avenir, 

A tdtons. 

Par terre. 

A corps perdu 

Ici pres. 

Presque jamais. 

A la hate. 

De bon cozur. 

Par ci par Id. 

Pele mile. 


D'heure en hexi"e. 

A toute heure. 

Par me'garde. 

D' aujour d'hui enunmois. 
A bon droit. 
Tout il V heure. 
A I' abandon. 
Goute & goute. 
De bon matin. 
Tout de bon. 
A vide. 
A I'envi. 

Sans y faire atten 

[purposes, De fond encombh 
A pleines mains. 
De.puis peu. 
Au mains. 
A moins. 
D'autant moins. 



For less, 

So much the less. 

By little and littlf, Peu A peu. 

Ever so little, Tant soit peu. 




How tar, meaning" what distance, is expressed by combien ; and 
when used for to what distance, it is expressed by jusqu'ou ; as, 
How far is it from here? combien y a-t-il d'ici? 

How far shall we go? jusqu'ou irons-nous? 

However, howsoever, before an adjective, a participle, or an 
adverb, is expressed by quelque with que, after the adjective, participle 
or adverb, and the following- verb in the subjunctive; 

However rich she is; 1 . 7 , 7/ .. 

^ T . , , . , > quelque riche qu eUe soit. 

or Let her be ever so rich. J 

N. B. If the nominative is a noun, it is generally placed after the verb ; as, 

However rich her sister is : ) . , •, 

!-,,.,, \ , } quelque riche que soit sa sceur. 

or Let her sister be ever so rich. J 


Quite, entirely, before an adjective, or a participle, are generally 

expressed by tout ; as, 

Those men are quite astonished. Ces hommes sont tout etonnes. 

Those women are quite astonished. Ces femmes sont tout etonnees* 




How long 1 Jusqu' & quand? STEP by STEP, 

As long as, Tantque. straight on, 

In the same manner, Dememe. thoroughly, 

Through mistake, Par m£ garde. This long time, 

more than is necessary, Plus qu'il n'enfaut. For a long time, 

Neither more nor less, Ni plus ni moins. 

more and MORE, 
.Much MORE so, 
So much the more, 
How MUCH 1 

As much, 


Through ill NATURE, 
Nothing NEAR, 
Just NOW, 
now and then, 
All at once, 


On purpose, 

To what PURPOSE? 


In every RESPECT, 


On both sides, 
The wrong side out, 
The wrong side up, 

Willi all SPEED, 

At full SPEED, 

On a sudden, 

De plus en plus. 

A plus forte raison. 

D autant plus. 

Tout au plus. 

Combien ? 



Par malice. 

A beaucoup prts. 

Tout de suite. 

De terns en terns. 

Tout d'un coup. 

( A dessein, Expres. 
\ De propos de'libe'rc. 

A quoi ban? 

A tort et it travers. 

A touts igards. 

A propos. 

De part et d'autre. 

A lenvers. 

A rebours. 

Tot ou turd. 

Comme il faut. 

Au plus vite. 
I A bride abattue. 
\ Venire d. terre. 

Tout il coup. 

From TIME to TIME, 
One TIME or other, 
to and fro, 

Pas it pas. 

Taut droit. 

A fond. 
( De long terns. 
\ Depuis long terns. 

De terns en terns. 

Tot ou tard. 

CO. et Id. 

From top to BOTTOM, Defond en comble. 
topsy TURVY, Sens dessus dessous. 

In a trice, En moins de rien. 

By TURNS, Tour il tour. 

At every turn, A tout bout de champ. 

In the TWINKLING of 

[an eye, En un clin d* 


UP and down, 




With a low voice, 
The wrong way, 

Sans y penser, 

De cole' et d'aulre. 

En haut. 

A contre terns. 

A vue d'ozil. 

Tout bas. 

A- contre sens. 

In a WEEK, [day, Dans liuit jours. 

It was a week yester- Jl y eut hier 8 jours. 
It will be a week to- II y aura demain 8 
WHEREVER [morrow, Par tout oil. [jours. 
In no wise, En nulle manicre. 

worse and worse, Depiscnpis. 
So much the WORSE, Tant pis. 
A YEAR hence, Jlyaunan. [an. 

This day 12 months, Il y a aujour d'hut un 
Against one's WILL, A contre cocur. 
Whether one will or Bon gre mal gr6. 
YONDER, fact, Lit bas. 

* When the adjective which follows TOUT is feminine, and begins with a consonant, we 
make it agree in gender and number with the noun; as, 

This house is quite new, Cette maison est toute neuve. 

These women are quite ugly. Ces femmes sont toutes laides. 

Bat, as this is done solely for the sake of melody, it would be better, especially when the noun is 
ll'jral, to make use of Tout it fait, since the hearer is sometimes at a loss, whether TOUTEb means 
quite or all. 


244 • ADVERB. 










> US — ] 


very little; J 


The negative expressions ne — pas, ne — point, &c. form only one 
negation-, ne'is always placed before the verb, and pas, point, &c. like 
the other adverbs, are placed after the verb, when the tense is simple 
and between the auxiliary and the participle, when it is compound; as, 

I do not like her. Je ne Vaime pas, or point. 
I will not see her any more. Je ne veux plus la voir. 

I will never speak to her again. Je ne lui reparlerai jamais. 

You have thought of it but little. Vous N'y avez guere pense. 

N. B. If the verb which follows not is in the infinitive, the two ne- 
gative words ne — pas, or point, ne — plus, ne — jamais, may be, and 
are generally placed together before the verb; as, 

I am determined not to see her. J'ai resolu de ne pas la voir. 

Not to speak to her any more. De ne plus lui parler. 

Never to write to her again. De ne jamais lui recrire. 

Without a verb, no is expressed by non, and not by non pas ; as, 

Will you go to town to-morrow? Irez-vous demain a la ville? 

No; I will go, but not to-morrow, non ; fy irai, mats non pas demain. 


With the verb can, rendered by the conditional tense of savoir, in- 
stead of the present of pouvoir, and with why, rendered by que, instead 
of pour quoi, not is expressed by ne only before the verb; as, 

I can not do it. Je ne puis PAS,orje he saurais lefai re. 

Why does he not do it himself? Que ne le fait-il lui-meme? 

N. B. We also generally suppress pas, point, with the verbs oser, to 
Dare; cesser, to cease; and with SAVOIR, to Know; when it is fol- 

I dare not do it. Je n'ose lefaire. 

I do not know what to say to her. Je ne sais que lui dire. 

She is incessantly plaguing me. Elle ne cesse de me tourmenter. 

* Pas, point, are used indiscriminately, except in sentences of interrogation, when, 
according to the french academy, poiNTintimatesadouftf, and pas a kind of affirmation ; so, 

'N'avez-vons point prismon livref means, Have not you taken my book? 
and W avez vous pas pris mon livre ? means, You have taken my book, have not you? 

Perhaps it would be better to give another turn to the sentence than to give these different properties 
to two monosyllables which may be so easily mistaken one for the other. 

Some grammarians, and even the french academy, make several other distinctions be- 
tween pas,point; viz.thatPOiNTmeansnotataZ/,»ej;er, and denies more strongly than pas; 
that pas is said of something momentary, and point of things that are permanent ; so 11 
NE lit pas, means, He does not read now; and II ne lit point, means, He never reads ; 
these distinctions seem to me merely ideal ; I have endeavoured to ascertain them, and I 
have not found any author who has observed them ; the ear alone is consulted. There 
we in our language, as well as in our manners, trifles which reason does not scruple to 

t Mot and goute are also negative expressions, but used only with the verbs dirk. 
and voir ; as, 

II ne dit mot 3 He did not say a word. II ne voit goute ; He does ml see at all, 

ADVERB. 245 


Not, after the verb rake care, prendre garde, is not expressed in 193 
french, when the verb which follows it is in the infinitive, and it is 
expressed by ne, if the following verb is in any other mood ; as, 

Take care of falling, or not to fall. Prenez garde cle tomber. 

Take care that be does not fall. Prenez garde quit ne tombe. 

The verb empecher, to Hinder, prevent, Keep from, requires ne be- 1 5y4 

fore the following verb, if that verb is not in the infinitive; so we say; 

Je V empecher ai dejouer; \ T .„ , . , ,. c , . 

T , A . ,., J . > I will hinder him from playing. 

or J empechcrai quit XEjoue. J ■ J ° 

The verbs craindre, avoir peur, apprehender; to rear, to be li/O 
Afraid; the conjunctions de peur que, de crainte que, Lest, for rear 
that, require ne before the following verb, if we fear that the action 
loill happen ; then the verb has no negation in english ; as, 

I am afraid that he will come. Je crains quit ne vienne. 

Come in, lest he should see you. Entrez, de peur qu'il ne vous voie. 
But ne is left out, if the following verb is in the infinitive; as, 

I am afraid of spoiling it. Je crains, or fai peur de le gdter. 

If we fear that the action will not happen, there is a negation in english, 
and it must be expressed by the corresponding negation in french ; as, 

I fear he will come no more. Je crains qu'il ne vienne plus. 

I am afraid he has not seen me. J'aipeur quit ne ?n'ait pas vu, 

N.B. The verbs nier, to deny, and douter, to doubt, used negatively, the 
conjunction A moins qub, unless, and SI in the sense of a moins que, require 
also ne before the following verb ; as, 

He does not deny having seen her. // ne nie pas quil ne fait vue. 

I do not doubt but she will come. Je ne doute pas qu'elle ne vienne. 

II y a — que, It is — since; de puis que, since, require ne before the 
verb which follows them, when we wish to denote that no action has taken place 
since the period we mention ; then the verb may also have a negation in english ; 

It is lone: since I have seen him ; ) r/ 7 , . ., . 

T , ° , • + , • , „„ , ,1 ' (II y a long terns que ic ne ( ai vu. 

or I have not seen him this long while. i 9 b * J 

But ne is not required, if there has been an action, and no negation 
could be used in english ; as, 

It is not long since I have seen him ;) r , , . . . . 

or I have seen him not long since. )« W F P as lon S **** queje I <» ™- 

The negative particle ne is required before the verb which follows 11// 
autre, other; autrement, otherwise; as, 

He is quite another than I thought. J7 est tout autre queje ne pejisais. 
He speaks otherwise than he thinks. II parte autrement qu'il ne pense. 

After the comparative words plus, mieux, meilleur, moins, see 47 rule; 
as also with personne, qui que ce soit, see 97 rule ; rien, quoi que ce 
soit, 99 ; aucun, 100 ; nul, pas un, 101; ni l'un ni l' autre, 124. 

But, used in the sense of the adverb only, is expressed by ne before IIjO 
the verb, and que after it ; as, 

She is but fifteen (i. e. only 15). Elle n'« que quinze ans. 

I have seen her but once. Je ne Vat vue qy'une fois. 

But is sometimes used in the sense of a relative pronoun, and is then J. \j\) 
expressed by qui ne, with the following verb in the subjunctive; as, 
There are few people but can do it, i. e. who can not do it. 

II y a peu de gens qui ne puissent lefaire. 





Prepositions are certain monosyllables added to Nouns, verbs, an,. 
Adjectives in order to extend their meaning* to the word which follows 
them; as, 

I came from Paris, through Canterbury, to London. 

The words from, through, to, which express a relation between the 
verb came and the substantives which follow it, are called prepositions, 

The prepositions are in french ; 


















At, To. 




At the House of. 


In, Into. 

Of, From, By. 


Since, From, For. 



During, For. 

In, Into. 

Between, Betwixt. 

To, Towards. 



















\Save, But, Except. 

For, By the Means of. 

Against, In Spite of. 



By, Through. 

Amo)ig, Amongst. 

During, For. 

For, In Order to. 


r According to. 

Under, Beneath. 
On, Upon, Over. 
Concerning, About. 
Towards, About. 

* The following expressions are found in several french grammars, and even in the 
dictionary of the french academy, in the class of prepositions : 

aupres de, 
cause de, 
cote de, 
dec a de, 
del a de, 
dessous de, 
par dessous, 
au dessus de, 
par dessus, 
au DEVANT de, 
par DEVANT, 
au derrie'rk d 
a 1'egard de, 


Near, By, Close to. 


On account of. 

By, By the side of. 

On this side of. 

On that side of. 

J- Under, Below. 

i Above, Over, Upon. 

J- Before, In the forepart of. 

By dint of. 

To, Till, Until. 

Out of. 

Instead of, in the place of. 

Far from. 


Under, For less. 

By the means of. 

\Near to, Nigh, By. 

With respect to. 

force de, 


hors de, 
au lieu de, 

loin de, 
le long de, 
a. isioins de, 
au mo yen de, 

pre's de, 

proche de, 
par rapport a, 

II TRAVERs'de, } ACr0$S > Tkr0U S h ' 

As to, With respect to. _ vis a vis de, Over against, Facing. 

And a few others which I have not thought proper to notice, because they certainly 
do not belong to this class. But these words are so far from being prepositions, that it 
is only by the means of the preposition de or A, that they can be connected with the 
word which follows them. It is evident that they are Nouns, preceded and followed as 
you see, by an Article, or by a Preposition, and coming under the rules that have been 
given on nouns. According to the french academy, some of these words are both Pre- 
positions and Adverbs. They are Prepositions when they govern a substantive after them, 
and they, are Adverbs when they are used absolutely without a substantive. This distinc- 
tion is right, but its application is not always so ; for example, J'etais a cote de la porte t 
I was by the side of the door ; here a cote is & preposition. II 4tait suv la porte, et fetais a 
cote ; He was on the door, and I was by the side of it ; here a cote", is an adverb. With 
due respect to the french academy, I must say that a cote", in these instances, seems to 
me of the same nature as the substantive side, which represents it in english. Certain 
it is, that these words called prepositions are all derived from nouns or verbs. If then our 
poverty of expression obliged us to have recourse to this benevolent family, I think their 
generosity should not be abused, and their nature changed without a necessity which, in 
these instances, does not seem to exist. 


difference between the french and English prepositions. 
Having* found it impossible to make rules sufficiently explicit for the ^5(J0 
use of the prepositions, I have subjoined a list of all the verbs and ad- 
jectives which require a preposition different from the preposition which 
generally corresponds with it in english, by means of which the learner may 
always remove any doubt he may have respecting the prepositions * 


















Astonished at, 

Blush at, 

Exasperated at, 

Grieve at, 

Laugh at, 

Laugh at, 

Rejoice at, 

Scandalised at, 

Smile at, 

Surprized at, 














































de ; as Nous sommes convenus de ceci. 
sur ; Je ne^?or£epas d' argent suRmoi. 

Inquiet de ; Je suis inquiet de sa santa, 

Discourir de; Nous discouro?isDE no s affaires. 
Tranquille sur ; Je suis tranquille sur cela. 

Informez -vous de son retour. 

Parlous D'autres choses. 

II est trop avide de richesses, 
informe souvent de vous. 



s' Informer 

s' Informer 
Alter e 

de ; 
ds ; 
de ; 
de ; 


II est alter e de san< 

Fdche contre ; 





s' Affliger 

se Moquer 


de ; 
de ; 
de ; 
de ; 
de ; 
de ; 

Scandaliser de ; 





de ; 
de ; 
de ; 
de ; 


B lamer 
se Soucier 

de ; 

Etre fdche contre quelqu*un 

Etre fdche de quelque chose. 

Je ne suis pas etonne de cela. 
Elle rougit de sa folic 
II fut outre de ce discours. 
II safflige de sa perte. 
II fit or se moque de tout. 
II se moque de tout le monde. 
Je me rejouis de votre succes. 
Je fus scandalise de son action. 
Elle sourit de ma confusion. 
Je ne suis pas surpris de cela. 
Je n' en suis pas etonne. 
II etait suivi de ses gens. 

II n* a rien gagne A cela. 

Le souper fut precede D'un bal. 
II n'a pas prqfite de vos lemons. 
Reponde.z-v ous de lui? de cela? 
Je le blame de ses defauts. 
Benissons-\Q de sa bonte. 
Je ne me soucie pas de lui. 
II sera chdtie de sa malice. 
ConsolezAe de sa perte. 
A quoi le desti?iez-\ ous ? 

• Some grammarians have endeavoured to analyze the different relations which the prepositions have 
with the words which they connect; so, according to them, all verbs and adjectives expressing desire, 
knowledge, remembrance, ignorance, for get fulness, care, fear, guilt, innocence, fulness, emptiness, plenty, 
want, measure, dimension, require DE ; the verbs and adjectives which express subinission, relation, 
pleasure, displeasure, duty, resistance, opposition, facility, difficulty, likeness, inclination, aptness, fit- 
ness, advantage, profit, require A' ; but these terms are so indefinite, and notwithstanding their latitude, 
they leave so great a chasm in the field of prepositions, that I have not met with any person who has de- 
rived the least advantage from them. 



difference between the French and English prepositions. 






























Have pity 



































































Propre A ; as 

Bon A ; 

s* Affiiger de ; 

Oblige de ; 

Plaindre de , 

Louer de ; 

Pourvoir A ; 

Punir de ; 

Fdche de ; 

Suffire A ; 

Remercier de ; 

Emprunter A ; 

Cacher A ; 

Echapper de ; 

Echapper A ; 

Ouir dire A ; 

Oter A ; 

Prendre A ; 

Acquiescer A ; 

s' Inter esser A ; 

se Plaire A ; 

Adroit A ; 

se Glorifier de ; 
s* EnorgueiUir de ; 

Demander A; 

Sensible A ; 

Penser A ; 

Songer A ; 

Penser A ; 

Avoir pitie de ; 

Jouer de ; 

Trionipher de ; 

se Piquer de ; 

Convenir de ; 

Passer chez ; 

Feliciter de ; 

Depend™ de ; 

se Noiwrir de ; 

en Imposer A ; 

Vivre de ; 

Persuader A ; 

se Saisir de ; 

Sourire A ; 

se Charger de ; 

Abonder en; 

Connu de ; 

Orner de ; 

Fdche contre : 

A quoi cela est-il propre ? 
Cela n'est bon A rien. 
II est affiige de ses fautes. 
Je lui suis oblige de sa lettre, 
Je le plains de sa faiblesse. 
On le loua de sa candeur. 
Qui pourvoye A ses besoins ? 
II sera puni de sa temerite'. 
Je suis fdche de son malheur 
Cela ne lui* suffit pas. 
Remerciez-\e de ses bonte's. 
II l'a emprunte A votre pere, 
Ne le cachez pas A votre ami. 
Echapper D'un en droit. 
Echapper A une personne. 
Je l'ai oui dire A mon pere, 
Ne Yotez pas A cet enfant. 
II le lui* a pris or ote. 
i' acquiesce A votre demande. 
Je in'interesse A son bien-etre. 
II se plait au jardinage. 
II est adroit aux exercises. 
II se glorifie de ses richesses. 
II s'hiorgueillitDE sa naissance, 
Dema?idez-\e A cet homme. 
II est tres sensible au froid. 
Avez-vous pens'e A moi ? 
Vous ne songez A rien. 
Avez-vous pense A mon affaire? 
Vous n'avez pitie de personne. 
Jbwe-t-il de quelqu'instrument? 
II a triomphe de ses ennemis. 
H se pique de geneVosite'. 
Convenons de quelque chose. 
Quand^xzsseres-vouscHEZ moi? 
Je vous felicite de votre retour. 
Vous ne dependez pas de lui. 
II se nourrit de pain et de lait. 
II en impose aux gens. 
II vit de fruit et de legumes. 
Je lui* persuadai de s'en aller. 
On se saisit aussitot de lui. 
II souriait A ses amis. 
II s'est charge de cette affaire. 
La France abonde en fruit. 
Je ne suis pas connu de lui. 
Une chambre ornee de tableaux. 
II est tres fdche contre vous. 

* Observe that the preposition a is implied in LUI, which means to him. See table of the pronouns, p. 74. 
+ When think is used in the sense of to have an opinion, of is expressed by de, not by a ; as, 
Wha'. do you think of that ? Que pensez-vous de cela? not, a cela? 


difference between the French and English prepositions. 

II Vamusait de promesses. 
II est anim'e de zele. 
II etait arm'e d'uii pistolet. 
Elle le baigna de ses larmes. 
On Yaccuse de trahison. 
II est charme de ses manieres* 
Comparez-wous ceci k cela ? 
II condescend k ses caprices. 
Je ne suis pas content de cela. 
II est couvert de poussiere. 
II fut charme de son esprit. 
Je mews de faim, de soif. 
Je suis degoute du monde. 
Dispensez-iaox de cela. 
Je suis mecontent de lui. 
Que fera-t-o\\ de cet homme? 
Un jardin embelli de fleurs. 
II n'est done D'aucun esprit. 
II etait enflame de colere. 
On le nourit de pain et D'eau. 
Emplissez votre verre de vin. 
II est assouvi de carnage. 
II est amoureux de cette fille. 
II est charge de butin. 
Melez-vous de vos affaires. 
II fut touche de compassion. 
II fut ravi de cette nouvelle. 
II est accable de chagrin. 
II s'est defait de son cheval. 
11 perit de faim et de misere. 
Elle n'est pas contente de lui. 
Persuadez-Lui de le faire. 
lis four nissent l'arm^e de ble. 
II est bien pourvu D'habits. 
II est tout cnfl'e D'orgueil. 
Se rafraicliir d'uii verre de vin. 
II est rassasie de plaisirs. 
II n' est pas satisfait de cela. 
Une bolte garnie de diamants. 
Elle se joae de sa credulite. 
La place estmunie de provisions 
II {utfrappe D'etonnement. 
II etait entoure de flatteurs. 
Le pays fourmille de voleurs. 
II est trop occup'e de lui-meme. 
On le taxe de sedition. 
On le menaca de la mort. 
II est ennuye de ces choses. 
II est tourmcnte de remords. 
Elle est transported de joie. 
II ne peut pas se passer d'cIIc. 































Condescendrek ; 

























































In love 










se Meier 















WITH, « 























Puffed up 






































Four miller 


Taken up 




















Transported with, 



Do without, 





difference between the French and English prepositions. 
Sometimes a verb requires a preposition after it in english, and will 
not admit of it infrench; such are, 






























Tyrannise over 















Put up 


Look at that man ; 

He asks for you; 

I bought this for a penny; 

Go for your book; 

Look for it; 

I have sold it for two pence; 

Stay for me; 

Do not ivaitfor me; 

I wish for your company; 

Please to accept of this ; 

He will not admit of that ; 

Do you approve of it? 

I beg of you to see her ; 

Regardez cet homme. 
11 vous demande. 
Jai achete ceci un sou. 
Allez chercher votre livre. 
Cherchez-fe, not, pour lui 
Je Vai vendu deux sous. 
Attendez-moi,not,pour moi 
Ne m'attendez pas. 
Je souhaite votre compagnie. 
Daignez accepter ceci. 
II ra'admettra pas cela. 
Z/approuvez-^oM-s f 
Je vous prie de la voir. 

She was quite ignorant of it; Elle Agnorait tout a fait. 

Elle me tyrannise. 
Ecoutez-moz, not a moi. 
Regardez-moz comme ami. 
Engagez-/a a r ester. 
Engagez-fe a venir. 

She tyrannises over me ; 

Listen to me ; 

Look upon me as a friend ; 

Prevail upon her to stay ; 

Prevail with him to come ; 

H&sheresotvedupon&ny thing? A-t-ilreso\\i quelquechose f 

1 bear with his importunities; /'endure ses imporlunites. 

I met with a robber ; Je rencontrai un voleur. 

I put up with his impertinence ;Je souffrissorc impertinence. 

In other instances it is the reverse, and the verb which has no prepo- 
sition in english, must have a preposition after it infrench; such are, 

Abuser de 

s'Appercevoir de 

Avoir besoin de 

Avoir pitie de 

Changer de 
se Defter de 

se Demettre de 

Disconvenir de 

D outer de 

s'Embarasser de 





se Metier 
se Meprendre 
se Moquer 
se Passer 
se Servir 
se Souvenir 

se Venger 




Con venir 


II abuse de ma patience ; 
Je m'appercois de cela ; 
J'ai besoin Ti argent ; 
II ri& pas pitie de moi; 
II a change de dessein; 
Vous defiez-t'C^s de lui f 
II sest derais de s a place ; 
II wen* diseonvient pas ; 
II doute de tout; 
11 ne s'embarasse de rien ; 
II gemit de ses f antes ; 
II a herite n'un gros bien; 
11 jouit T>une bonne sante; 
II ne manque de rien ; 
II medit des gens ; 
II se mefie de ses amis ; 
II sest mepris de chemin ; 
II se moque des sages ; 
II ne pent pas s'en* passer; 
II se sert de mon nom ; 
Je me souvieris de cela ; 
II a use de violence ; 
Je ot'en* vengerai ; 
II a attente X ma vie ; 
Commandez-Luit d'y alter; 
Je compatis A sa peine ; 
Cela Luif convient, or 1 
Cela Luif sied a merveille ; J 

He abuses my patience. 
I perceive that. 
I want money. 
He does not pity me. 
He has changed his design. 
Do you mistrust him ? 
He has given up his place. 
He does not disown it. 
He doubts every thing. 
He minds nothing. 
He laments his errors. 
He inherited a large estate. 
He enjoys good health. 
He wants nothing. 
He slanders people. 
He mistrusts his friends. 
He has mistaken his way. 
He mocks wise people. 
He can not spare it. 
He uses my name. 
I remember that. 
He has used violence. 
I will revenge it. 
He has attempted my life. 
Bid him to go there. 
I compassionate his pain. 
That suits or becomes him 

* The preposiiaon de is implied in the pronoun EN, which means of it; see a table of the.prc 
ige 74. f See note * page 251. 



difference between the French and English prepositions. 







se Fier 












s Opposer 












Prend regarde a 



















Defendez-Lui* de le dire; 
B deplait X son pere ; 
II desobeit X sa mere ; 
II ne se "fie X personne ; 
II manque X sa parole ; 
II lui* importe de le voir ; 
Ne nuisez X personne ; 
Obeissez X vos parents ; 
II rta pu obvier X cela ; 
Opposez-vows X l injustice ; 
Ordonnez-Lui* de lefaire- 
Pardonnez X vos ennemis ; 

Forbid him to tell it 
He displeases his father. 
He disobeys his mother. 
He trusts nobody. 
He breaks his word. 
It concerns her to see it. 
Do not injure any body. 
Obey your parents. 
He could not prevent that. 
Oppose injustice. 
Order him to do it. 
Forgive your enemies. 

Permettez-Liii* de s'en aller ; Permit her to go. 

Persuadez-Lui* de la voir 
File plait X tout le monde ; 
II prend garde X tout ; 
B lui* a promis de venir ; 
II a renonce au jeu ; 
Repondez X ma question ; 
Resistez X la tentation ; 
File ressemble X sa mere; 
II subvient X ses besoins ; 
B succedera X son oncle ; 
File ne lui* survivra pas ; 

Persuade him to see her. 
She pleases every body. 
He minds every thing. 
He promised her to come. 
He has given up gaming. 
Answer my question. 
Resist temptation. 
She resembles her mother. 
He supplies her wants. 
He will succeed his uncle. 
She will not outlive him. 
Do not touch that book. 

Javec qui etiez-vous? 
>X qui donnerai-je ceci? 

Ne touchez pas X ce livre , 

In some instances the preposition may be placed in english, either Jd\JO 
before or after the substantive which it governs ; but in french, the pre- 
position must always be placed immediately before its object; as, 

With whom were you ? 
or Whom were you with ? 

To whom shall I give this ? 
or Whom shall I give this to ? 

The prepositions must be repeated in french before every word 204 
which they govern, though these words are in the same sentence, and the 
preposition is not repeated in english; as, 

I come from France and Italy ; Je viens de France et o'ltalie. 

I have been to Paris and Rome ; J'ai ete X Paris et X Rome.-\ 


For, before a period of time, is expressed by depuis, to denote the Zt\)0 
two extremes of the period; by pendant, or durant, to denote its dura- 
tion; and by pour, to denote the end; as, 

I have not seen him for a month ; 
i. e. a month since. 

They fought for two days ; 
during two days. 

1. e. 

They have provisions/or a year 
to last a year. 

Je ne Vai pas vu depuis un mois. 

Its se batircnt pendant deux jours. 

lis out des provisions pour un an. 

* The preposition a is implied in the pronoun LUI, which expresses to him, to her. See 
a tahle of the pronouns, p. 74. 

+ This repetition is n«t always necessary, but the surest way for a foreigner is to make it a general 
rule, unti. he has learned by reading when the preposition may be left out. 







Speaking of time, or order, before is expressed by avant, the oppo- 
site of which is apres, after ; speaking* of place or in presence, it is ex- 
pressed by devant, the opposite of which is derriere, behind ; as, 
Do not walk before me. iVe marchez pas devant moi. 

I want to arrive before you. Je veux arriver avant vous. 

N. B. Without an object after it, before is auparavant ; as, 
I had seen it before. Je I'avais vu auparavant. 


By, used in the sense of near, is pres de, or A c6te de ; as, 

He was sitting by or near me. II etait assis a cote de moi. 

He passed by or near us. Ilpassa pres de nous, a c6te de nous 

N. B. With the words myself, thyself, himself, 8fc, by is often 
used in the sense of alone, and is expressed by the adjective seul ; as, 

I like to be by myself, i. e. alone. J'aimeaetre seul ; ?zo£,PARmoi-meme. 

She was by herself all the day. Elle a ete seule toute lajournee. 

At, to, denoting being at, or going to a person's house, are expressed 
by chez, and the word house is left out in french; as, 

• I must ? o to my sisie/s ; | afi ^ fajUe CHEZ soeur 
or to my sister s house. J J * J 

She is at your mother's. Elle est chez votre mere. 

N. B. If the word house, instead of being preceded by a noun, is pre- 
ceded by one of the possessive pronominal articles my, thy, his, her, 
our. your, their, the word house is also omitted, and the possessive 
article is changed into a personal pronoun, thus ; 

At my house ; Chez moi. At our house ; Chez nous. 

At thy house ; Chez toi. At your house ; Chez vous. 

At his house ; Chez lui. At their house ; Chez eux. m. 

At her house ; Chez elle. At their house ; Chez elles. f. 


From, with verbs denoting coming or going from a person's house, is 

expressed by de chez, and the word house is left out; as, 

I come from ray sister's ; ) T . j 
*~ J . . i , > Je weras de chez ma sceur. 

or /rom my sister s house. J 

Isshereturned/ro77imy772o^er , s?Es^e^ revenue de chez ma mere? 

N.B. If the word Aowse is preceded by the possessive pronominal article 
my, thy, his, her, our, your, their, that article is changed into a 
personal pronoun, as follows ; 

From my house ; De chez moi. From our house ; De chez nous. 

From thy house ; De chez toi. From your house ; De chez vous. 

From his house ; De chez lui. From their house ; De chez eux. m. 

From her house ; De chez elle. From their house ; De chez elles. f. 

FROM; De la PART. 
From, with the verbs to go, to come, not from the house of a person, 
but from the person himself, is expressed by Be la part ; as, 
Go from me to my daughter's. Allez de ma part chez majille. 
Whom do you come from? De la part de qui venez-vous ? 




Before the names of persons and places, in, into are expressed by ^ 1 1 
dans ; as, 

I have read that in Voltaire. Tai lu cela dans Voltaire. 
Are there fine streets in Paris? Y a-t-il de belles rues dans Paris? 
N. B. Observe only with respect to places, that after verbs denoting 
residence, in is expressed by A ; as, 

My brother lives in Paris. Mon frere demeure A Paris. 

Before the names of countries, with verbs denoting going or residing, JdYJd 
in, i nto are expressed by en; as, 

My brother lives in France. Mon frere demeure en France. 

Has he ever been into Italy? A-t-il jamais He en Italie? 

N. B. In other instances, in, into before the names of countries, may 
be expressed by en or by dans ; observing- only that after dans, the noun 
must have an article, and after en, it must be without; as, 

There is some in France. II y en a en France, dans la France. 

Is there any in Italy ? Y en a-t-il en Italie, or dans X Italie? 

Before common names used in a limited sense, i.e. preceded by any of the ^ 1 *J 
signs which have been called article, in, into are expressed by dans ; 
In the last peace. dans la derniere paix. 

In this unfortunate war. dans cette guerre malheureuse. 

There are charms in society. II y a des charmes dans la societe. 

But when the same common names are used in an unlimited sense, in £ A^*: 
which sense they generally have no article, in, into are expressed by en ; 
I like to live in peace. J'aime a vivre en paix* 

We are always in broils. Nous sommes toujours en querelle. 

It is better to live in society. II vaut mieux vivre en societe.f 

Speaking of time, in is expressed by dans, to denote the time after JiYd 
which an action will be performed, and by en, to denote the time that 
will be employed in performing it ; as, 

I shall go to Paris in three days. 

J'irai a Paris dans trois jours ; viz. after three days. 

J'irai a Paris en trois jours ; i. e. I shall be three days in going. 

Before nouns denoting any part of the day, in is not expressed in french ; £i 1 O 

In the morning — In the evening, he matin — Lc soir. 

In the afternoon. Apres midi, or Apres dine. 

N. B. Observe the same rule with on, before the days of the week ; as, 

O/i Sunday — On Monday. Dimanclie — Lundi ; not, sur Lundi. 

On the day he came. Lejour quit est venu. 

* If in some instances IN, INTO are expressed by EN, without an article in french, 
before nouns which in english have the article A, AN ; as, 

1 came in a coach-; Je tins en carosse. She fell into a passion ; Elle se tnit EN colcre ; 
It is because in these instances the noun serves less to namu the thing 1 itself, than the manner of being 
or acting of the agent of the veib, and these words En carosse, En colore, may be considered as adver- 
bial expressions ; but if we add to the same nouns some word which will render their meaning definite, 
IN. INTO must be expressed by DANS ; as, 

I oame in a fine coach ; Je vins dans un beau carosse. 

She fell into a great passion ; £ le se mit dans une grunde colore. 

t Socittt, in these two instances, is used in a different sense ; in the first instance, it 
means that particular state of being called society ; in the second, it is rather an adver- 
bial expression, and means sociubhj. 




Conjunctions are certain words, and sometimes short phrases that 
serve to express the relation which several sentences have together ; as, 
fVill you come, if I go? I will not go, unless you come. 

The words if, unless, which denote a relation between the verbs come 
and go, are called conjunctions. 

The conjunctions are in french; 

JThat, To the end that. 

AFIN que, 


A MOINS que, 

AVANT que, 


BIEN que, 


enCAS que, 


deCRAINTE que, 
dePEUR que, 

JUSQU'a ce que, 


So, Therefore. 

t Though, Although. 

For, Because. 
If, In case that. 
Yet, However. 
As, Since. 

fLest, F<r fear that. 

Till, Until. 





PARCE que, 


POURVU que, 






SANS que, 


SOIT que, 

And, Both. 
Neither, Nor. 
Either, Or. 
Yet, However 


Though, If even. 
If, Whether. 

* Several grammarians reckon above one hundred conjunctions, which they call 

Cest a DIRE. 



Cest a savoir si. 
quoi qu'il en soit, 


d'ailleurs. ENCORE. 



Au surplus. Pour le moins. 



ou bien. 
soit que. 


Au reste. 
A propos. 
apre's tout. 


NON plus. 

QUOI que. 
A la vE'rite'. 
NON que, NON PAS que. 


si ce n'est que. 


pour, viz. QUOique. 

encore que. 

a MOINS que. 

PARCE que. 
a' cause que. 
VU que. 

ATTEND!) que. 

puis que. 
POUR quoi. 
afin que. 
De peur que. 
De crainte que. 


BIEN que. 


AINSI que. 
aussi bien que. 
AUSSI PEU que. • 
AUTANT que. 
NON plus que. 


Cest pour quoi. 


De sorte que. De MANIE V RE que. 



quand, quand meme.TANDis que. 
quand bien meme. tant que. 

a moins que. avant que. 

Pourvu que. depuis que. 

suppose" que. des que. 

Au CAS que. AUSSI tot que. 

Ni plus ni moins que.En cas que. apres que. 

si que. a condition que. cependant. 

en, viz. comme. Bien entendu que. a peine, enfin. 

Which,except those mentioned in the table above, are either nouns or adverbs, with puz • 
zling and useless denominations, since their properties are the same in both languages. 

Some grammarians add to these afin de ; A moins que de ; avant de; avant qui 
de; au lieu de ; de crainte de; de peur de; faute de ; loin de; plutot que de 
Jusqu' d. ; but the only connective part of these words being de, or A, which aie prepo* 
titionS) they can hardly be said to belong to the conjunctions. 


The conjunctions in french affect the verbs which follow them, so as 
to require some 'particular mood. O 1 T 

The following- conjunctions require the indicative mood after them ; L 1 / 
aussi, so, Therefore. ou, Either, or. 

car, For, Because. parce que, Because, 


>Yet, nowever. -v 


comme, as, since. lorsque, J 

MAIS, BUt. QUAND, Tho', if even. 

neanmoins, Nevertheless. que, That. 

ni, Neither, Nor. si, if whether. 
The following conjunctions require the subjunctive mood after them ; ZlO 

afin que, ) That. decrainte que,* )iest, For 

pour que, J to the end that, depeur que,* ifiar that. 

A moins que,* unless. jusQu'a ce que, tUI, until. 

avant que, Before. pourvu que, provided. 

BIEN QUE, "J , i in i QUE,f That. 

QUOIQUE, \Th0Ugh, Although. ^ ^ ^^ 

f.ncas que, if in case that. soit que, whether. 

When a conjunction governs several verbs, it is expressed before m 1 «J 
the first verb only, and que is added to the other verbs, with the same 
mood after it, as if the conjunction itself was repeated; ex. 

As he is diligent, and takes pains. 

comme il est diligent, et qv'U prend de la peine. 

He learns well, because he is diligent, and takes pains. 

II apprend bien, parce qu'*7 est diligent, et qu'*7 prend de la peine. 

Unless he is diligent, and takes pains. 

A moins qu'jY ne soit diligent, et qu'z7 ne prenne de la peine. 

When SI, if, governs two verbs, instead of repeating si before the JjJAj 
second verb, we use que; and the verb which follows this que, must be in 
the subjunctive, though the verb which follows si is in the indicative; 

You will learn, if you are diligent, and take pains. 

Vous apprendrez, si voiis etes diligent, et que vous preniez de la peine. 

If 'you come, and I am not at home, you will wait for me. 

SI vous venez, et qvEj'e ne sois pas au logis, vous m y attendrez. (oo) 

The idiom of the english language often admits an ellipsis, i. e. an omis- JLLY 
sion of the conjunction that ; as, 

I think my sister will come ; for, i" think that my sister will come. 
But the corresponding conjunction must always be expressed in french; as, 

I think my sister will come. Je pense que ma sceur viendra. 

I know she intends to come. Je sais quelle a dessein de venir. 

I hope she will soon be here. J'espere qu'elle sera bientot ici. 

* The conjunctions A moins que, De crainte que, De peur que require NE before 
the verb which follows them; see 195 rule. 

t Learners are often mistaken, by considering QUE as requiring always the subjunc- 
tive mood after it ; but qui-: does not govern any particular mood ; its power depends on 
the verb or conjunction that precedes it. 
foo)TheconjunctionJFisoftens»ppres.sed,andthenominative«ranspf)se(iaftortheverb; as, 

If you should come, or should you come, or were you to come, and J was not at home, you 
will wait for me, which turn of expression must be rendered in french by SI before the 
verb; thus, SI vous veniez, et QVEje ne fusse pas au logis, vous m'attendrez. 








Both, a conjunction of emphasis, is expressed by et before an adjec- 
tive, by et or tant before a substantive ; but observe, that when we use 
tant before the first substantive, we put que instead of et before the second; 

She is both rich and handsome. Elle est et riche et belle. 

Both summer and winter. tant en etc Qu'en hiver. 

N. B. This conjunction in familiar writing and in conversation is 
generally left out in french; thus, 

Elle est riche et belle. En et'e et en hiver. 

Either, or, are generally expressed by ou ; as, 

That is either good or bad. Cela est ou bon ou mauvais. 

Either he is rich, or he is poor, ou il est riche, ou il est pauvre. 
N. B. either, or, followed by a Noun, may be expressed by soit ; as, 

Either through love or caprice, she has married him. 

soit par amour ou par caprice, or soit par caprice, elle Va epousL 

Neither, nor, followed by a verb in the indicative or subjunctive 
mood, are expressed, neither by ne, and nor by ni ne; as, 

I neither love nor hate her. Je ne Vaime ni ne la hais. 

. I neither see her nor speak to her. Je ne la vois ni ne lui parte. 

If, after neither, nor, there is a verb in the infinitive, an Adjective, 
a Noun, or a pronoun, neither is expressed by ne before the verb, and 
ni after it, and nor is expressed by ni; as, 

I care neither for him nor for her. Je ne me soucie ni de lui ni delle. 

She is neither rich nor handsome. Elle ^est ni riche ni belle. 

She has neither beauty nor riches. Elle n'« ni beaute ni richesses. 

I can neither see her, nor speak to her. Je ne puis ni la voir, ni lui parler. 


Whether, used in the sense of if, is expressed by SI, with the fol- 
lowing verb in the indicative ; as, 

Do you know whether she will come ? Savez-vous si elle viendra ? 

I want to know whether she will come. J'ai envie de savoir si elle viendra. 

Whether, used in the sense of let, is expressed by que, or soit que, 
with the following verb in the subjunctive ; as, 

Com e yourself, whether she comes 1 Venezvous-mime, qu' elle vienne ou non ; 

or not ; or let her come or not. J or qv'ellevienne ou QuW/e ne vienne pas. 

Whether she comes or not; or*i soit qu' 'elle vienne ou non; or QV'ellevienne 

let her come or not, we will go. J ou quelle ne vienne pas, nous y irons. 


Though, although, if even, followed by a conditional tense, are 
generally expressed by quand ; as, 

Thovgh she should come, 1 rffe viendraii dle nHrait pai 

or Even if she should come, f () 

She would not go with us. j Krry 

(pp) These conjunctions are often left out in english, and the nominative is put after the verb, which 
mode of expression is also rendered in french by QUAND ; as, 

Were she to come, or, should she come now, she would not go with us ; 
Quand elle viendrait a present, elle riiraitpas avec nous 




But for, if it were not for, if it had not been for, had J/Jij 

it not been for, are generally expressed by sans ; as, 

But for you, I should have starved, sans vous,je serais mort de faim. 

But for his friends, 

or If it were, not for his friends, 7 ... ., /,, 

tt j i a r j- u- f • i >sans ses amis, il aurait ete puni. 
or Had it not been jor his friends, ' 

he would have been punished. 





Interjections are natural sounds caused by some sudden emotion of 
joy, grief, pain, aversion, disgust, f right, surprise, astonishment, 4*c. 

The sounds most commonly used in french as interjections are ;* 




& ! si je pouvais le voir. 


Ah ! 

AH ! queje serais aise ! 

HA HA ! 


HI HI ! 

>Sounds caused by bursts of laughter. 

HO HO ! 





6 I queje suit a plaindre ! 



ah! queje suis malheureux ! 



HE ! vous me faites vial. 



AIE ! vous me blessez. 



OUF ! queje soujfre ! 



helas ! j'ai tout perdu. 


dear ! 

WON dieu ! que ferai-je? 




Fie upon ! 

FI ! »' avez-vous pas de hontef 




HA ! vous voila. 

EH ! 

Hah ! 

EH ! que vous etes alerte ! 

OH OH ! 


OH oh ! je vous y prends. 


Heavens ! 

o CIEL ! quallons-nous devenir? 


Mercy on us ! 

don dieu ! que vous etes impatient I 





^Sounds used 

when we ca.ll out to people. 

HEM ! 






>Sounds used 

when we call for a sudden silence. 



* The number of interjections cannot be ascertained, because any sound which expres- 
ses a sudden emotion of the soul may be called an interjection. Some of these sounds cull- 
ed interjections express even different sensations, according to the inflexion which the 
voice takes, either of joy or grief, of pleasure or pain. The soul is then the only syntax 
for interjections, and they can never embarrass the learner, since they do not require any 

258 chap. xi. 


Remarks on some idiomatical expressions, and words having dif- 
ferent meanings, in which learners are apt to be mistaken. 

2d2iO People, meaning that aggregate body of human beings that compose 
a Nation, a Government, is expressecfcby peuple ; as, 
The french people. Le peuple franqais. 

The will of the people. La volontk du peuple. 

N. B. Peuple is also said of that number of persons without dignity, 
who compose the Multitude ; as, 

An insurrection of the people. Un soulevement du peuple. 

--/J People, used to denote a certain number of individuals, is expressed 


Were there many people, i. e. persons, at the play ? 

Y avaitil beaucoup de gens, beaucoup de monde a la comedie ? 

There is a great number of people in the street. 

II y a un grand nombre de monde, de gens, de personnes dans la rue. 

But observe that gens is not used after a definite number ; so we do not say, 
Deux ou trots gens ; two or three people; we say, Deux ou trois personnes. 

Except when gens is attended by an adjective ; as 

Deux ou trois honnetes gens. Two or three honest people. 

Cinq ou six jeunes gens. Five or six young people. 

Observe also that when gens is attended by an adjective, this adjective 
must he feminine if it comes before gens, and it must be masculine if 
it comes after ; as, 

Good people, civil people. De bonnes gens, des gens civils. 

Old people are suspicious. Les vieilles gens sont soupconneux. 

JiO\) Pays is said of a large extent of country, such as the Dominions of a 
government, a county, a province ; campagne is said of a certain extent 
of Fields, and is the opposite of ville, towii; as, 

France is a fine country. La France est un beau pays. 

I prefer the country to the town. Je pre/ere la campagne a la ville. 


jLOX. Speaking of meji, Horses, mules, asscs, we express mouth by bouche ; 

The mouth of a horse, of an ass. La bouche oVun cheval, oVun ane. 

Speaking of other Animals, we express mouth by gueule ; 

The mouth of an ox, of a clog, &c. La gueule d!un bceuf dun chien. 

The mouth of a pike, of a trout. La gueule oVun brocket, oVune truite. 


jZQjU The word time, denoting any period, or space, is expressed by tems ; 
It is time to set out. II est tems de partir. 

We shall not be there in time. Nous ny serons pas a tems. 

But the word time is sometimes used to limit the action of the verb, 
or to denote a repetition of the action; as, the first time; this time; an- 
other time ; several times, and is then expressed by fois ; as, 

Pardon me for this time. Pardonnez-moi pour cette fois. 

I will do it better next time. Je le ferai mieux la prochaine fois. 

How many times have you done it? Combien de fois Vavez-vous fait ? 

idioms. 259 

year; an, annee. 
day; jour, journee. 

An and jour are indefinite expressions which serve more to denote the JjOO 
periods of time than its duration; they are chiefly used after the cardinal 
or primitive numbers un, mux, Trois, auatre, fyc. ; as, 

Un an, deux ans, trois ans; &c. A year, two years, three years, Sfc. 

Un jour, deux jours, trois jours. One day, two days, three days, fyc 

Annee, on the contrary, implies duration, and will admit of different 
modifications ; so when year is attended by an article, or by an adjec- 
tive, or by another noun, you must express it by annee ; as, 

This year, last year. Cette annee, Tanner dernier e. 

A good, a happy year. line bonne, une hmreuse annee. 

A great number of years. Un grand nombre ^'annees. 

Journee is generally understood of the time which people employ in 
their occupations from their rising to their going to bed; as, 

I spent the day very well. J'ai Men employe la journee. 

I have studied the whole day. Tai eludi'e toute la journee. 

It is the same with matin, matinee ; soir, soiree, as it is with jour, ^Otfc 
journee. Matin is said of the first, and soir of the last part of the day, 
but they do not imply any idea of duration. Matinee, on the contrary, 
implies the whole time from day light till noon ; but is generally under- 
stood to be from the time that people get up till twelve o'clock at noon ; 
and soiree implies the whole time of darkness till twelve o'clock at night, 
or till people retire ; as, 

It was fine this morning. II faisait beau ce matin. 

I have studied all the morning. J'ai etudie toute la matinee. 

Shall we see you this evening ? Vous verrons-nous ce soir ? 

I shall spend the evening with you. Je passerai la soiree avec vous. 

N. B. Saluting people, for good morning, we say bon jour, not 
D07i matin; and for good night, we say bon soir, in the early part 
of the night, and bonne nuit, when the night is far advanced. 


If, by night, you mean the whole time of darkness on that part of the JdOd 
earth which we inhabit, you express it in french by nuit; as, 

Where did he sleep last night? Oil coucha-t-il la nuit demiere? 

He spent the whole night at the ball.// passa toute la nuit an bal. 

If, by night, you mean only the first part of darkness which is other- 
wise called evening, you express it by soir ; as, 

Will you go to the play to-night? Irez-vous a la comedie ce soir 

Were you at the ball last night? Eliez-vous an bal hier au soir 

It is twelve o'clock. II est midi fin the day. J II est minuit (at night.) 2iOW 

It is a quarter past 12. 77 csImidi et un quart. It est minuit e/un quart. 

It is half past twelve. II est midi et demi. II est minuit et demi. 

It is three quarters past twelve. 1 r/ . , 

T , . * . \ \1L est une heure moms un Quart. 

It wants a quarter to one. J 

It is one o'clock. II est une heure. 

It is a quarter past one. It est une heure el un quart, &c 









come in, 










set out, 







To HAVE, expressed by feTRE. 

The auxiliary verb haveis expressed by the same tense and person of 
the auxiliary etre, to form the compound tenses of reflective verbs; as, 

I have hurt myself. Je me suis blesse. 

He has gone away. II s'en est alU. 

We have sat down. Nous nous sommes assis. 

You have walked. Vous vous etes promenes. 

They have diverted themselves. lis se sont divertis. [see page 115.] 

The auxiliary have is also expressed by the same tense and person of 
etre, when it comes before any of the following' participles ; 

Agreed, convenu. 

Arrived, arrive. 

Become, devenu. 

Befallen, survenu. 

Born, ne. 

I have set out early. Je suis parti de bonne heure. 

He has agreed to do it. II est convenu de lefaire* 

We have arrived in time. Nous sommes arrives a terns. 

You have returned too soon. Vous etes revenus trojj tot. 

They have gone too far. lis sont alles trop loin. 

To BE, expressed by AVOIR. 

The auxiliary verb be is expressed by the same tense and person of the 
auxiliary avoir, when it is followed by the adjectives Hungry, Thirsty, 
cold, warm, Hot denoting the natural feelings; Right, wrong, Ashamed; 
because these adjectives are expressed by a substantive in french ; as, 

I am hungry. J\ifaim. 

He is thirsty. II a soif. 

His feet are cold. // kfroid aux pieds. 

She is warm or hot. Elle a chaud; not, Elle est chaude. 

Her hands are warm. Elle a chaud aux mains. 

We are right. Nous avons raison. 

They are wrong, ashamed. lis ont tort ; Us ont honte. 

N. B. The verb be is also expressed by avoir, in speaking of the Age 
of beings, because in these instances, as in the above, the French use a 
substantive instead of an adjective; as, [have you ? 

How old are you? Quel age avez-vous? i.e. What age 

I am sixteen. J'ai seize ans ; not, Je suis seize. 

How old is your horse ? Quel age a voire cheval ? 

* When the participle convenu means suited, it requires avoir ; as, 
Cela ??*' au RAIT fort bien CONVENU ; That would have suited me very well. 

IV. B. The participles SORTI, gone out, been out; passe, gone by; monte, gone vp, as- 
cended ; drscendu, come down, require avoir or ltre, agreeably to the sense in which 
they are used ; but the same distinction, I think, is observed in english ; 

Monpere A sorti; My father has been out. 11 etait sorti ; He was gone out. 

Jl a passi pres d'ici; He has passed just by. 11 est passt ; He is gone by. 

11 A monte la coline ; He has ascended the hill. 11 est monte ; He is gone up. 

11 A descendu I'escalier; He has come down the stairs. 11 EST descendu ; He is come down. 

Demeure', used for lived, dwelt, requires AVOIR ; and for remained, staid, it requires 
ETRE ; as, 

II A demeure" a Paris; He has lived in Paris. 11 est demeure' d. P.; He has staid in P. 

AccoURU, run to; Pe'ri, perished ; APPARU, comparu, appeared ; disparu, disappear- 
ed; cru, grown; de'cru, grown less; recru, grown again, take indifferently avoir or 

IDIOMS. 261 

To BE, expressed by FAIRE. _ . 

The verb be, attended by an adjective or a substantive denoting the jj^±\J 
state of the weather, or of the Atmosphere, is expressed in french by the 
same tense of the verb faire, with IL for its nominative ; as, 

How is the weather? Quel terns fait-z7? 

Is the weather fine ? fait-i7 beau terns ? 

Yes, the weather is very fine. Oui, il fait tres beau terns. 

IC is rattier warm. IL fait un peu chaud. 

It is very cold. II fait tres froid, or grand froid. 

The weather Aas 6ee?t bad lately. II a fait mauvais terns depuis peu. 

To BE, To DO, expressed by Se PORTER. O /I 1 

The verbs be and do, used to denote the state of the Body, are express- ^rf~r 1 
ed by the same tense and person of the reflective verb .Se porter; as, 

How are you? how do you do? Comment vous portez-vous? 

I am pretty well, I thank you, Je me porte assez bien, dieu merci* 

I have not been well. Je ne me suis pas bien porte. r * 

tj 4 i o ■> r [mere? 

How is your mother? I n . , \ . 

tj , J ,, , o \Commenl se porte madamef voire 

How rfoes your mother «o? j 

To BE, expressed by DEVOIR. O /t* O 

The present tense of the verb be, am, art, is, are, and the imperfect ^4r^ 

was, were, followed by another verb in the infinitive, are expressed 

by the same tense and person of the verb devoir ; as, 
I am to go there to-night. Je dois y alter ce soir* 

He is to come to-morrow. II doit venirdemain ; not, il est &c. 

He was to bring it to-day. II devait Vapporter aujourdhui. 

To BE, not expressed in french. C% A *y 

The infinitive word to be, followed by a past participle, is not ex- ZtO 
'pressed, but the english participle takes the place of the infinitive be, 
and is expressed by the infinitive in french; as, 

There is nothing to be seen. 77 iiy a rien a. voir. 

He caused his head to be cut off. II luifit couper la tete. 

This house is to be let, to be sold. Cette maison est a louer, a vendre. 

To BE Just, To HAVE Just; VENIR DE, Ke FAIRE Que DE. ^ . , 

The verbs have and be followed by the adverb Just, to denote an ac- £*krx. 

tion past at the moment we are speaking, are expressed by venir de, or 

jve faire one de, in the same tense and person as have or be are, and 

the english participle is expressed by the infinitive in french; thus, 

T . . \Je viens d'arrivcr; or, 

1 am nisi come. < T „ . 

■* [Je ne fais que d«m»er. 

A/r t ., , , . . , i M071 frere xenmt de finir ; or, 

My brother hold just done. i ayr v * j« v?„;>. + 

J ^ \Mon frere ne faisait que deyz/ur.; 

* The French do not, as the English do, thank those who inquire after their health. Instead of Je 
VOttS remercie; they say. Dieu merci; A votre service ; Vous etes bien bvn, or bien civil; Vous avez bien 
de la bonle,or they return the compliment after the answer by saying, Et vous? andr/o« ? 

t It is customary with the Trench, in mentioning the relations of the people to whom 
they are speaking, to add the words Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle ; as, 
Comment se porte monsieur votrepere, monsieur votre frere? 

J'ai rencontre' MADAME votre mere, MADEMOISELLE votre soeur; these words can not 
be expressed in english. 

$ Do not con'ound Ne FAIRE Que DE, To be just, To have just, with Ne FAIRE Que, 
which expresses another idea, viz. To do nothing but; DE added to the first makes the 
difference between these two expressions. 




>J'ai pense\ ovje pensai* mourir. 

262 IDIOMS. 


Was near, were near followed by a present participle, and had 
like followed by an infinitive, denote an action which was on the point 
of being" effected, and are expressed by the perfect tense, or the present 
compound* of the verb penser; as, 

I was near dying- ; 

or I had like to have died. 

You were near falling ; 
v z j ri i u f n } Voits avez pense tomber. 

or You had like to have fallen. J 

He was near being killed ; \ T . , .. „, , , 

H, , n , , s , ,.,, , >I a pense, or il pensa* etre tue. 
e had like to have been killed. J ' 



There is, there are, it is far, it is long, it is since, ago, 

and the demonstrative words this, these, pointing out a period of time, 

are expressed by the impersonal verb ilya; il y avait, &c. ;f as, 

Is there any news to-day ? y A-t-ih des nouvelles avjouroVhui ? 

Are there flowers in his garden ? Y k-t-il desjleurs dans son jar din ? 

How far is it from Calais to pads?) ~ ,. , , , . . . 

ri J r i . c • o >CombienY a-c-il de Calais a pans? 

or How far is Calais from parish J 

It is a hundred and fifty miles. ilya cent cinquante milles. 

Calais is 150 miles from Paris. il y a cent cinquante milles de c. a p. 

How long has he lived here? CombienY x-t-ih qu'il demeure ici? 

He has been here these six months, ilya six mois qu'il est ici. 

It islO years since he was in France) il v a dice ans quHl etait en France; 

or He was in France ten years ago. [op, II etait en France ilya dix ans. 

It is long since I have seen him. 1 7 . . . v . 

T , & , , . ., . , ,., ilya long terns que ie nei lai vu. 

or J have not seen him this long while) ° ? j + 

It was 12 months since I saw him.) . „ . 

t, , . ,. ,, , ri ., >il y avait unan que ie neI avais vu. 

or 1 had not seen him these 12 months. J § 7 J 


Here is, here are, this is, these are, pointing out any object, 
are expressed by voici; there is, there are, that is, those are, 
also pointing out an object, are expressed by voilA ; as, 

Here is, or this is your horse. voici voire cheval. 

Here are, or these are your boots, voici vos bottes. 

There is, that is a man who says. voilA un homme qui dit. 

N. B. It is to be observed that, when the nominative of the verb which 
attends here, there, in the above sense, i. e. pointing out an object, is a 
personal pronoun, this nominative pronoun is changed into an objective 
pronoun in freneh, and placed before voici, voilA ; thus, 

Here I am. me voici. Here we are. nous voici. 

Here he is. le voici. There she is. la voila. 

Here they are. les voici. There they are. les voila. 

* Agreeably to 136, 137 rules. 

| See the conjugation of the impersonal verb Y AVOIR, page 173. % See the 19G rule. 

§ The Freneh do not give to the different periods of time names which correspond Avith the English. 
For a week, they say, kuit jours ; for two weeks, or a fortnight, they say, quinzejuurs; three weeks, trots 
semaines ; four weeks, un mois ; for a quarter of a year, they say, trois mois; half a year, sir mois ; three 
quarters of a y^ai", neufmois ; twelve months, un an. 

IDIOMS. 263 


Let, implying- command or permission to a third person, is expressed ^4o 
by que, and the object of let is made the Nominative of the following 
verb, which must be in the subjunctive in french ; as, 

Let him do it himself. qu'z7 lefasse lui meme. 

Let her go, if she likes. qu'elle y aille, si elle veut. - 

Let them go too. qxfils, or qu'ellesy aillent aussi. 

Let my brother go alone. que moh.frere y aille seul. 

Let, commanding or entreating a second person, is expressed by the 
second person of the imperative of the verb laisser, with the follow- 
ing verb in the infinitive ; as, 

Let him go ; permit him to go. LAissEZ-£e alter. 

Let her go ; permit her to go. laissez-/'J& alter. 

Let them go; permit them to go. laissez-^s alter. 

Let my brother go; sw^erhimtogo. laissez alter monfrere. 

N. B. Let know, meaning to inform, is expressed by faire savoir, 
ugreeably to tense and person ; as, 

Let him know that I will come. paites lui savoir que je viendrai, 

I will let him know it to-night. Je le lui ferai savoir ce soir. 

To MAKE ; FAIRE, REND RE. ^ . ^ 

2o make, meaning to perform some work, or some action, is expressed ^4i/ 
by faire ; as, 

To make a book ; to make a noise, faire un livre ; faire du bruit. 

To make great progress. faire de grands progres. 

B ut to make, expressing not the performance of an action, but the moral 
or natural effects of one being on another, is expressed by rendre ; as, 

Exercise makes the body healthy. Vexercice rend le corps sain. 

Vice makes men unhappy. Le vice rend les homines malheureux. 

Misfortune has made him wise. Le malheur Fa rendu sage. 

The verbs cause, and have ; and get, in the sense of cause, meaning 250 
to order, or procure a thing to be done, are expressed by the same tense 
and person of the verb faire ; and the english participle which follows 
have, or get, is expressed by the infinitive in french ; as, 

I had him arrested; } T ,. Al 

or I have caused him to be arrested./* 7 * FAIT ""***• 

I shall have him punished ; 1 r , 

or I shall cause him to be punished.}* 7 * le FERAI P umr - 

Gtt your watch mended. faites raccommoder voire montre. 


To order, To bespeak, are expressed by the verb faire repeated ; i. e. 
the first verb in the same, tense find person as cause, have, get, order, or 
bespeak is, and the second verb in the infinitive; as, 

I am going to get a watch made. Je vais faire faire Une montre. 

Where will you have it made? } ~. , 

or Where will you get it done ? ) 0u la PEMZ ' WW FAIRE ? 

I shall have it made in Paris ; 1 T 7 . „ . 

or I shall get it done in Paris. \ Je la FERAI FAIEE a Parls ' 





264 IDIOMS. 


We say in french as in english, demander une chose, to ask for a thing- ; 
desirer une chose, to wish for a thing ; but we do not say ; demander 
de faire une chose, to ask to do a thing ; nor desirer une personne de 
faire une chose, to desire a person to do a thing ; therefore, when ask 
or desire are followed by another verb in the infinitive, ask must be 
expressed by dire or prier; and desire by prier or charger; as, 

He asked me to do it. • II me dit, or il me pria de le faire. 

He desired me to tell you so. IZ m'«PRiE, or charge de vous le dire. 


To look, meaning" to view, to consider, is expressed by regarder ; 

Look at this man, at that horse, regardez cet homme, ce cheval. 

To look, meaning to seem, to Appear, is paraitre, avoir l'air, avoir 
la mine, avoir apparence ; as, 

That man looks very proud. Cet homme a Z'air bienfier. 

You look very well to-day. Vous avez bonne mine aujourdHmi. 

This bread looks well. Ce painvARAiT bo?i, or Abonne mine. ^ 

How does the country look? Quelle apparence a la campagne? 


The French say as well as the English, supposer une chose, to sup- 
pose a thing, i. e. to take it as granted for the sake of argument ; as, 

You suppose (i. e. you take for granted) a thing which is not probable. 

Vous supposez une chose qui n'est pas probable. 

But the verb suppose, so often used in english in the sense of to Think, 
to Fancy, to imagine, can not be expressed by the verb supposer in 
french; it must be expressed by penser or s'imaginer ; as, 

I suppose you know the news, i. e. I think, I imagine, 8fc. 

Je m'iMAGiNE que vous savez les nouvelles ; not, Je suppose, 8fc. 

It is supposed that there has been a battle ; i. e. it is thought, fyc. 

On pense, on ^'imagine qu il y a eu bataille; never, On suppose. 



The verb hope followed by a Future tense, is expressed by esperer; 

I hope you will be well by and by, to-morrow, &c. 

J' espere que vous vous porterez bien tantot, demain, eye. 

N.B. HOPE, being the expectation of something to come., can never be said in 
french of what is past or present ; so when the verb HOPE is followed by the pre- 
sent or perfect tense of another verb, it can not be expressed by Esperer ; it must 
be expressed by Se Flatter, Aimer a croire, Se Plaire a croire ; as, 

I hope you are well. Je me flatte, or J'aime a croire, or 

Je me plais a croire que vous vous portez bien; never, j'espere. 

I hope that I have not kept you waiting. 

Je me flattex que je ne vous ai pas fait atlendre ; never, j'espere. 

Yet, in these instances, we may also use the verb esp£rer, if we trans- 
pose it in parenthesis at the end of the sentence ; thus, 

Vous vous portez bien, /espere. You are well, I hope. 

Je ne vous ai pas fait attendre, /espere. I have not kept you, I hope, 

* MINE is said of the look of persons, and of things that are eatable, such as bread, meat, fruit, $c. 
bat it cannot be said of other things. 

t Jeme flatte, in this sense, does not mean I flatter myself ; it means, I like to thinly 
\o ■persuade myself. 


idioms. 265 

to take; mener, porter. 


Mener, to take, is said of beings that have the Natural faculty of ^OU 

walking; porter is said of the same beings when they have lost, or are 

not able to use that faculty ; and of Things ; as, 

Take my horse to the stable. menez mon cheval a Te curie. 

Take the saddle to the saddler. portez la selle au sellier. 

Amener and apporter are used in the same sense as Mcner and 
porter, but they imply a relation to the place in which we are ; as, 
Bring me my horse. ame>jez-??io£ mon cheval. 

Bring me my whip. APPORTEZ-moz mon fouet. 

To T/SF • l Se SEE <VIR tie, USER de, En USER, 

To use, meaning to make use of Things, is expressed by the reflective 
verb se servir de; as, 

I am using my knife, my pen, my book, my horse, &c. 

Je me sers de mon couteau, de ma plume, de mon livre, de mon cheval; 
not /'use mon couteau, via plume, fyc. because user une chose, means, to wear 
out a thing, not to make use of a thing. 

Yet speaking of moral or intellectual objects, we express use by user de; 

To use patience, violence, reprisals, precaution. 

user de patience, de violence, de represailles, de precaution. 

To use, speaking of the manner of Acting towards persons, is expressed 
by traiter, eu user avec, agir avec; as, 
He uses me well. 

II me traite Men ; II en use Men avec moi ; II agit bien avec moi. 
He has not used me well. II ne rr£d pas bien traite. 

To use, meaning to be Accustomed to, is expressed by avoir coutume, 
or etre accoutume; as, 

You are used to it. Vous y etes accoutuiME. 

He was not used to do so. II ?i'avait pas coutume d'agir ainsi. 


To help, viz. to Assist a person to do a thing, is expressed by aider; JtOO 

Shall I help you to do it? Vous AiDERAi-je a lefaire? 

My brother will not help me. Mon fr ere ne veut pas ??*'aider. 

B'U to help is often used in the sense of to Take, to offer, to present 
a to a person; help is then expressed by servir, not the person, 
to the thing, but the thing to the person ; as, 

Shall I help you to a glass of wine? Vous servirai-jV un verre de vin? 
i. e. shall I help a ^lass of wine to you ? 

Help that gentleman to a glass; servez un verre A ce monsieur ; 
not, servez ce- monsieur A un verre ; for it is the glass that you help or pre- 
sent to the gentleman, not the gentleman to the glass. 

To ATTEND, explained in the following examples ; O X(l 

To attend a meeting. aller or assister a une assembler. w<? ^^ 

To attend to one's duty. faire or remplir son devoir. 

To attend to what is said. faire attention a ce qu'on dit. 

To attend to business, s'appliquer aux affaires. 

r Jo attend a sick 




266 idioms. 

To attend a sick person. garder or soigner un malade. 

To attend a patient, viz. to visit, voir or visiter un malade. 
To attend a master, to wait upon, servir un maltre. 
To attend a master, to be taught, prendre lecon oVun mailre. 
To attend a pupil, to give lessons, donner lecon a un ecolier. 

To want, meaning to be in Need of a thing 1 , or under the Necessity of 
doing 1 a thing, is expressed by avoir besoin ; as, 

I want money, clothes; am in need. J'ai besoin $ argent, d' habits. 
I do not want him; have no need. Je 7i'ai pas besoin de lui. 
I want to go to town ; i. e. must go. J'ai besoin (Sailer a la ville. 

But want is often used to denote merely wish or Desire; it is then 
expressed by avoir envie, desirer, souhaiter, vouloir; as, 

I want to see him; i. e. I wish. Je desire or souhaite de le voir. 

I want to speak to him ; (wish) J'ai envie de lui parler. 

I want him to learn french. Je veux qu'il apprenne le frangais. 

To want a person or a Thing, in the sense of wish, is demand er ; 

Whom or what do you want? Qui or que demandez-voms? 

You are wanted; He wants you. On vous demande; II vous demande. 


If, by marry, you mean to Give a person in marriage, or to perform 
what is called the ceremony, yon must make use of the verb marier. If, 
by marry, you mean to rake a person in Marriage, you use epouser; 

My father has married his niece. 

Mon pere a marie" sa niece ; i. e. has given her in marriage. 

Mon pere a epouse sa niece; i. e. has taken her for his wife. 

That parson has married my sister. 

Ce pretre a marie ma sceur; i. e. has performed the ceremony. 

Ce pretre a epouse" ma soeur ; i. e. has taken her for his wife. 

N. B. married, in the sense of Taking a wife, is expressed by epouse* 
after the auxiliary have, and by marie after the auxiliary be; as, 

I have married his sister. J'ai epouse sa sceur ; not marie. 

I am married to his sister. Je suis marie a sa scour; not epouse. 

To marry, in a Neuter sense, i. e. without an object added to it, is ex- 
pressed by the reflective verb se marier ; as, 

When do you marry Y Quand vous mariez-vo?/s ? 

I will never be married. Je ne me makierai jamais. 

To RIDE, explained in the following examples ; 

To ride well. se tenir bien a cheval. 

To ride in a coach, on horseback, aller en carosse, aller a cheval. 

,,„ . , ... , Tfaire un tour en carosse; or, 

lo take a ride in a coach. < 

[se promener en carosse. 

_, . 7 . , , , , (faire un tour a cheval; or 

To take a ride on horseback. < n , 7 

[se promener a cheval. 

N. B. To ride, attended by any particular object, i. e. an object deter- 
mined by any of the signs called Article, is expressed by aller; as, 
I will ride your horse, and you will ride in my coach. 
J'irai sur voire cheval, et vous irez dans mon carosse. 

idioms. 267 

1> walk; marcher, se promener. o aq 

If, by walk, you mean the action of going from place to place, either ^OO 
for Business or Exercise, you must use marcher; as, 

Walk a little faster. marchez un peujplus vite. 

I can not walk any more. Je ne puis plus marcher. 

1 have walked too much to-day. J'ai trop marche avjourd'hui. 

If, by walk, you mean that exercise which is taken for Diversion, you 
must use the reflective verb se promener; as, 

Let us walk a little. promenons-tioms un peu. \_oVhui. 

I have not walked to-day. Je ne me suis pas promene aujour- 

N. B, To take a walk is expressed by faire un tour, or by faire 
une promenade, faire un tour de promenade ; as,* 

Let us go and take a walk. Allons faire un tour de promenade. 

Go and take a walk in the garden. Allez faire un tour dans lejardin.* 

To COME; ALLER, VENIR. q r* a 

The English often use the verb come, with reference to the person to ^U*x 
whom they speak; so speaking to a person in the street, they will say: 

I will come and see you to-morrow, meaning, at the person's, house; 

The French, on the contrary, speak with reference to the place, and 
not to the person ; so this sentence : 

I will come and see you to-morrow, may be expressed two ways; 

Je viendrai vous voir demain, being then at the place in which you 
are to come to see the person. 

J'irai vous voir demain, meaning the place where you are to go to see 
the person ; for, venir means to move from a place in which we are not 
at the time we are speaking, to a place in which we are; aller means to 
move from a place in which we are, to a place in which we are not. 

In asking a question, come is expressed by venir; but in the answer, 
the verb must be determined by the place, not by the person you are to go to. 


The English use the verb return both for to go back, and to come ZuO 
back; but in french you must make a distinction. 

If, by return, you mean to go back y you must use retourner; as, 

I come from Paris, and I will return to-morrow; i.e. will go back. 

Je vie/is de Paris, etfy retournerai demain. 

If, by return, you mean to come back, you must use revenir; as, 

I am going to Paris, and I will return next week; i: e. will come back. 

Je vais a Paris, et je reyiendrai la semaine prochainc. 

N. B. To return, meaning to Give back, to Restore, to Repay, is ex- 
pressed by rendre; as, 

Return me my money. rendf.z-?710Z mon argent. 

Have I not returned it to you? Ne vous tai-je pas rendu? 


To call a person, is appeler QiielqiCun; but to call at a person's, Zil)U 
or upon a person is passer chez Qiielquun; as, 

When will you call upon me? Quand vasserez-vous chez moi? 

I will call upon you to-morrow. Je passerai demain chez vous. 
Never say, appelez sur moi, call upon me; j'appelerai sur vous, fyc. 

• Faire un tour is generally Understood of a short ivalh ; and Faire une promenade, Faire t/i tour de 
promenade means to take a wain, without any limitation as to time, bat rather lomj th;in short. 





268 idioms. 

to break; rompre, casser. 

Rompre is said of thing's which require some effort to break them, such 
as wood and Metals ; as, 

You have broken my stick. Vovs avez rompu mon baton. 

Casser is said of things that are frail, such as Glass and Earthenware. 

He has broken the plates. II a casse les assiettes. 

The glass and bottle are broken. Le verre el la bouteille sont cassis. 

N. B. In speaking of Bones, we use indifferently rompre or casser; 

He has broke?i his leg. II s'cst casse or rompu lajambc. 

Without specifying any particular object, we use casser; as, 

They break every thinginthis house. On casse tout dans cette maison. 

And for break to pieces, we say briserj as, 

The ship was broken to pieces. Le navire fit tout brise. 


To like, meaning to be Fond of, to have a Liking for a person o: a 
thing, is expressed by aimer; as, 

I like wine, money, pleasure, France, the country, &c. 

J'aime le vin, t argent, le plaisir, la France, la campagne, Sfc. 

But like is often used, especially in asking questions, for to Think, to 

nave an opinion, and is then expressed by penser or trouver; 

TT . 7-7 -i • o i i-e. What think you, what is your 

How do you like tins country ? \ opinion of this count ' ry ? 

Que PENSEZ-vo%9 de cepays? or comment trouvez-?;ows ce pays? 
Yet in the answer we use aimer; as, 

Je Taime beaucoup. Je Z'aime assez bien. Je ne Z'aime pas du tout. 
I like it much. I like it well enough. I do not like it at all. 


To keep, meaning to preserve, to watch, to Guard, to Look after, is 
expressed by garder ; as, 

Keep it for my sake; i. e. preserve. gardez-Zc pour V amour de moi. 

This dog keeps the house; watches. Ce chien garde la maison. 

This boy keeps the flocks ; looks after. Ce garcon garde les troupeaux. 

These instances excepted, to keep is generally expressed by tenir 

She keeps a house, a school. Elle tient maison, ecole. 

He keeps an inn, boarders. II tient auberge, des pensionnaires. 

To keep in prison, in the house. tenir en prison, dans la maison. 

To keep clean, to keep ready. tenir propre, tenir pret. 

To keep cows, horses, a coach, avoir des vaches, des chevaux, tin 
carosse. Familiarly we say; rouler carosse ; to keep a coach. 

To GET ; GAGNER ; GOT not expressed in f rench. 

The verb get, meaning to Gain, to win, to Earn, to Acquire, is ex- 
pressed by gagner ; as, 

He gets or earns five shillings a day. II g agne cinq shelins par jour. 

He has got or won a deal of money. II a gagne beaucoup d' argent. 

But the participle got, so often added to the verb have, to denote pos* 
session, is not expressed in french, and is perhaps useless in english ; as, 

He has got a deal of money. II A beaucoup d' argent. 

Have you got any money about you? avez-i;o?/s de l' argent sur vous? 

You have got a new hat. Vous avez un chapeau neuf; not, 

Vpus avez gagne, which means, you have won, gained, earned, fyc, 

idioms. 269 


Speaking of money, property, to spend is expressed by depenser; h* / I 
peaking of rime, spend is expressed by passer; as, 
He spends all his money in gaming. II depense tout so?i argent a jouer. 
He spends all his time in hunting.// passe tout son terns a la chasse. 


The verb charge, so often used in speaking of the price of things, £ / Ji 
can not be expressed in french by charger, which means to load, or to 
give in charge; it must be expressed by prendre, faire payer, or 
by prix, with some other verb ; as, 

How much do you charge a day for a horse? i. e. do you require? 

Combien prenez-vcws par jour pour un cheval? 

How much do you charge for a saddle? what is the _p rice of a saddle? 

Combien prenez-vcws pour une selle? or Quel est le prix d'une selle? 

You charge too much; i. e. the price is too high. 

Cesl trop, cest trop chcr, vous prenez trop, vous faites payer trop; 
never, vous chargez trop ; vous avez charge trop. 

t nn * urw f ALLER an DEVANT de, 

To GO to MEET; { ALL£R & u RENC0NTRE de 

Let us go and meet your sister. allons au devant de vot?*e sceur. Zt i O 

lxr . , , \Nous allions a voire rencontre ; 

We were going to meet you. { Ar , ■ ' 

b ° J [Nous allions au devant de vous. 


Approcher means to bring an object near, and .s'approcker de £§ Ql 
means to go, or come near an object ; for ex. I sludl say : 

approchez la table. Bring the table near. 

But if I said to a person come near ox go near the table; I should not say, 
approchez la table; I must say, APPiiocHEZ-roz/s de la table; for it is the 
verson who is to approach the table, not the table to approach the person. 

I brought my sister near me. J'approchai ma sceur de moi. 

I went near my sister. Je at'approchai de ma sceur. 

To hear a person is entendre Qiielqu'un; as, 
I hear your sister coming. J'entends venir voire sceur. 

But to hear from, a person, is not entendre de Qiielqitun ; hear 
is then expressed by entendre des nouvelles, apprendre des nou- 


Do you hear from your sister often? 

VELLES de voire sceur? not, entendez-wws souvent de voire sceur? 

I hear from her almost every day. 

J'entends, or j'apprends, or je recois pre&que touts les jours de ses 
nouvelles, or des nouvelles d'elle ; not, j'entends D'elle fyc. 


It is with, denoting a similarity between two objects, is expressed ^w/ U 
by il en est de; as, 

It is with you as with me. I\vNESTdevouscommedemoi.[?nille. 

It is with a state as with a family. II en est d'un etat comine d'unefa- 







270 IDIOMS. 

Avoir beau is an expression very prevalent in conversation, instead of 
en vain, inutilement; so, instead of saying; 

Cest en vain que je lui dis d' 'etudier, il n'enfaitrien; 

It is invain that I teli him to study, he does not do it; we say; 

J'ai beau lui dire d 'etudier, il ji'enfait rien. 

He finds fault with every thing-. II trouve a redire a tout. 
What fault can be found ivith it? Que peut-on y trouver a redire? 



If he comes, I will take it kindly. S'il vient,je lui en saurai bon gre. 
He would take it unkindly of me. 77 m'en saurait mauvais gre. 
Take it kindly or unkindly. SA.CHF.z-m'e?ibonGREOM mauvais gre. 

Can you do without a horse? Pouvez-vous vous passer de cheval? 

I can not do without one. } r 

I am not easy without it. J Je ne P ms P as m en passer. 




What is the matter there? qu'y A-t-il la ; Qu'EST-ce.qu'il y a la ? 

What is the matter with you ? qu'est-ce que vous avez ? 
Whatisthe matterwiih your hand? qu'est-ce que vous avez a la main ? 

N. B. Qu'est-ce que is very prevalent in conversation, instead of 
que; so instead of saying-: 

que dites-vovs ? What do you say ? 

que faites-vous? What are you doing? we say : 

qu'est-ce que vous dites? qu'est-ce que vousfaites? 




These expressions are often used to ask questions ; but they serve less 
to require information, than to shew a kind of Fear or surprize, that the 
thing about which we inquire should be different from what we thought 
or wished it to be ; the difference will be made obvious in the following 
examples ; 

Vous en allez-vous? Are you going? 

est-ce que vous vous en allez ? You are not going, are you ? 

Ne sortirons-nous pas? Shall we not go out? 

N'est-ce pas que ?ious sortirons, \ w , ,, * i. j 7 . o 

A7 - .! , f We shall go out, shall we not ? 

or Nous sortirojis, n est-ce pas r ) & 

It seems to me, however it may seem to other people, that these two 

ways of asking a question, imply different ideas.* 

* These are the words which, I have remarked, generally embarrass the learner : hut 
he will find in the course of his studies, several other idiomatical expressions of less 
importance and too numerous to be explained in a grammar ; they are found in the dic- 
tionaries, and will be learned by taking notice of them in reading. 




1 The article must be of the same gender and of the same number 

article doit etre meme genre m. et nombre m. 

as the noun ; The horse, the cow, the sheep. The bread, the meat, the 

que nom ; m. cheval, vache, brebis.f pain, m. viands, f. 

clothes. My garden, his house, his trees. Her finger, her ring-, her 
habit. 1 ; jardin, m. maison, f. arbre. doigt,m. bague,f, 

gloves. A dish, a plate. Some butter, some sauce, some pepper, 

gant. -plat, m. assiette. f. beurre, m. sauce, f. poivre, m 

some mustard, some capers. This wine, that beer, those glasses. 
moutarde, f. capre. vin,m. biere, f. verre. 

2. The article must be pronounced easily with the noun ; Do you 133 

doit se prononcer aistment avec — t 

go 125 to the assembly to-night ? I will go 525 to the opera. Shall you go 125 to 
uller§ assemble ce soir ? — aller || opera. — 133 alter 

school this summer? I shall go 125 towards the beginning of autumn. 
Te'cole kt& m..? — aller vers commencement m. 7 aulomne. 

(Let us go) (as far as) that tree near the church. Do you hear 125 
- - ullons jusqu'a. arbre m. pres de dglise. — 133 entendre§ 

that bird? Have 125 you heard the history of that man? He has 125 
oiseau? m. Avoir entendu 'ltistoire 'hommef avoir 

sacrificed his honour to the interest of the state. My ingenuity and 

sacrifit 'honneur inUret t"tat. inghiuiti et 

my exactness have 125 (at last) won her affection and her esteem. 

exactitude avoir enfin gagn6 affection estime. 

* These exercises being intended for persons who have written the introductory exercises, and for 
piT>ons of a riper understanding who are able to comprehend many rules at once, such rules only u ill he 
pointed out in each exercise, as the learner is supposed not to have seen, when he writes that exercise, 
that lie may have an opportunity to exercise his recollection. 

t See rules for the formation of the plural number of nouns, p. 183 and following. 

X A dash under a word shews that the word is not expressed in french. 

ij The figures at the top of the words indicate the paragraph where the rule' which 
that word requires is to be found. 

$ The Infinitive only of the verb is given here; the learner must himself find the right 
tense and person, agreeably to the conjugation to which the verb belongs ; therefore it 
is necessaiy that he should peruse the conjugations, before he writes these exercises 


article and NOUN. 

3. The article must (be repeated) before every noun ; Bring" me 

article doit se repeter avant chaque nom ; Apportez 55 

some pens, 9 ink, and 9 paper. I have a letter to write to my uncle 

9 plume, *encre et papier, m. lettre t a ecrire oncle 

and 204 aunt. This paper and ink are 125 not good. Lend me your wax 

tante. l etre 190 boa 31 Pretez 58 cire m 

and seal. My father and mother have 125 invited your brother and sister 

cachet, m. et avoir invite 

to dine with us. After dinner we shall walk 125 into the park and 

d diner avec 53 Apres dine nous nous promener dans pare m 

804 gardens. We shall drink 125 some tea or 9 cofFee before we go. 218 

jardin. — prendre 9 thi m. ou caffe' m. avant que y allions. 

4. The names of persons, 204 towns and 204 places do not take 125 any 8 article ; 

nom personne, ville et lieux - 190 prendre N,B> 

Moliere and Racine are 125 the two best 29 french 32 dramatic 32 authors. 

et etre deux meilleur francais dramatiqne 29 auteur. 

Buonaparte and Blucher decided the fate of Paris in the plain of Waterloo. 

decider 1 ' 25 du sort de dans p/at/ie f. 

Is Paris 134 as large as London? The city of London is 125 much larger 41 
Paris est-il 43 grand 43 Londres? ville f. etre beaucoup grand' 29 

than that of Paris. Have 125 you never been at Paris? No; I have been 
que celle Avoir 133 19 ° &t6 a ? Non ; 125 

at Nantes, 204 Bordeaux, and 204 Marseilles, but I have not been at Paris. 
d. mais 125 19 ° 

Next 32 summer I will go 125 to Paris, 204 Geneva, 204 Florence and 204 Rome. 

Prochain 7 {-te aller d. Geneve, 

5. The names of countries require 125 the definite article, le, la, les ; France 

nom pays demander 2 defini 3 ' 2 f. 

is 125 the most pleasant ^country in 49 Europe. It 62 is as fertile as Italy, and 

etre plus agrdable 3 ' 2 pays m. de V 2 Pile 125 43 43 Htalie 

the air of France is more healthful than that of Italy. France is rich 

2 125 4i sa [ a q Ue celui 2 125 riche 

and very powerful. She has conquered Holland, Switzerland, Italy, 
tres puissant. 23 Pile 125 conquis Holiande f. Suisse, f. 

Spain, Portugal, Saxony, Bavaria, Prussia, Austria, part of Poland, 
2 Espagne, m. Saxei'. Baviere f. Prusse f. 2 Autriche, line partie Pologne f. 

and 204 Russia, and compelled her enemies to make peace with her. 

* Russie, f. force 1 ennemi d, faire 7 paix avec elle. 

6. After verbs expressing dwelling, going, coming, instead of 

Apres 7 verbe qui expriment demeurer, aller, VENlR,f au lieu de 

the article before the names of countries, we 90 use 125 the prepositions 

2 avant pays on N,B * employer p r ^i )0S ^ l ' 0HS 

En and De, Have 125 you ever been to France ? I have lived in France 

et Avoir jamais He '/ demcure 

*The preposition O/mustbe expressed in french, together with the article, viz. of the. 
t These verbs being used here as substantives, must be in the infinitive in french. 


article and NOUN. 
several years. I went 13 * to France as soon as the war was over. 

plusieurs annee. alter 125 aussi tot que guerre f. /ut finie. 

I went 13 ? afterwards to Germany and 204 ltaly. I have lived near 
idler 125 ensuite Allemagne et Italie. J'ai deleave pres <T 

(twelve months) in Italy. Were you ever in Switzerland? No; I 

unan* t jamais Suisse ? 191 , 

never was.* From France I went 13 * to Holland and 204 Sweden. I am 
190 y ai tte'.x.B. alter Hollande Suede. 

going 155 to Spain and 204 Portugal ; from thence I will go 125 to Greece, 
alter 125 ; de Id aller Grece, 

204 Egypt, 204 Bengal, 204 China, -and 204 Japan. I have a brother in Ja- 

Egypte, (d) m. (d) Chine, f. (d) Japon. m. a (d) Ja- 

maica, and another in Martinique. He is going to Mexico, and 3 Peru. 
mu'ique,f. un autre d (d) f. - va 155 (d) Mixique, m. (d) Pe'rou.xa.. 

7. Common 32 names* used 29 in a general or in a particular 32 sense 

commun w nom m. employe* daiis sens general particulier sens m. 

require 125 the article Le, La, res ; Man 2 is born for society, but love 

demander 2 article 'Homme nd pour socittt, f. mais 2 amour 

and ambition often 18 * disturb the happiness of the social 32 state. Men 
2 ambition souvent troubler 125 bonkeur m. social 2 etat. 

thirst 125 after honours and riches ; yet honours and riches seldom 184 
soupirer apres honneur richesse; cependant rurement 

make 125 men happy. True happiness consists 125 in virtue ; for what are 
rendre heureux. Vrai % consister dans vertu f. ; car que 

birth, honours, beauty and riches without virtue? Virtue (of which) 
naissance, f. beautd f. ? dont 

men speak 125 (so much) is (nothing but) a sincere desire of doing good, 
varler tant nest qu' 32 desir m. faire l5i bien, m. 

and of shunning evil. My sister is learning 125 French and Italian 

tviter 15 * mal.m. 155 apprendre Francaism. 2 Jtaiien; 

and I am going to 1 * 2 learn English, geography and mathematicks. 

- 155 aller 1 ' 25 - Anglais, gtographie f. mathematique. 

8. When the preposition of comes before a noun used in a general 

Quand proposition f. OF venir 125 avant employe 32 

sense, but (of which) the quantity is 125 limited by another noun, this 

sens, m. mais dont quantitc f. etre limits 29 par un autre , l 

preposition can 125 not (be expressed) by du, de la, des, which would 

f. pouvoir l *° (kk)s , exprimej- par qui 

render the expression particular, and mean of the; it must (be expressed) 

rendre 125 2 particulier 29 , signifirait of THE; il faut (kk)Vexprimer 

by ce only, without any regard to the gender or 3 number of the 

settlement, sans avoir igard genre m. ou nombre m. 

* Twelve months, used to denote the period of a year, is never expressed by douze 
mois in trench ; it is expressed by un an. See note § page 262. 

t Were being used here to express an action, must be expressed in the same manner 
as have been, thus, have you ever been, rule 136. J Put this adjective before the noun 


article and NOUN, 
noun; Have you got any money about you? I have not above 8 thiee 

270 9 argent sur ? 190 phis N,B# trois 

or four shillings. I want to buy a basket of fruit. Have you much 

ou quatre shelin. veux - 172 acheter panier m. fruit. (e) 

fruit in your garden this year ? (There is) a great 33 quantity of pears 

dans jardin annde f,? II y a 246 grand 29 quantity f. poire 

and 204 apples, but (there is) no 8 stone 26 fruit. Buy me a bottle of ink, 

pomme, il n'y a pas**- 3 " fruit a noyau. Achetez 55 bouteillef. encre, 

a quire of paper, and a dozen of pens. (Were there) many people 

cahier m. papier, douzainef. plume. Y avait-il (e) mondem. 

at the play last night ? (There were) a great number of gentlemen, 

+ com.4dief.hier au soir ? 11 y avait grand nombrexa.. messieurs, 

but there were very few 8 ladies. My brother has a pretty 33 collection 

it y avait tres peu NB - dame. l joli 29 f. 

of shells, 204 plants, 204 birds, and 204 other curious 32 things. He has got 

coquille, plante, oiseau, autres curieuse 29 chose. 27 ° 

a parcel of letters for you. He has had a (great deal) of trouble. 

paquetxa. lettre pour eu - beaucoup(e) peine, f. 

9. Common 32 names used 29 in a partitive sense require 125 the article 

23 inom m. employi partitif' 62 sens ro.. demander 

DU y de La, Des ; I should like 125 to have some fruit. (Is there) any 

— aimer & avoir fruit, m. Y a-t-iZ 246 

ripe fruit in the garden ? Yes ; (there are) strawberries, gooseberries, 

mur 32 dans jardin m. ? Oui ; il y a ^ fraise, groseille, 

cherries and apples. We will eat 125 some strawberries and cherries. 

cerise pomme. — manger 

Have 125 you got any (pine apples) in your houses ? No ; but we have 
Avoir 133 27 ° ananat serref* m ; mais 

grapes, figs, and melons in abundance. What shall we drink 125 ? 

raisin, £gue, melon en abondance. Que 83 — 133 boire ? 

Will 125 you have beer or wine? We shall drink wine, if you have 
Vouloir 133 - 174 Mere f. ou vin ? m. — 125 , si 

any, 54 and if you have no 8 wine, we will drink cider or water. 

en > (v) n'avez pas N * B « , — 125 cidre, m. ou *eau. 

10. A noun used in a partitive sense, preceded by an adjective, 

employ 6 dans partitif 3 ' 2 , pre'ctdc d' adjectif, ni. 

requires De before the adjective, instead of du, de la, des y before the 

demander 125 avant 2 , au lieu de 

noun ; (Were there) any pretty 83 women at the ball ? (There were) 

; Y avait-il 246 joli 29 femme t bat m. ? II n'y avait 

few but old 33 women. (There are) fine 29 country 25 houses in England. 

guere que vieille 29 II y a 246 belle 33 de campagne maison f. en 

Some have large 33 parks and beautiful 33 gardens. (Are there) any 

Quelques unes ia5 grand 29 pare tres beaux jardin. Y a-t-il 1{ * 

* Serre is the name the French have for all glazed places, where plants are either 
preserved or forced. t At is expressed by the game preposition as TO. 


article and NOUN. 

large 83 trees in your garden ? No ; (They are) only small 33 trees. 
grand " 29 arbrem. dans jardin f 191 ; II n'y a 248 que petit 29 

Some of the trees have fine 33 fruit on this year. Have you got 

Quelques uns arbres 125 beau fruit m. - x ann6e. f. 133 270 

any nice 33 flowers ? Yes ; we have some beautiful 33 pinks. 

10 belle M fleur ? Oui ; 125 tres beaux xillet. 

11. The numeral article a, an, (is expressed) by un, une, the same 

numeral 32 A, an, s'exprime par de meme 

as the number one ; A glass, a bottle, a pound, a day, a year. 

que nombre m. ONE ; verre, m. bouteille, f. livre, f. jour, m. an. m. 

12. Before names of measure, 204 weight and 204 number used in a 

Avant 7 nom 8 mesure, poids nombre pris 

collective sense, a, an, (are expressed) by ze, La; I must 181 buy 

collectif 3 * A, AN, s'expriment par ; II faut que f achete 

a pound of plums. (How much) do they sell them a pound ? They 90 

11 8 prune. Combien - on 133 vend les 5i ? On N,B - 

sell 125 them two pence a dozen. Beer? sells 125 at four pence a pint, 

vendre les 5i deux sou douzaine. f. Biere f. se vendre - quatre sou pinte,f. 

wine? five shillings a bottle, ^brandy six pence a glass, and ?rum 

vin m. cinq shelin , ^eau-de-vie , rum m, 

five shillings a quart. I go 125 to ^school once a day. I take 125 lessons 

quarte.H. aller 2 ecole line fois prendre lecon 

three times a week. We have (holydays) only once a year. 

fois semaine. f. n'avons vacances qu'* unefois 2 annee. 

13. The demonstrative article this, that, these, those, has 

dtmonstratif 32 CE, CET, CETTE, CES, 

the same properties in french as in english ; it 62 serves to (point out) 

memes propritte' en frangais qu* anglais; il servir 125 a designer 

the objects ; This man, this woman, these children. That horse, that 

objet ; *homme, femme, enfant. cheval, 

house, those trees This field, that grass, these people, those flocks. 

maitotifi. arbre. champ, m. herbe, f. gens, troupeau 

N.B. If you wish 125 to shew a distinction between two objects, 

Si vouloir ;72 marquer distinction f. entre deux objet, 

(you must) add ci after the noun to denote the nearer 32 objet, and xd 

il faut (kk) aj outer apres 17 ° designer plus pres 7 objet,xa.. 

to denote the remoter; This man is taller than that. 88 That woman 

170 plus e'loigne' ; grand 41 celui-la. N,B " 

is handsomer than this. 88 These children play better than those. 88 

belle* 1 N.B. jouer™ t N - B - 

Those trees are larger than these. 88 This field is better than that. 88 

* The adverb Only may be expressed two ways, either by Settlement after the verb, 
or by JYe before the verb, and by Que after it ; so, JVo»s uvons vacances skulement una 
fois, ox Nous n'avons vacances qv' une fois §c« t See note (b) page 72 

S 2 


article and NOUN. 

14. The possessive 32 signs moji, ma, Mes; son, sa, ses, fye. follow 

possessif 29 signem. • suivre Xib 

the same rule as the definite article Le, La, Les ; they agree 125 in gender 

mime regie f. que defini 32 • Us s'accorder en genre 

and 204 number with the noun which follows 125 them ; My book, my 

nombre avec *** suivre les 5i ; Hire, m. 

pen, my papers. His coach, his chaise, his horses ; Her coach, 

•plume, f. papier. carosse, m. chaise, f. chevaux ; 

her chaise, her horses. Our friends, your children, their relations. 

ami, enfant, parent. 

15. The possessive 32 signs my, thy, his, ker, our, your, their, 

possessif 29 MY, THY, HIS, HER, GJV, YOUR, THEIR, 

(are expressed) by the definite article Le, La, Les, before the name of the 

s'expriment defini 32 avant uom.m. 

parts of the body, when we 90 speak of a natural action of the body ; 

partie carps, m. quand on N - B - purler 125 nuturelle 3 ' 2 f. - ; 

Raise your arm. Move your leg. Advance your foot. She shuts 125 

Lever* brus. m. Remuer* jambe. f. Avancer* pied. m. fermer 

her eyes, and opens her mouth ; or when we 90 speak of an action done 

yeux, ouvrir 125 bouche ; f. oft N - B - l25 qui se fait 

upon the body ; but, in these instances, we 90 add 125 to the verb one 

sur ; mais, dans l cas, . N,B - ajouter verbe m. 

of the pronouns Me, nous, re, vous, se, lui, Leur, (agreeably to) num- 

pronom m. suivant - 7 H<im- 

ber and person ; I have 23 ? hurt my arm. You have 23 ? cut your hand. 

bre m. 7 personne ; f. f blesse t coup6 main. f. 

He has 23 ? broken his leg. She has 23 ? put her foot (out of joint.) 

t rompu t — demis 

You have hurt my arm. He has cut my hand. You have put her foot 

t blesse* t coupe t — 

(out of joint.) The carriage ran 133 over his body, and broke* 36 his leg. 

demis voiture f. a passe* par^dessus -f a rompu t 

16. After the words to have a pain, to hurt, to be cold, to be 

mot - avoir - mal, - se faire mal, - avoir froid, - avoir 

warm, the possessive 32 signs my, thy, his, her, &c. (are expressed) 

chaud, posse-ssif 29 MY, THY, His, HER, $c. s'expriment 

by au, a La, aux ; I have a pain in my head. My mother has a pain 

24 mal * tite.f. u mal 

* Second person of the imperative. 

t These sentences must be expressed as if the words were construed in this manner : 
I to myself have 23 ' hurt the arm. You to yourself have 237 cut the hand. He to himself 

— me sais blesse — vous etes coupe — s' 

has 237 broken the leg. She to herself has 237 disjointed the foot. You to me have hurt 
est rompu — s' est dimis — m' avez blesse 

the arm. He to me has cut the hand. You to her have disjointed the foot. The 

- m' a coupe* - lui avez demis 

carriage to him has run 135 over the body, and to him has broken 136 the leg. 

voiture f. - lui a passe* par-dessus — lui a rompu 


article and NOUN 

in her side. My father has got the gout in his feet. Have 23 ? you 

cote. m. ^ goute f. * Xe vous etes - vous 

not hurt your leg ? No ; but I have 23 ? hurt my knee. In the 

pas fait mal * jambe f. f m ; me suis fait mal * genou. m. Dans 

last 29 battle, my brother was wounded in his arm, and I was wounded 

dernier bataitle, f. fut blesst * , fus blesse 

in the shoulder. My hands are 239 warm, but my feet are 239 very cold. 
tpuule. avoir chaud,\ avoir grand froid. 

17. The possessive 32 signs its and their (are also 104 expressed) by 

possessif' 20 signe m. ITS THEIR - aussi s'expriment 

Le, La, Les, and the pronoun eh (is added) to the verb, when the noun 

pronom m. sajoute verbe, m. quand nomm. 

before which 76 they come 125 is not in the same part of the sentence as 
avant lequel ils 62 se t router 19 ° meme partie f. phrase f. que 

the noun to which they refer ; 125 That water i« good, 29 I know 125 its 

auquel" 5 OT se rapporter ; eau f. bon, (g) connaitre 

qualities (turn, the qualities of it,) and I have experienced its effects, (i. e. 
qualites, en, 5i f ai e'prouve' effet, 

the effects of it.) To 1 ' paint the human heart (it is necessary) to 

en 55 . Pour peindre humain 32 cceurm. il faut 17 ' 2 — 

know all its springs, (i. e. the springs of it.) London astonishes 

connaitre touts ressort, en. 5i Londres ttonner 125 

strangers ; They admire its extent, and its riches, i. e. (of it:) 

7 ctranger ; admirer 1 -* *6tendue, richcsse y f. en. 54 . 

18. The possessive 32 signs Mon, Ma, Mes, (are added) to names of 

pcssessif i9 s'ajoutent ~nom 8 

kindred and 204 friendship, when we 90 call 125 any body by those names; 

parente amitit, quand on NB - appeler 108 de l ; 

Mother, you are 92 wanted. I am coming, child. Daughter, are you 

, on vous demande. J' - y tuis, 155 ^enfant, fille, 

ready? Yes, father. Come, friends, (let us be) merry. 
pri't 29 ? Oui, Allons, umi, - - soyons gai* 9 

19. Do not put any 8 article in french before nouns used as 

— 19 ° inetlre* NB * avant ?nom employes en forme 

a title ; A treatise upon the immortality of the soul-. An introduction 

dc Litre; iiaite sar 2 immortalite -time. introduction 

to the french 32 language. The preface. The first 29 part. The end. 

francah* 9 langue. f. preface. premier partie. f. fin. 

20. Do not express the article a, an, which comes after the word 

— erprimerX a, an, ' 4 venir 125 aprcs motm. 

what; What* a pretty dog! What a funny head he has! What 
what; Quel joli 3J chien! « drdle de ttte f. / 82 

* Say ; At the head ; at the side ; at the feet ; at the leg ; at the km-c ; at the arm ; at 
the shoulder. \. B. at the is expressed in the same mariner as to the. 

t Turn, I have warmth at the hands, but I have great cold at the feet. } 2nd pers. imp. 


article and NOUN, 
a large 83 house ! What a cold 32 day ! What a beautiful woman . 

grand? 9 maison I f. 82 froid jour ! m. ffi belle M fe 

21. Do not express the article a, an, before the numbers hundred 

— 190 ex-primer* a, an, avant nombre HUNDRED 

and thousand, because the numbers have the property of articles ; 

et THOUSAND, parceque 125 propri6UL 7 • 

Can® 5 you lend me a thousand pounds ? I can 125 lend you 54 a 

Pouvoir (lch)preter 54 mille livres sterling ? pouvoir preter vous en 70 

hundred, but I can not 190 lend you 54 a thousand. We have an army 
cent, pouvoir 125 vous en 70 mille. 125 arm6e f 

of a hundred thousand men. They have a hundred field 25 pieces. 

homme. li5 pieces de campagne. 

22. Do not put any 8 article in french before a noun which serves 

190 mettre * NB - en nomm. 7 4 + servir 125 

to qualify or S04 distinguish another noun; Neptune the god of the 

& qualifier ou & distinguer un autre ; dieu 

sea. Telemachus an epic poem. Madrid the capital 32 city of Spain. 

mer. TUtmaque tjnc 32 poeme. capitale ville 5 Espagne. 

My brother is a citizen of Geneva, a small republic between France 

citoyen Geneve, rtpublique entre 5 f. 

and Switzerland. He is a counsel and a member of the great council. 

5 Suisse. f. avocat membre grand conseil. m. 

23. Do not put any 8 article before the noun which follows Mre, 

— 190 mettre* N - B - nomm. 7*1 suivre 125 

Devenir, se Faire, passer pour, when such noun serves only 

quand ce servir 125 seulement 

to qualify the nominative of these verbs; Are you a Frenchman? 

(I qualifier nominatifm. l verbe ; 133 Fran$ais ? 

No ; I am a Spaniard. He passes 125 for a Portuguese. His father was 

191 . 125 Espagnol. passer pour Portugais. itait 

a physician. He was a jew, and he is turned a christian. 

me"decin. juif: s'est fait chretien. 

24. Do not put any 8 article before the noun which follows the 

— mettre * N,B * nom m. 7i t suivre 125 

verbs Avoir and Faire, when this noun forms 125 only one idea with 

verbe m. 1 ne former qu' idie f. 

those verbs ; I am 239 in the right. She is 239 in the wrong. I have a pain 

1 X i avoir - raison. avoir - tort. avoir mal 

in my head. He made 125 me a sign. He has done me an injury. 

19 faire M signe. faire m tort. 

* Second person of the imperative. f See note (m) page 82. 

| In these instances, the noun may generally be changed into a verb ; as, Avoir mal, 
to have a pain, or to ache ; Faire offre, to make an offer, or to offer ; Faire tort, to do an 
injury, or to injure ; Faire signe, to make a sign, or to beckon, &c. 


article and NOUN. 

25. When two nouns come 125 together to express one idea, 

Quand deux nom xenir ensemble 17 ° exprimer idee, f. 

place first the noun which is the subject of discourse, with De, 

placer * le premier 7i \ sujet 7 discours, m. 

du, de ia, Des, before the second noun, agreeably to the rules on 

avant second 33 conformement regies sur 

the article; Which 80 do you admire 125 most, CatoV perseverance, or 

; Laquelle — 133 admirer le plus, Caton 7 perseverance, f. 

Caesar's 4 intrepidity? ? Will you have any London 4 porter ? No ; 

Cesar intrepidity? - 174 9 Londres porter? m. m ; 

I will drink a glass of Lisbon wine. I have lost my gold watch. 
boire 125 verre m. Lisbonne vin. perdu or montre. f. 

I had it 54 at the park gate. I am afraid 12 ** I have left it 55 

avais V pare m. porte. f. — craindre (nn) de I 55 avoir laisste 

(in the) (coffee room.) Pat this gentleman's horse into my brother's 

au caffe", m. Mettre * monsieur cheval dans 

stable. Have you seen my mother's silk gown, and my sister's newj 

e"curie. vu soie robe, f. nouveau 

bonnet? It 63 is a present from the brother of her children's guardian. 

to..? C present m. de tuteur m. 

After her husband's death, all his father's friends forsook 13 ? her. 

mari mort, f. touts . 7 ami abandonner lib l' 5i 

26. If one of the two nouns denotes 125 the use of the other, 

Si nom m. designer hisage 2 autre, 

instead of changing the order of the words, as the English do, 

au lieu changer 15i ordre mot , comme Anglais font, 

the French change the preposition, and instead of de, du, de la, des, 

Franeais 125 preposition, f. 

before the second noun, they use 125 2 ; Bring me a wine glass, 

avant second 33 , employer ; Apporter* moi 56 vin\\ verre, m. 

and a tea spoon. Take the coffee cups into the dining room. He 

the' cuiller. f. Ported caffe" tasse dans diner chambre. f. 

has broken the water pot. Where is my sister's work bag? It 02 is 

casse" eau pot. m. Oil ouvrage sac t m. II 

in my mother's bed room. Have you ever seen a steam mill? 

dans coucher chambre. f. jamais vu vapeur moulinm,? 

wind mills. 
vent moulin. 

No ; but I have seen several water mills and many 8 

191 ; mais plusieurs eau moulin NB * 

N. B. After the words Foire, Marche, we 90 use 125 au, a La, aux, 

mot on N,B# employer 

before the second noun; Will 125 you come to the horse fair? I want 
avant 3i nom ; Vouloir venir chevaux foire f. ? J'ai besoin 

to go to the poultry market. Let us go through the hay market. 

d' aller volatile i. ynarche'.m. ~ - aller § par foin 

• Second person imperative. + See note (m) page 82. % Put this adjective before the nonu. 

|| When I say to a person, bring me a wine glass, it is evident that it is the glass I want, not the wine 
so I ought to mention the glass nr>t. § Fircst person imperative. 


article and NOUN. 

27. In speaking of the produce of a country, the English denote 125 

En parlant V produit m. V a y s ) m » Anglais designer 

the name of the country by an adjective ; the French denote it by a 

nom m. par adjectif; m. Frajicais 125 le 5i 

substantive, and place 125 it after the name of the produce; Have you 
substantif, m. placer le 5i ; 133 

got any french brandy? No; but I have good Spanish wine. Do you 

270 9 France eau-de-vie ? 191 ; i0 bon Espagne vin. m. - 133 

like 125 english beer 7 ? No ; I doj£ B . not ; I prefer 125 dutch beer or 

aimer Angleterre Mere f. ? 191 ; Je nel'aime pas ; J\iimer mieux Hollande 7 

french cider.? Will 125 you have english 9 cheese, or swiss cheese? 

France cidrc m. Vouloir - 17i Angleterre fromage, m. Suisse 9 ? 

28. Before the names of countries, of (is expressed) by Be, after 

Avant nom m. pays , OF s'exprime par , 

nouns denoting dignity or authority, by du, de La, Des, after 

7 qui designent dignity f. autorite' , 

other nouns; The king of Congo. The queen of Angola. The stadtholder 

lesautres ; roi reine stathouder 

of Holland. The cortes of Spain. The petty states of Italy. The 

Hollande. cortes plur. Espagne. petits ttat Italic 

air of France is more healthful than that 80 of Italy. The soil of 

air m. f. plus salubre celui sol to.. 

Spain and Portugal would be 125 very fertile, if it was well cultivated. 

m. - etre tres fertile, s'il ctait bien cultive'. 

The south of England is warmer than the north of France. 

sud m. chaud 41 nord m. 

* The gender of nouns will no longer be marked in these exercises with the initial 
letters m. f. ; the learner must now find out the gender by the rules given page 181 and 
following, according to the termination of the noun. But observe that it is by the sound 
of the last syllable of the word, not by the spelling that we know the gender of' the noun. 
Now suppose you want to find out the gender of these twelve nouns, France, Fays, Na- 
tion, Besoin, Agrtment. delice, Vie, Secours, Peche, Abricot, Fruit, G'ibier, which you will 
find in the beginning of the following exercise. 1st. France ; this noun ends in e mute ; 
see page 183 a general rule for the mute termination, and you will find it to be fern. Fays ; 
see either the termination I page 181, or s page 183, and you will find that these termi- 
nations are both muse. Nation ; look for ION, page 182 ; you will find that nouns of this 
termination, a few excepted, are all fern. Besoin ; look for the termination oin, page 182, 
and you will find it to be masc. Agrdment ; look for knt, page 182, you will find that 
nouns of this termination are all, but one, masc. Velice ; look for the termination CE, 
page 184 ; you will find delice, masc, being an exception to the general rule, which is 
fern. Vie ; see page 183, the general rule for common names ending in e mute, and you 
will find it to he fern. Secours ; look for OUR, page 182, and you will find it to be a masc. 
termination. Peche ; look for che, page 185 ; you will not find that word in the excep- 
tions, which o,re masc. then you conclude that it is included in the general rule, which is cf 
the contrary gender. Abricot; look for or or, page 182; you will find that nouns of that 
termination are all masc. Fruit ; look for I, page 181, a masculine termination. Gibier ; 
look for ER, page 182 ; you will find it to be a nmsc termination ; and so on for any other 
noun the gender ofwhich you want to know. But impress your mind with the general 
rule, and read often the exception, that by such frequent readings you may retain the 
most useful words contained in it ; for you must not expect to retain them all at once. 
The advantage of these rules must appear obvious. By marking the gender at the end 
of the noun, or by referring to the dictionary for it, you learn only the gender of one 
word, whilst by referring to these rules, you learn the gender of a whole set of words. 


article and NOUN. 
recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules.* 
I come from France and Italy. I have been at Paris, Bordeaux, 

venir 125 Ituiie. a Wi 

Lyons, Geneva, Florence, Leghorn, Naples and Rome. How do you 

Lyon, Genhe, Livourne, Comment - 133 

like 2:8 France and Italy ? I like 125 them both 122 (very much 183 ), but 
trouver ? aimer les 51 Vune et I' autre beaucoup NB -, 

I would 125 rather live in France than in Italy. France is certainly a 

aimer mieux(kk)vivre qu' certainement 

most beautiful country. It 02 has within itself every thing that can 125 

tres beau 23 ° Elle en elle-meme tout ce qui pouvoir 

minister to the wants, comforts and delights of life. France produces 125 , 

servir (kk) besoin, agreement delice lie. produire 

almost without the assistance of art, all 29 sorts of delicious fruit ; 
presque sans secours art, tout sorte de'licieux 32 ' fruit ; 

pears, apples, grapes, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, figs, olives, 

poire, pomme, raisin, peche, abricot, prune, cerise, ftgu e > * 

a (great deal) more corn, wine and oil than the inhabitants can 125 

- beaucoup plus bit, tin 'huile que habitant 47 pouvoir 

consume; and the country abounds 185 with game, 204 poultry, and ^cattle. 
consommer ; pays abonder en igibier, volatile, betail. 

The population of France, (considering ^its extent) is immense. They™ 

si on en conside^e I'ttendue On N - B 

reckon in France twenty-five millions of souls. France is undoubtedly 

compter 125 vingt cinq dme. 125 sans contredit 

the most powerful nation in 49 Europe. It 62 alone has withstood the 

plus puissant' 29 de l' Elle seule rfoiste 202 aux 

efforts of Russia, Prussia, Germany, England, Holland, Spain, 

Russie, Prusse, Allemagne, Angleterre, Hollande, Eipugne, 

and Sardinia, that wanted to 1 ' 2 subdue it; but after twenty years of 

Sardaigne, 7 * voulaient - subjugucr la 5i ; vingt an 

uninterrupted 32 victories, that brave and warlike 32 nation was (at last) 

continue 29 victoire, 13 82 gucrrier w fut eufin 

overcome by all 29 those powers combined, 29 and compelled to submit 

accable 158 par tout puissance combine, NB - force' 29 de se soumettre 

to the greatest 89 humiliation to which men can 50 be condemned, that 88 

plus grand 7<s 2 )U ^ ssent ^ tre condamnc 158 , celle 

of obeying 202 beings whom they despise 125 . Now that I have a little 8 

151 obe'ir & etre 7i mepriser. A present que un peu^ B - 

time to myself, I am going to 172 travel. I (am fond) of 169 travelling. 

terns a moi, 155 alter 125 - voyager. aimer 125 a voyager 15 * 

• The recapitulatory exercise at the end of each part of speech, is intended to try how far the learner 
understands the rules on which he has been practising on that part of speech. An infallible way to ascer- 
tain it, is to induce him to mark under every word on that part of speech the rule by which he makes use 
of such word ; for instance, in the above exercise on the article and the noun, to make him mark under 
every noun, the rule by which, or at least to make him give a reason why he uses such and such an arti- 
cle, and -o on with the other parts of speech ; for unless he can do this, it is evident that he does not un- 
derstand that part of speech, that he has no foundation to build upon, and he must read the rules over 
again, till he is able to do it. f Do not out any article after en. . 


article and NOUN. 
recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 

In travelling one sees (so many) new* things, and every new* 

En voyageant on 99 voir 125 tant nmvelle 29 chose, chaque nouvel 

object furnishes some new idea to the mind. In a few 8 days I will 

obfist fournir 125 t nouvelle idte esprit. Dans - peu™*-jour 

go to France, and after spending some time with my friends at Paris, 

atter , apres avoir passt t avec ami a 

I will go to Switzerland, Italy, and Spain, where I will embark 125 for 
- V35 Suisse, *» , 204 ^ 0l i _ m > embarquer pour 

America. I long to see that country of liberty and independence, 

Amerique. Ilmetarde de voir 13 ^ liberty indipendance, 

where rational 32 beings may 125 communicate their ideas to their (Yellow 

on raisonnable 29 etre pouvoir communique?' x idde 

beings) without fearing 154 the holy 29 political 32 or religious inquisition. 

semblable sans craindre saint* politique an religieuse 32 

After having 15 * visited the principal 29 cities of the wise republic of the 

avoir visitd * ville sage * ripublique 

immortal Washington, I will go to Mexico, Chili, and Peru. I want 

immortel* , - aller 125 Mtzique, , Ptrou. ai envie 

to see if the tree of liberty, lately 184 planted in the new* world, 

de voir si arbre , dcpuis pen plants 213 nouveau monde, 

is 135 thriving better than it 62 has done, in the. old, and if it is 

- rtussir 125 mieux qu' il n* 7 a faire 213 ancwn, ^ 155 

spreading its enlivening 32 branches over the fertile 32 plains of that 

6tendre li5 ses vivifiant 29 sur ** plaine w 

immense and rich 32 continent. What a pleasure to see millions of 

32 riche Quel plaisir 168 voir 9 

intelligent 32 beings uniting all their energies to 1 ? break the chains of 

29 etre unir 154 29 pour rompre chaine 

superstition and despotism, those two satanic 32 enemies of reason, that 

despotisme, deux satanique 29 ennemi raison, 13 

divine spark of the supreme wisdom ! If the father of light deigns 125 

32 6tincelle 32 sagesse ! lumiere daigner 

to cast a look on the actions of men, it is surely in such a work 

172 jetter regard sur , c' surement 213 tel x ouvrage 

that he must delight to see his image employed. What is the reason 

qu' doit se complaire ct voir occupi. Quelle 

that trade is so languishing, and that money is so scarce now ? 

que commerce 125 si languissant, argent rare a present? 

(People in trade) think 125 that it is the war. Oh ! war is a dreadful 

Commercants penser que 65 guerre. Oh ! 125 affreuse 32 

thing. War is the scourge of mankind. How preferable 29 are 

chose. fliau genre humain. Combien pre'fe'rable 135 123 

peace and harmony amongst all men ! If men were reasonable, 

paii 'harmonic parmi touts I Si etaient raisonnable, 29 

* Put this adjective before the noun. f When the substance is restrained to a little, a few, SOME 
is expressed by quelquc, quelques, not by du, de la, des, which imply an unlimited number or quantity. 


article and NOUN. 
recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
they (would never go to) war. War begets 125 taxes, taxes beget 

ne se feraient jamais engendrer taxe, 125 

poverty, and plunge 125 people into misery. Thus whole 32 nations are 

pautretS, plonger peuple 213 misere. Ainsi entier** 

made 158 miserable 29 to gratify the ambition of a few vain 32 beings 

rendre 1 "° satisfaire petit nombre vairi^ etre 

whom often chance alone raises to the supreme rank, and who have 

74 souvent hazard seul dlever 125 32 rang, 7i 123 

the art of inciting men to slaughter men, by calling them 66 heroes, 
exciter 15 * a igorger en appelant ceux * heros, 

who 86 are merely the base executioners of their inhuman 32 orders. 
N>B> ne sont que vil 29 exe'cuteur inhumain 29 ordre. 

Will you come and take a walk along the river side before dinner ? 
Vouloir 133 venir (nn) faire tour sur riviere bord 206 dine'? 

The sight of the water is pleasant at this time of the year. (Is there) 
vice eau agriable terns amide. Y a-t-il 2i6 

any fish in this river ? Not much ; (there are) eels and carps, and 
poisson 1 Pas ; II y a 246 anguille carpe, 

some trouts : But we are not far from the sea, and our fish-market 

t truite : 190 loin de mer, poissonnerie 

is well supplied with sea 25 fish. We have salmon, turbot, soles, 

bien pourvu 158 de de mer poisson, saumon, sole, 

mackerel, codfish, excellent' 6 oysters, crabs, and lobsters. Let us go and 

maquereau, morue, % 31 huitre, crabe homard. - - Aller (nn) 

see your market. What an abundance of (every thing) (there is in it!) 
voir marchd. Quelle 82 abondance 107 il y a 246 - ! 

What a deal of hares, rabbits and partridges ! I see people yonder 183 

82 quantity liivre, lapin perdrix ! voir gens 229 la-bas NB> 

who are selling 125 woodcocks, snipes and (wild pigeons.) (Here are) 

75 155 ven dre btcasse, bicassine ramier. ^ 

also pheasants and quails. Do you like quails? Yes ; (very much.) We 

aussi faisan caille. - 133 aimer ? ; beaucoup. 11 

must 181 walk towards home. It c2 is dinner time. Let us walk 
faut que nous allions vers la maison. C N,B - diner heure. - - Entrer 

into tke dining room. The dinner is on the table. What have we 

218 diner salle. sur Qu' 83 i« 1 33 

for dinner? A round of beef with cabbage and carrots, and a loin 

pour f rouelle bceuf avec choux || carotte, longe 

of veal with peas and spinage. Bring me some mustard, salt, pepper, 

veau, pois £pinards.\\ Apporter 58 moutarde, se/, poicre, 

a coffee cup, and a table spoon. (How much) do they 90 sell 125 meat 

caffS tasse, soupe cuiller. Combien - 13s N - B - vendre viande 

a pound in this town? Beef and mutton sell 125 eight pence a pound, 

litre 213 ville ? mouton se vendre huit sou 

* Turn by calling heroes them who, %c. f See note f p. 282. 

X Pat this adjective after all these nouns. |j This ward is plural in french. 


article and NOUN. 
recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 

and veal seven pence. That is very dear. Yet we often buy 1!J 

veau sept C tres cher. Cependant m e,x 70 acheter 

a hundred pounds weight at a time. Corn sells 125 twelve shillings a 
cent livre - d. 12 fois. BU se vendre douze shelin 

bushel, and bread three pence a pound ; but good 33 workmen get 125 
boisseau, pain trois livre; bon i9 ouvrier gagner 

four shillings a day. Bring a bottle of wine, and some wine glasses. 
quatre jour. Apporier* bouteille vin, verve. 

Will you have french wine or Spanish wine ? I will drink a glass 

Vouloir - l 7* France Espagne f - boire 

of Port wine, if you have any. 5 * (There is) no wine in the bottle. 

, si en. (p) II n'y a 246 pas 213 

Is there no wine in the wine cellar? Go to the wine merchant, 

N'y a-t-il pas cavef Aller* chez de vin marchand, 

and tell him to send me 54 a dozen bottles of Port wine at sixty 

dire* lui de envoyer m' douzaine de « soixante 

shillings a dozen. This wine costs me five shillings a bottle. You 

shelin couter M cinq 

have a fine gold watch. It 68 has cost a hundred guineas. It 05 is a 
belle or montre. Elle couti guinie. C 

present from my cousin's guardian. Have you seen my brother's 

pre' sent cousin tuteur. vu 

powder bag? It 83 is in my father's bed room. Let us walk up to 

voudre sac? II 2l3 ' coucher chambre. - - Allev* - 

that hill. What 82 a fine prospect we have from here ! What a deal 

colline. Quelle belle perspective d' ici ! M quantiti 

of fine 33 flowers (there is) here ! Let us gather some 95 to 1 ?* 

belle 29 fleur ily a ici ! - - Cueillir* en 70 quelqaee-unes vmur 

make nosegays for your sister's children who (are so fond of) flowers. 

faire bouquet pour 7i aiment tant - 

(Here are) some violets. What a pretty rose bud ! I see 125 yonder 
Void 2i7 violeitej 82 joli 33 rose bouton ! voir lH-bas 

some hawthorns, (honey suckles) and sweet 32 briers. (That is) my sister's 

auMpine t, chevre-feuillef odorant 6glantier.\ Voila. 2 * 7 

husband's country house. Your father's house is finer 41 than that. 88 

mari de campagne maison. belle NB « 

(There are) people who are looking 125 at the flower pots which are at 

Voild?* 7 gens 2 * 9 155 regarder 201 fleur pot% 7 * d 

your mother's window. My brother's coachman fell 13 ? from his horse 

fenetre. cocker tomber de - cheval 

yesterday 183 ; He broke 13 * his leg, and put 13 ? his arm out of joint. 

hier ; NB - se casser jambe, se dimettre bras — - — 1| 

* Imperative. f Use the singular in french. 

J If you mean pots with flowers in, you must say, pots de fleurs ; if you mean pots to 
put flowers in, you must say, pots a, fleurs. \\ Out of joint is expressed in the verb dimettre. 



29. The adjective must be of the same gender, and of the same 

*adjectif doit etre meme genre , 

number as the noun which it 62 qualifies ; That young man is (in love.) 

nombre que nom ** il qualifier; (bb) jeune homme amoureux 

That young woman is (in love.) He is very young. She is very 

"bb) femme * tres jeune. 

young. He is married. She is married. 29 He is capricious. She is 

* marie. l58 * N - B « capricieux. 

capricious. Ail 29 men are capricious. All 20 women are capricious. 

Tout 7 7 

30. When an adjective qualifies several nouns of the same gender, 

Quand plusieurs genre, 

the adjective must be of the same gender as those 13 nouns and plural; 
doit que (bb) plurier ; 

Miss A. and Miss B. are (in love.) They are very happy. They 

Mademoiselle amoureux.* Elles tres heureux.* 

will soon 184 be married. That 89 makes the mother and daughter very 

- bientot etre * (bb) rendre 3 tres 

proud.* They are both 122 very capricious ; but they are civil and 

orgueiileux. Elles toutes deux * ; civil * 

obliging. That 13 lady has a gown and a petticoat very well matched. 

Migeant* (bb) dame robe jupe tres bien assorti.* 

The tea and the sugar are good, but the cream and the water are bad. 

the* sucre bon, crane eau mauvais. 

31. If an adjective qualifies several nouns of different 32 genders, the 
Si qualifier diffirenf* 

adjective must be of the masculine gender and (in the) plural number; 

doit etre masculin 3 ' 2 an plurier — ; 

Mr. A. and Miss B. are (in love.) They are very happy. Are 

Monsieur amoureux. lis 

they not married yet 183 ? They are both 122 very capricious ; but the^ 
190 marie' lss encore ? touts deux ; 

are civil and obliging. He makes 125 his son and daughter unhappy. 

citil obligeant. rendre 3 malheureux.(h) 

You have a coat and a waistcoat very well matched. The tea and 

habit veste tres assorti. th& 

the water are good, but the cream and the sugar are very bad. 

eau bon, creme sucre mauvais. 

32. Adjectives are generally 18 * placed in french after the noun; 

?Adjectif - ordinairement se placent en apres ; 

All 29 the polite people in 49 Europe speak the french 2 * language. 

Tout poli" gens m. de I' parler francais langue. 

(I am told) that it is a very difficult language. Eatf a piece of new 

onm'a dil 9i que c' difficile Manger morceau* frais 

* See note (g) p. 198, how the feminine gender of adjectives is formed. + Imperative. 



bread, and drink a glass of white wine. England is a delightful 

pain, boire * verve 8 blanc vin. Angleterre dilicieux 

country; but (there is) always a cold and damp air. (There are) 

230 ; ilya™ froid humide «*« 

charming 29 women, opulent 9 cities, fruitful 9 lands, and pleasant 

charmanti 9 , opulent* 9 ville, fertile* 9 terre, agrtable 2 - 

country 25 houses. I like 126 their simple 29 and cordial 29 manners. 

de campagne 9 maison. aimer 14 simple cordial t mani&re. 

33. The adjectives Beau, Bel, Belle, Bon, Grand, gtos, jeune, joli, 


luauvais, jneilleur, Moindre, petit, rout, vieux, vieille, and the 

adjectives of number premier, second, Sfc. are generally 184 placed 

- ordinairement se placeja 

before 206 the noun ; (That is) a large house. It 62 is in a fine situation. 

avant ; Voila ** grand 29 Elle 213 belle situation. 

It belongs to a young man. He has lately married an old woman. 

52 appartenir jeune depuis peu SpousS vieille 

He 65 is a big man. She is a little woman. They have two pretty children. 

C gros 65 petit 29 deuxjoli 29 

34. If two adjectives requiring different 38 places qualify the same 

Si deux (qui demandent) different 29 9 qualifier meme 

noun, they 62 (are placed) both 122 after the noun, joined together by 

, Us se placent touts deux , joint 29 ensemble par 

H conjunction ; (that is) a large convenient house. It 62 is in a fine 
covjonction ; 247 grand 29 commode. Elle 213 belle 

healthy situation. It belongs to a profligate young man. He has 

saine 62 appartenir de'bauche' w 39 

lately married an old rich woman. He 65 is a great man. He is a tall 

depuis peu e'pouse' riche C (i) 65 (i) 

man. They are 10 very honest 29 people. They are very civil 29 people. 

63 sont tres honnete (i) gens. 65 honnete (i) 9 

35. The adjectives of number (are placed) in french as in english, 

nombre se placent en comme anglais, 

before the noun ; The first day of the week. The third month of the 

206 ± jour semaine. mois 

year. The fourth year of the reign of the fifth monarch. 

annie. regne monarque. 

36. To distinguish some personage from other persons of the same 

170 distinguer j| personnage a" autres personne meme 

name, the English use 125 the adjectives of number ; the French use 

nom, Anglais employer 8 ; Francais 125 

* Imperative, f See note (g) page 198, how the feminine gender of adjectives is formed. 
X See the adjectives of number, p. 178. || See note t page 282. 



the substantives, and leave oat the article ; Henry the fourth was a great 

substantif, omettre 125 - Henri * g^and 

man and a good king; he succeeded Henry the third brother to Charles 

roi ; succe'der d, * de 

the ninth, the greatest villain that^ 4 ever reigned 136 over a civilized 

# u sce'lerat quif ait 50 jamais re'gnt' sur civilise 32 

people. Henry the eighth, after having 154 been the friend of Pope 

228 Henri * apres avoir 6t6 ami 7 Pape 

Clement the seventh, became the greatest enemy of the papal 32 autho- 

* devenir u ennemi papal 29 auto- 

rity, and delivered England (from the) shameful yoke of an Italian priest. 
riti, dMivrer 5 du honteui 3 ' 2 joug Italien 32 pretre. 

37. The adjectives of measure and 204 dimension which (are placed) 

8 mesure dimensioyi 74 t se placent 

after the number in english, (are placed) before the number in french, 

nombre en se placent 20s , 

and are always followed by the preposition Be ; Our garden is two 

toujours suiiis de jardin 

hundred paces long, and a hundred and fifty broad. It 62 is surrounded 

* pas long, 21 | large. II entouri 

by a wall twelve feet high, two feet thick, and a hundred yards long. 

d' mur * pieds haut, Spais, 21 verge 

N. B. These sentences are more commonly 184 expressed in french 

(bb) phrase - plus communement s'expriment en 

by the substantive of dimension in this manner ; Our garden has two 
par substantif 8 de (bb) manure ; 

hundred paces of length, and a hundred and fifty of breadth. It c2 is 
pas longueur, 2l ^ largeur. II 

surrounded by a wall of twelve feet of height, and of two of thickness. 

entoure' d' pieds hauteur, epuisseur. 

But observe that with the adjective (you 181 must) use the verb £tre> 

observez qu' avec U n.b. f aut employer verbe , 

and with the substantive the verb Avoir ; thus, Our garden is long of 

; ainsi, long 

two hundred paces, and broad of a hundred and fifty ; or, our garden 

pas , large 2 * f ; ou, 

has two hundred paces of length, and a hundred and fifty of breadth. 

pas longueur, largeur. 

38. The adjective is 242 not to be separated (from the) noun by vn, 

doit 19 ° - etre se'pare' du par 

une y as it 68 is sometimes by a, an, in english ; this article must be 
comme il F° est quelque fois A, an, en ; 2 doit se 

placed in french before these words ; Did 136 you ever see such a man? 

placet' francuis (bb) mot ; Avez jamais vu tel ? 

* See numbers, page 176. t See note (m) page 82. t See note * page 177. 



I never saw 136 so tall* a a woman. It is not so great a thing-. 

190 ai vu si grand Ce 199 si grand™ chose? 

39. Many 8 adjectives have the property of substantives in french, 

Beaucoup* 1 - 3 - propria 7 en f 

and render 125 useless the words man, woman, people, which the 
rendre inutiles mot MAN, woman, people. 74 * 

(corresponding 32 ) adjectives require in english ; An English man. 

qui les reprhentent demander Anglais 

A French woman. He is a drunken man ; a covetous man. She is 

Francaise . 65 ivrogne ; avare. 6S 

an idle woman. They are ungrateful people. Learned men 

paresseux ( g) . 65 smt i ngrat 9 # Savant? 

are esteemed. 29 Ignorant people are despised. 29 Take notice of 

eslim6. n.b. Ignorant? mtprisi. N.B. ^aites attention a 

these words in reading authors, and in the dictionaries. 
( 00 ) en lisant tauteur, 213 dictionnaire. 

40. By leaving out the article before 208 the names of distinction and 

En omettant - avant nom 8 distinction 

of profession which follow the verbs Eire, nevenir, se Faire, passer 

profession * suivre verbe 

pour, these nouns have the property of adjectives ; My brother is a 

, (bb) nom propria 7 

colonel, and my father is a general. He is the commander in chief. 

Lionel, giniral, II commandant en chef. 

That man was a tailor. He lately 104 turned a school 25 master. He 

140 tailleur. depuis ptu s' est fait dcole maitre. 

passes for a doctor. His son was a bookseller; now he is a surgeon. 

passer pour me'decin. 140 libra ire ; chirurgien. 


e words which serve to qualify nouns, serve also (by the) 
• s 7-t* servir d. qualifier nom 7 t servir aussi au 

means of certain particles to compare their qualities. 

moyen 8 certaines(i) particule d. en comparer les l7 qualite*. 

41. The comparative of superiority which (is formed) in english by 

comparatif 8 superiority * se forme t en en 

adding er to the adjective, (is formed) in french by plus before the 

ajoutant ER * , se forme en par 206 

adjective ; Spain 5 is larger than France ; but France is richer and 

; 2 Espagne grand 29 que 5 ; riche 

more powerful than Spain. This 13 field is better than that, 88 because 

puissant 29 . N - B « champ X N ' B "> V arce Q u> 

it 62 is better cultivated. Your watch is finer than mine, because it 6S is 

il $ cultivL montre belle 85 elle 

newer and dearer; but mine is better, and will last longer than yours. 

neuve, cher 29 ; 85 % — durer long terns 85 . 

• See note (m) p. 82. " t See N. b. under note (ii) p. 235. i See note (b) p. 72. 



42. The comparative of inferiority, formed in english by less, or 

comparatif 8 infdnorite, form£ en par less, ou 

not so before the adjective, (is formed) in french by Mollis or pas si 

not so 20S 2 , - se forme* par ou 

before the adjective; Spain 5 is not so rich, nor so powerful as France. 
2 adjecHf; Espagne 190 » ni 29 5 

That 13 field is less fruitful than this. 83 Your sister is not so handsome, 

NB - champ fertile *•>»• belle, 

nor so rich as your cousin, but she is not less amiable. 

cousine, aimable. 

43. The comparative of equality, formed in english by as before 

tgulite, en par as 

he adjective and as after it 64 , (is formed) in french by aussi before the 

AS - , - se former 125 par 

adjective, and Que after; Spain is not by much as populous as France. 

, ; 2 19 ° de beaucoup peuple'' 29 5 

That 13 field is as fruitful as this. 80 Your sister is as amiable as your 

»* champ fertile V - B - aimable 

cousin. My watch is as good 29 as yours, but it is not so fine. 

cousine. montre Ion (g) 85 , 62 belle. 

44. The superlative, formed in english by adding most or st to 

superlatif, forme* en ajoutant most ou ST 

the adjective (is formed) in french by adding the article Le, La, Les, dm, 

2 se former 125 * en (hhj 

De la, Des, fyc. to the comparative 32 particles plus, moins ; Fiance is 

comparative 29 particule ; 5 

the most populous country in Europe. China is the largest empire 

peuptt* 230 49 5 t 5 Chine grand 

in the world. (This is) my finest book. If it 68 is not the finest, it 

« vionde. 2 * (I) beau S' il , c " 2 

is the best. It is the dearest book that I have ever bought. 

meillenr. 65 cher' Ai 7i 50 jamais achete. 

45. Do not express the article, and place the adjective or noun 

- 19u exprimerX , placer 

after the verb, in the following 32 comparative 32 sentences and others 

verbe, suivant 29 " phrase autres 

like; The more you study 125 , the more you learn. The more I see 

semblables ; 6ludier, apprendre. voir 

her, the less I like her. The more T know men, the less I esteem 

54 , aimer 5i connaUre 7 , estimer 

them. The more difficult a thing is, the more honourable it is. 

54 difficile chose , honorable n 

1 think that the more 8 pains I take, 125 the less 8 progress I make. 

penser (bb)*- B - plus N,H - peine prendre, mains*"*' progres faire. 

* See N. B. (ii) page 235. + See note t p. 65. $ Second pers. plur. imperative* 




46. The comparative 32 particles plus, moins, si, Aussi, must 125 

comparative 29 particule , devoir 

(be repeated) before every 104 adjective ; She is more studious 29 and 

( kk) se rtptier 206 chaque . ; studieux (g) 

dutiful than her sister. She is already as wise and clever as her 

obtissant* dtjd. sage habile 

mother ; but she is so proud and affected that nobody likes 125 her. 
; fier™ affects 9 ? aimer 5i 

47. Que after the comparative 32 words plus, moins, moindre, meil- 

comparutif 29 mots 

leur, mieux, pis, pire, requires Ne before the verb which follows it 54 ; 

, demander S06 ? 4 suivre le ; 

He has lost more than he has gained. He is richer than he was. He lives 

perdre gagner. riche 14 ° vivve 

better than he did 139 before. He is less happy than people imagine. 

(b)p.72 faire 206 NB - heureux " N - fl - s'imaginer. 

N. B. Ne (is left out) if the verb which follows Que is in the infi- 
s'omet (ii) NB - 7* suivre d. 3 infi- 

nitive, or if it is preceded by a conjunction j it is better to read than 

nitif, ou 62 pr6cid6 <Z' conjonction ; il vaut mieux 17 * 2 lire 

be idle. He is more studious now than when he was at school. 
(II) oisif. studieux d prfoent u0 <J Hcole. 

48. Than, by, after more, less, used 15 ? to denote a quantity, 

than, BY, apres MORE, LESS, employ 6s 1G9 designer quantitf, 

not 2. quality, (are expressed) by Be, not by que or par ; This does 

nc:i quality, - s'exprimer 125 , non ou ; 89 - 

not cost less than fifty guineas. It is too dear by half. I would not 
190 couter guinh. C trop moitU. 

sell it 54 for less than sixty. I have not had it 55 more than a year. 

vendre le & eu /' an. 

49. In, after a superlative (is expressed) in the same manner as 

in, superlatif - s'exprimer 125 de mime maniere que 

of, agreeably to the rules on the article ; (That is) the cleverest boy 

of, conformement regie sur 2 ; 24jr habile garcon 

in the school. His father is the most learned man in the kingdom. 

2 6cole. savant royaume. 

His mother is the most sensible 32 woman in the whole town. 

spirit uel " ^ 

50. An adjective (in the) superlative, followed by one of the relative 82 

adjectif au , suivi de relatif 29 

words Qui, Que, Dont, requires the following verb (in the) subjunctive; 

mot , demander suivaiit 32 au subjonctif ; 

Mr. A. is the best friend I have. He is the most honest man I 
Mons. meilleur (s) 65 honnete (s) 

know. His sister is the handsomest woman I have ever seen. 

comiaitre. belle (s) jamais vue 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 

What 82 charming weather! How 185 beautiful the country 230 looks! 
Quel charmant terns ! Que belle 185 campagne Hre I 123 

How attractive nature is, when it is arrayed in its verdant charms! 

185 attrayant 7 y quand c2 orni de ses verdoyant charme ! 

How sweet solitude is to innocent minds ! Let ns go and take 

135 • doux (g) "icamr ! - - aller (nn) faire 

a (short walk) in the neighbouring fields, (whilst we wait) till your 

fot«- 263N - B - 213 voisin . champ, en attendant que 

sister is a8 ready. How 135 is 241 your aunt? She is still very ill. 

soit pret. Comment se porter tante ? encore malade. 

I am sorry (for it.) She is a virtuous, prudent and generous wo- 

fach.6 en 5i 65 vertueux,(gj genereux(g) 

man. Her daughter is very handsome, but she is too proud. She 

fille belle, 5l trop orgueilleux(g) 

is as haughty as if she were the finest woman in England ; yet 

fier u0 ; dependant 

as she is richer and handsomer than her cousin, she will 41 sooner get 
comme belle, cousine, f. - tot 183 trouver 

a husband ; but virtue is more precious than riches. (Something 

mari ; 7 vertu precieux(g) 7 richesse. (llfaut 

must be allowed) for her age ; she is so young. She is older than I 52 
passer quelque chose) & 2 age ; jeune. age* moi 

am. She is as old as my sister who is married. She is 239 not less 

t age" 7i ■marie'. c N - B ' 

than twenty. I do not think that she is 999 more than eighteen. She 

vingt ans. - penser en 7 ° ait 145 

is taller by two inches, but she is not so handsome by much. She has 

grand pouce, belle 

been spoiled in her infancy. Your sister is the most lovely girl I 
gutS 2 enfance. aimable (s) 

know. She is so diligent and* 6 attentive. You do not learn so well 
connaitre. attentif. (g) - apprendre 

as she does, because you are not so studious. My sister learns better 

f , parceque " studieux.( g) (b) p.72. 

than I do, because she has a better memory than I have, but I take 

92 + , memoire 52 t , 

more pains 8 than she does. I found 136 my exercise easier than I thought. 
peine**' faire.\ ai trouvi theme ais6 penser. 1 * 9 

It is better than I expected. It is less difficult than you imagined. 
attendre. uo c2 moins difficile s'imaginer. 1 ") 

My son has made greater progress than I expected. (There are) 

io 4i progres ^etphais 140 21G 

authors who write better than they speak ; there are others who speak 
*auteur 125 t 125 m 

* Sea note * p. 281. f This auxiliary verb is generally left out in trench ; if you ex- 
press it, vcu must follow rule 47. | See note (b) page 72. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
better than they write. The more I examine this affair, the more 

i 25 « (bb ) affaire, f. 45 

puzzling 89 I find it G2 . Give that 89 to your eldest 32 sister and this 03 

embarrassant 54 (bb) ain6 ** * (bb) 

to your younger brother. Your writing- is bad, but this 88 is worse, 
jeune 33 * tcriture f. ( bb) pire t 

and that 88 is the worst of all. This ditch is nine feet deep, and 
(bb) t tout 29 , (bb) fosst X pied profond, 

six feet broad. That tree is a hundred yards high, and ten feet 

% [large. (bb) *arbre 21 verge haut, 

thick. London 25 bridge, now the finest bridge in England, is seven 
fpais. 7 pont, d. present beau $ 

hundred and sixty-six feet long, and fifty-six feet broad; the center 

§ pieds , large du milieu 

25 arch is one hundred and fifty feet broad, and thirty-two feet high. 

arche f. 21 § , haut. 

Napoleon the first succeeded 202 Louis the 16th ; Louis the 18th succeeded 
a 1S6 5UCcA^a ; 136 a 

Napoleon the 2nd, king of Rome, and second emperor of the French. I 

, roi , M empereur 

want a watch ; but I should not like to give more than ten guineas (for it.) 
260 montre ; - aimer & donner guinie e« 54 

You can not get a good one for less than twenty. I will not give more 
(kk) avoir en 5i it mains — en 70 

than twelve. The best quality a man can 125 have, is to be civil and 

qualiU(s) 50 pouvoir (kk), de civil 

obliging to the most uncivil and disobliging people 7 . The more difficult 
obligeant incivil desobligeant gens*' 29 difficile 

a thing is, the more merit (there is) in doing 169 it M . The more we 

chose , mirite 246 & faire 62 

contemplate the beauties of nature, the less reason we have to (be 

contempler beautd 7 , mains sujet de nom 

proud.) The richer and the more elevated in dignity we are, the 

enorgiieillir. riche ilevd en dignite , 

less 9 pride we ought to have, and the more we are obliged to be 

mains 1 *'*- orgueil devoir 172 avoir, oblige", d' 

just and reasonable; but most men (of these days) remember 

juste raisonnable ; la plupart des d'aujourd'hui ne se souvenir 130 

that they are rich and powerful, only to 170 oppress the poor and 

(bb)*-*- puissant, que pour opprimer pauvre 

the weak, and to be more unjust and unreasonable. 
faible, 17 ° etre xnjuste deraisonnable. 

X See the numbers page 176. * Eldest and younger cannot be expressed by the 

comparative nor superlative in french, they must be expressed by the positive, for, as there 
is only one eldest and one younger there can be no comparison, t See note * page 202. 

§ See note * page 177. 



51. When I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, are the nominative 

Quand I, THOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, YOU, they, nominatif 

of a verb, they (are expressed) I by je, thou by tu, he, it, m. by il, 
verbs, ils s'expriment* I par , thou , HE, it, m. 

she, it, f. by Elk; we by nous, you by vous, they by ils, masc. 

SHE, IT, f. ; WE , YOU , THEY , masc. 

by Elks, fern. ; as, I learn 125 ffrench. Doest thou speak k* well ? 
, fern. ; comme, apprendre francais,m. - 133 parler 62 bieu? 

He has not learned long. It 09 is not difficult. She is too idle. 

long-terns. difficile. trop paresseux. (g) 

We have not time. You will never learn. They are too fond of play. 
Hems. »« 125 _ 183 aimer d j ouert 

52. I (is expressed) by moi, thou by toi, he by lui, they by 
I - s'exprimer 125 * par , thou , he , THEY 

eux, m. by Elles, f. if two of these pronouns are the nominative of 

, deux 

the same verb ; as, You and I will learn ffrench. He and I will 

verbs; , 12 7 - apprendre - 

learn together. You and they have learned before: Or, when they 

127 ensemble. 12 ' auparavant : Ou, ils 

are joined to another substantive ; as, My brother and I have begun 
joindre substantif ; , 12 ' commence? 

to learn it 54 . He and his sister learn very well. They and their 
0. le 128 tres 

master always speak french together: Or, when there is no 8 verb in 

184 120 ; Ou, il n'y a pas * B - 

the sentence to agree with these pronouns ; as, Who learns best? 

phrase pour s'accorder (bb) > > lemkuxl 

Ho or I ? It 62 is I who learn best. It 62 is he who learns best. 

? N.a. 123 k.b. 123 

53. When a personal 32 pronoun is the nominative of several verbs 

personnel pronom plusieurs 

it is generally 103 repeated with each verb; I believe and will always 
82 - ordinah ement se r£p6ter 1& * chaque ; croire - iai 

believe that it is so. He always promises, but does not keep his 

que cela uinsi. ie * promettre, - 19 ° tenir 

word. We have seen it 55 , and will see 125 it again. 
purole. vu le , revolt 51 t 

54. When the pronouns we, thee, us, you, him, her, it, them, 


lire governed by a verb, the pronouns Me, re, nous, vous, se, Le, lu, 
Hgir 138 verbe,, j.ui, Lcur, y, eii, which represent them, (are placed) in french 

?* representer 6i , - se placer 125 * en 

■•* See n.b. under note (ii), pago 235, f Again is expressed by re before roir. 



immediately before that verb; Your brother does not love me,, He 

immtdiatement 206 (bb) verbe; - aimer XZb 

never comes to see us. Does he not speak to you, when he meets 

190 venir 172 voir. - 133 parler C°) , rencontrer 

you? My mother will not allow me to speak to him. I will write 

? vouloir (kk)permettre de (o) - tcrire 

to her. I will scold her for using- you so. Do not say (any thing , 

Co) - gronder de traiter ainsi. - dire i25 " 

to her (about it.) She would use me worse (for it.) She would beat 

Co) en — traiter 2^ usma ^ en59 ~ battr* 

me. If I knew it, I would not suffer it. I must 181 reconcile then:.. 
Si savais le, - souffrir II fdut queje reconcilie 

I will invite them to come to see me. I will speak to them to-day. 

- inviter a venir 17 ' 2 voir - (o) aujourd'hui, 

55. If the pronouns me, Te, nous, vous, se, Le, La, Les, lux, Leur, i 

eh are governed by a tense compounded of the auxiliary verbs avoir 

rdgir 15 * par terns compose* auxiliaire 32 

or etre, and of a past 32 participle, they must (be placed) before 

on , passe participe, 62 devoir C^k) se V^ acer 209 

the auxiliary verb, not betweeu the auxiliary and the participle ; Have 
32 , non entre ; 

you seen my brother? I have seen him, but I have not spoken 

voir 1 , 190 parler 

to him. My mother has forbidden me to speak to him. Has he 

Co) difendre de (o) 

returned you the book which you had lent him ? No, he has not 

rendre livre 7i aviez preter * ? 19x 19 ° 

returned it 62 yet 183 . Has he read it 68 ? I do not think 821 he has 

rendre le encore. lire f ? - penser li5 

opened it 02 . I am afraid 221 he 195 has lost it 68 . He has told me that 

ouvrir t - craindre 146 perdre t dire que 

you have given it him. I have not given it him. It 62 is not mine. 
donner * 2 * ™ * II ** 

I have borrowed it 62 from a friend. He has asked me for 201 it again. 
emprunter f d redemander - t t 

If the pronouns me, thee, us, you, him, her, it, them are 


governed by the imperative of a verb, consider whether the sentence 

rigir 158 par imp6rafif , consider er si phrase 

commands, or whether it 62 forbids. || 
commander, ou $i f dSfendre. 

d &ee note (f) p. 79. t See note (h) p. 80. £ Again is expressed by re before demander. 

|| The verb commands when the action spoken of is to be done ; the verb forbids when 
the action spoken of is not to be done ; so, Wait, is a command ; Do not wait, is a for- 
biddance or prohibition. 



56. If you command, place the pronouns after the verb, and express 

, placer* apres vede, exprimer' 

me by Moi; thee and thyself by toI ; Wait for me. Get thyself ready. 
, thee thyself ; Attendre' 201 Appreter 

57. If you forbid, place the pronouns before the verb, agreeably to 

dtfendre, * avant , suivant 

the general 32 rule, and express me by me; thee and thyself by re; 

general 29 rdgl'e, ME ; THEE THYSELF ; 

Help 258 me. Do not help me. Help 258 yourself; help him; help her; 

Aider* - 190 Servir* f ; servir ; ; 

help them. Do not help him; do not help her; do not help them. 

servir - servir ; - ; — 

Wait for me. Do not wait for me. Bring me a clean 32 plate. 

Attendee* 201 - 201 Apporter* blanche assiette. 

Do not give me such a dirty plate. Bring it 62 here. Do not bring 

- si x sale 32 * la id. — 

it here. Shew it him. Do not shew it him. Take it. Do not 
62 Montrer*™ lui.% 62 162 Prendre 62 

take it. Hear me. Hear him. Do not hear him. Stop her. Do 
82 Ecouter* - Arreter - 

not stop her. Let 246 her go. Do not let her go. Let them alone. 

Laisser aller. - 248 tranquilles. 

58. If the verb which governs the personal pronouns is followed by 

regir personnel 32 suivi d' 

a preposition expressed in french, the pronouns (are placed) after the 

exprim.6 157 en , - se placer 1 ' 25 

preposition, and me (is expressed) by moi ; thee by roi; him by Lid; 

, ME -s'eiprimer 125 par ; thee ; him 

her by Elle; them by eux, masc, by Elles, fern.; Come near me. 

HER ; them , , , ; s'approcher f de 

Have you thought of 200 me ? I always think of you. I was coming 

penser d. ? 184 penser h - venir 155 

to you, when they obliged me to go to her. You are laughin" 155 

a , obliger d' aller d, - se moquer t 

at 200 me. Do you know what she says of him ? He does not care 

de - savoir 125 w dire de 1 - se soucie r 

for 200 her nor for what she says of him. They have enquired 
d' ni de w sar t s'informer 

after you. Have you applied to them ? I will not trust 202 them. 

de 200 23 7t s'adresser a ? vouloir me fier & 

What reason have you to mistrust 202 them ? I do not speak of them. 
82 raison de vous mifier d' ? 

* The second person singular of the imperative is seldom used in french, except through 
familiarity or contempt; the second person plural is used, though speaking to a single 
person; so instead of saying Place, we say Placez; instead of Attends, we say Alteudcz. 

t See reflective verbs, pages 114, 115. * See note (f ) page 79. 



59. If several pronouns are governed by the same verb, they must 

plusieurs regir 15a par , 62 devoir 

(be placed) together in the following order; The pronouns of the 

(hk) se placer ensemble 313 qui suit 32 ordre ; 

first 29 person me, nous; those of the second re, vous t and that of the 
33 personne ; OT second 29 , w 

third se, (are placed 125 ) before any of the other pronouns ; Le, La, Les, 

- se placer* 206 touts - cmtm ; 

(are placed) before lui, Leur, y, eii; lui, Leur before y, eji; and y 

-se placer™* ; 206 

before eji ; I have something to tell you. What 83 is it ? I can not tell 
\ • "a dire (y) ? pouvoir (kh) 

it you now. I will tell it you (by and by.) Why will 1 ? 3 not you 

le a present. - tantot. Pourquoi vouloir 

tell it me now? I have a letter for you. Your brother has sent it 62 

? lettre pour envoy'ce f 

me to bring it you. Where is it ? Give it me. Why will 1 ? 3 not 

55 170 apporter t Oil 62 ? Donner 6 ' 2 60 vouloir 1 ' 25 

you give it me? If you do not give it me immediately, I will 1 ? 3 not ask 

62 ? - 62 aussitot, - ne 

you for 201 it again, and I will tell him 102 of it. Here it is 247 . Shew 

- || plus, 190 - lui || le La void *- fl - Montrer 

it 52 me. I will return it to you presently". I have brought you some 

00 - rendre oi - tout & Theure. apporter 55 9 

fruit too. Give us some. What 83 ! you had promised it to us, and 

aussi. (p) Quoi ! aviez promettre 0i - , 

you give it to them. I offered 130 it to you first and you would not 

w - ai offert 62 - 35 piemierement avez 13a 

have it. I will send you some to-morrow. Do not forget to send 
voulu 55 - envoyer (p) demain. ~ oublier de 

me some, for it is long 246 since I 195 have eat any. I will? not. 

(p) , car il y a long-terns que mange" (p) V - B - 

60. When a verb in the imperative governs several pronouns, if 

Qitand il impdratif rtgir plusieurs , 

Moi, toI are (in the) number, these two pronouns (are placed) for 

du , 13 - se placer 1 ' 25 * pour 

the sake of melody after the other pronouns ; Give it me. Bring 

- - mdlodie autres ; Donner 125 Amener 

her to me. Send them to me there. Send some to me there. 

— Envoyer — y. (e) p. 74. — 

* See n. B. under note (ii) p. 235. t See note * p. 78. % See note (h) p. 80. 

|| We do not say in french, Demander quelqu'un pour une chose, to ask somebody for a 
thing ; the thing is always the object of the verb, and the person the object of a preposi- 
tion ; we say, Demander une chose a quelqu'un, to ask a tiling to somebody, the same as 
we say, Donner une chose a quelqu'un, to give a thing to somebody. Nor do we sav, 
Dire une personne d'une chose, to tell a person of a thing, we say, Dire une chose a. une pe , •- 
tonne, to tell a thing to a person. 



61 . Except when either 128 of these pronouns meets the pronoun 

Excepte Vim ou I'autre rencontrer 

EH; for, me some, me of it, of them (are expressed) by Men ; 

, car, ME some, ME of it, of them - s'exprimer 125 par , 

thee some, thee of it, of them are expressed 125 by T'en, 

THEE SOME, THEE of IT, of THEM - (u) N - B « , 

whether they come before or after the verb; He gave me some. 
soit que renir 203 ; donner (p) 

Give me some. He put 13 ? me (in mind) (of it.) Put me (in mind) 

(p) faire souvenir en Faites souvenir 

of it. He brought thee some. Recall to thyself the difficulties of it. 

53 apporler (p) Rappeler - difficult^ 59 

62. As there are only two genders in french, the masculine and 
Comme il n'y a que genre en , masculin 

the feminine, the neuter 32 pronouns it, they, tiiem (are expressed) 

feminin, neutre™ IT, THEY, THEM - (ii ) NB - 125 

by il, Elk, lis, Elks, Le, La, Les, agreeably to the gender and 

suivant - 

number of the noun to which they refer 125 , the same as when (speak- 
3 76 serapporter, de meme que on parte 

ing) of ^persons; Look at that tree; it is well blossomed, yet 

personnel Begarder Wl 2 arbre ; fleuri, cependant 

it produces no fruit. 8 I will cut it down, if it does not bear 

produire 190 NB - abutire, (li) p. 80. * , - . porter 

fruit this year. (These are) 10 very fine trees, but they are too 
N-B- annee. 247 tres 3S , trop 

young to bear fruit yet 183 . They do not bear fruit 8 , when they are 
jeune** pour 9 rf#«. N - B - - N,B *, 

so young. (That is) a fine flower. It is a rose. Will you have 1 ? 4 

s j 29 247 jleur. 65 Vouloir 

it? How sweet it smells! I will take it to my mother. 

(li)p.80. l85 boni sentir! ™ 25G (h) p. 80. 

She is so 183 fond of roses. Take some of these cherries ; they are 

- tant aimer - 7 Prendre 93 (bb) cerise; 

very good. They are not quite ripe 29 yet 183 They will be better 
tres 29 lout (i fait mur encored- (b)p.72. 

in another week. It 02 is very pleasant to have a garden near one's 
2!3 une semuine. N,B - agrdable d' jardin prSsdesa 

house. It 02 is the greatest 33 pleasure I have. Was it 62 you who 
N-B- « plaisir(s) 50 Etait NB - 

sent 120 us some fruit the other day ? No, it 02 was my brother. I 
envoyer 137 autre jour? Non, NB - 14 ° 

thought* 81 it 68 was you. Did you like 187 it 8 *? Yes, it was very nice. 
penser** N B - - trouvo- ban ? . 110 bon. 

* To COT is Caliper ; To cut down is Abutire, not Couper en has. 

t $weel is here used adverbially, so is fiat, and it does not require any agreement. 



63. Though lui, lcut, (are used) for all 29 beings that? 4 have life 
Quoique , , - s' employ er 1 ^ pour litre (m) p. 82. 7 vie 

such as brutes and plants, as likewise for ideal 32 substances in which 

tels que brute 7 7 plante, et aussi ideal 29 7 dans 76 

we suppose an active principle, such as 'heaven, providence, fortune, 

supposer actif 32 principe, telles que ciel, 7 , ? , 

some virtues and vices ; as, Take the horses into the stable, and bring 

* vertu 3 ; comme, 256 213 Scurie, 258 

them 58 some hay. This tree is dying 155 , give 162 it a little 8 water. 

(f)p. 79 . 9 foin. 2 arbre -se mourn, donner 56 peu NB * eau. 

Most men worship love; they sacrifice every thing to it ; They 

La plupart des adorer 130 amour ; sacrifier 107 5i ; lis 

can not be used for lifeless 32 beings which are 92 commonly 183 called 

- (kk) s' employer sans vie 7 que on ordinairement appeler 

things ; in speaking of things, to. it, to them are expressed by Y ; 

chose ; en parlant 7 , to IT, to THEM - s'exprimer 125 ; 

Geography is a pleasant study ; you should give some time to it. You 

GSographie 7 agrtable 32 Stude ; 176 * terns 5i 

do not pay sufficient attention to it. I want to learn mathematics ; but 

faire assez 8 NB> M 260 7 mathhnatique ; 

I can not a pply to them. I have not time to stick to them. 

(hh)m , appliquer 59 7 de mattacher 59 

64. Lui, Elle, euoc, eIUs, after a preposition, (are said) only of 

proposition ne se disent que 

persons and beings that are 98 generally 183 personified ; such as heaven, 

ipersonne 7 que on g&nhalement personnifier 125 ; tels que 7 , 

providence, virtue, fcove, &c. ; as, If men knew 140 virtue, they would 

7 , 7 vertu, 7 amour, §c. ; comme, 7 connaitre 7 , 

burn with love for it, and f own tna t (there is) no 8 real happiness 

binder d' pour , avouer que 246 N - B - vrai% bonheur 

without it. In speaking of brutes or things, the preposition is gene- 

sans En parlant 7 brutes ou 7 , - 133 

rally changed into an adverb, and the pronoun (is left out); as, 

se changer 125 en - adverbe, - s'oinettre 125 ; comme, 

That chair is broken, do not sit 57 upon it. The rails are 

(bb) chaise rompu 158 , - s'asseoir || dessus barreau 

newly painted, do not lean 57 against them. Stand 55 (by the side) 

fraichement peint 29 , - s'appuyerW contre Se tenir || a cote*' 

of them. I have made a terrace in my garden, a grotto under it, and 

terrasse 213 , grotte dessous, 

planted trees all round it. I am going to make a water spout (in the) 

plants 9 arbre autour 155 172 d'eau 25 jet ' au 

middle of it, and a canal through it. Have you ever been in it ? 

milieu , d. travers. jamais dedans ? 

* See note -j page 282. ■}■ "Would is here understood in english. 

t Pat this adjective before the noun. || See the imperative ^>f a reflective verb, p. 114. 



65. When he, she, it, they are the nominative of the verb be, 


followed by a substantive, they 62 are generally expressed by Ce ; 
suivi d' , Us - 18a s'eiprimer™ par 

Do you know that gentleman who is coming (this way?) He is a 

- 133 connaUre (bb) monsieur - venir 155 (paricif) 

philosopher. He is a very learned man That is his wife who is with 

philosophe. tres savant C est la famine 

him. She is a very haughty 32 woman. Is that their house ? Yes, 
58 hautain 29 femme. Est-ce la ? Qui, 

it is. It is a very good 20 house. They are very respectable people 9 . 

70 33 32 g enSm 

66. He, she, they, him, her, them are sometimes used 125 
he, she, they, him, her, them - quetquefois 183 s' employer 

without reference to a noun expressed in the discourse, but with 
rapport exprim6 213 discours, avec 

reference to the words man, woman or people understood ; then they 
mot MAN, WOMAN ou PEOPLE sous-entendus ; alors : 

(are expressed) he, him by celui ; she, her by celle; they, them 
- s'exprimer 125 he, him par ; SHE, HER ; they, them 

by ceux; Happy he who lives, i. e. the man who lives contented with 

; Heureux vivre content 200 

his lot. Providence never abandons him who does not abandon himself. 

sort. 7 190 abandonner - s'abandonner lui-meme. 

She who refuses a husband, is not always sure to 168 find another. 

refuser mari, sur 2 * en 70 trouver un autre. 

N. B. The English, in this kind of sentences, often place 125 the 

Anglais, 213 (bb) sorte ° phrase, Wi placer 

words he, she, &c. and the relative who, whom, which? 4 follows 
HE, SHE, §c. relatif who, whom, (m) p. 82. suivre 

them, in different 82 "parts of the sentence ; the French (on the) 
5i , 2l3 different 20 partie ; ait 

contrary, generally place Qui, Que, Dont immediately after celui, 

contruire, 184 125 imme'diatement 

celle, ceux ; He is a flatterer who praises men for virtues which? 4 they 

* ; jlaileur louer 7 des (m) p. 82. 

have not. He can not be happy whose happiness depends upon 

saurait 192 7i bonheur 7 dependre des 

other people. They are not always happy who seem to be so M .t 
mitres. - 39 paruitre - - le 

67. His, her, their used in the same sense as the above 32 pro- 

His, her, their employe's sens que ci-dessus 

nouns, i e. without reference to a noun mentioned, are expressed, 
rapport (dontilsoit fait mention), - s'eiprimer 1 * 5 , 

* See * p. 210. f Turn thia sentence in frencli ; They who seem happy, are not always so. 



his by de celui ; her by de celle; their by de ceux ; Every body 


blames his manners, i. e. the manners of him, who acts without modesty. 

blamer maniere , agir modestie. 

I would not trust her virtue, who does not care 200 for her reputation. 

vculoir me fier a vertit - se soucier de * ' 

Their labours do not always succeed, who take their measures best.* 

travail - m rdussir prendre mesure le mieux. 

68. When a personal 32 pronoun is the object of several verbs, it must 

personnel dbjet plusieurs , 62 doit 

be repeated with each verb ; He saw and heard me. He loves and 
se ripHer 102 ; voir entendre 5i aimer 

esteems you. I hate and despise him. I entreat and conjure you. 
estimer 5i hair me'priser 5i prier conjurer M 

69. When several verbs come tog-ether, the pronouns should (be 

ensemble, • decraient (se 

placed) immediately before the verb which ? 4 governs them; Will 
placer) # (m) p. 82. rigir 5i ; 173 

you help me to do it? Cannot you do it yourself ? He wishes to 
aider 163 faire 5 *? 192 (m) n.b. f souhaitcr V* 

marry her. She will not speak to him. She can not bear him. 

tpouser M vouloir (kk) (o) 5i 1D2 souffrir 54 . 

70. When, in a sentence of several parts, the subject mentioned 
Quandj 213 phrase plusieurs partie, sujet dont il est fait mention 

in the first" 9 part is continued, the french add 125 to the following 32 parts 

premier continuer, francais ajouter suivunt' 29 

of the sentence one of the pronouns z,e, x«, Les, eu, f, agreeably to the 

suivant — 

idea which? 4 they wish to express; Is this the master of the house? 
idie (m) p. 82. vouloir 17 ' 2 ; Est-ce ici maitre ? 

Yes, he is; i. e. the master. He is rich and I am not; i.e. rich. He 

, (r) . riche (m) . t 

has friends and I have not; i.e. any friends. Are these the books 

Q ami ( m ) • (v) t Sont-ce ici 

of which you were speaking? Yes, they are; i.e. the books. Is 

7* 155 f 65 .j. 

your brother at home ? No, he is not ; i. e. there. And if the 
134 au logisf 191 , 190 . (e)p. 74. 

auxiliary verb with which we 90 ask the question, is attended by ano- 
auxiliaire^ 76 N.B. f a [ vc p accompagnd d' 

ther verb, that verb must also be repeated ; Have you seen your 

, (bb) doit uussi - se rcpeter ; (ii) N - B « vu 

* Turn ; The labours of those who take best their measures, do not always succeed, 
t You do not repeat the noun or adjective, which is understood in english, but yen must add one of 
tne above pronouns to the verb, as long as the sams subject is continued. 



brother lately? No, I have not, i.e. seen him. When you see 14 * 

Aepuis pen ? wx , * . verrez 

him, tell him that I want to speak to him. I will; i. e. tell it him. I 
, dire liu™ (bl>) *° ^ (o) * . 

do not know what he wants ; do yon? i. e. knoic it? No, I do not ; i. e. 
savoir ^ vouioir ; * ? 7° N - B - , * 

know it; if I did 140 ; i. e. know it, I would not have asked yon about it. 
ro n.b. . * . 70 N.B. ( demander - f 59 

71. If the pronoun, which* 4 in these instances (is added) to the sen- 

, (m)p.8 l 2. (bb J cas s'ajauter I25 

tence, represents a noun, it must be one of the words ze, La, Lea, 

, represenler , doit mot 

agreeably to the gender and number of that noun ; Are you the 
mivcnit - 3 (hli) • 

brother of that lady ? Yes, I am. Are you the sister of that 
(i>b) ? , (hb) 

gentleman ? No, I am not. Are these your horses ? Yes, they are. 
monsieur? Sont-ce ici chevalf? , 63 

72. If you have to represent, in the second part of the sentence, 

<} vej>resetiler ^ 

an adjective, an adverb, or a member of a sentence, you 101 must add 

, , n;t un membre - , il n.b. faui ajouter 

lc without regard to gender or number ; Sir, are you ready? Yes, I 
sans avoir egard 7 ou 7 • , pret ? , 

am; i. e. ready. Are you ready, Madam? No, Sir, I am not; i.e. ready. 

29 Q 

t > > 

Are your brothers returned 158 ? No, they are not ; i. e. relumed. 

134 as. 1 ) f 

73. En, y, which? 4 are generally said 125 of things only, may, in 

(m) p, 82. - l03 se dire 7 , peuvent, en 

answer to these questions, (be used) for persons ; eh, instead of 

rcponse (bb) , (kk) s 'employe*' pour * ; , an lien de 

de Moi, de roi, de nous, de vous, de lu'i, d*Elle t (1'euj:, d'Elles ; y, 


instead of a moi, a roi, a nous, a vous, a Lui, a idle, a eux, a Elles ; 
Were you speaking of me? Yes, I was; i.e. speaking of you. Do 

_ 133 155 " 58 ? * ' 

I • 

you care for her? No, I do not; i.e. care for her. Will you not 
se soucier de s8 f 191 , * . ira 

trust 809 him? No, indeed, I will not; i.e. trust him. Have 23 ' yon 
vonsfiera *" f 191 , otvcritr, * . j 

not applied to them? Yes, we have 8 *; i.e. have applied to them. 

s'udresitor M ? , • 

* These signs, or auxiliary verbs which represent the principal verb in english, have no meaning in 
f rench, you must repeat the verb itself. 

j See note J p. 206. % See compound tenses of a reflective verb used interrogatively, page llo. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 

Your sister has not used 29 ? me well. What has she done to you? 
neti a pas use avec 183 N - B - m fuire Co) t 

We were at the ball last night; I asked 252 her to dance with me; 

1*0 bat. »» . vr - m .Vi 7 168 danser . 

she refused me, and after she had refused me, she danced with 

refuser lST , apros que eut refuse , 137 

another. She mentioned it to me this morning. She is very sorry 
a l3 *parld en(o) (bb) *• facH™ 

(for it.) She desired me to tell you so. She did 140 not intend to offend 

en a iSS prie 1<J8 dire le 5i avoir dessein :m offeuser 

you. She had promised to dance with him before you had 218 asked 

avait prometlre im avant que eus»lez demander 

her. She ought 1 " then to have told me so. She forgot 137 it. She did not 
lui aurait dime - du dire le 54 oublier - 

think (of it.) I beg you will forgive 202 her. You had promised me 

penser 1 '*? y prier ■[ de pardonner lui aviez 

that, when you should come to see me, you would bring me your 

que, quand ' vertir 17a voir , - 256 

children. Why did 135 you not bring them with you ? I could not 

Pourquoi avez amends ? ai 136 pu 

bring them to-day. I will 1 ? 3 bring them the next time I come 142 . 
2,3 aujourd'hui. - 256 prochaine fois 221 viendrai. 

Bring them to me as soon as you can 142 . I will 70 . They have desired 

8,6 (o) uussildt que pouvoir. N-B * 

me to buy 16 * them fruit, and to send it to them, but I will take it to 

™aclieter (f) p. 79. 9 , 18 ? emoyev (o) , ' 250 &2 (<0 

them myself. I long to see them. It is so long 246 since I have seen 
(m) NB - % devoir 11 y a si long terns que [ 19(5 vus XM 

them. They will be very glad 30 to see you. They are very fond or 

bien qise lfli} - fort im aimer - 

you. They are always talking 155 of you. You are so good|| to them. 
155 183 purler avez taut de bonii pour 

They like you better than their uncle. He is incessantly teazing 155 

aimer (b) p. 72. oncle. - sanscesse m tourmenter 

them. They will 173 not stay with him. They would rather come to 
vouloir rester aimeut mieux (o) 

me or go to you. They are very amiable 32 children. I often think 

(o) 65 aimable™ 9 184 penser 

of them. I am much obliged to you. You have got a nice stick. 

soo bien Mig £ (0 j fco j„U baton. 

Let 243 me look at it. Will you have it ? I make you a present (of it.) 

Laisser voir - Vouioir 17i ? faire en 

* See note * p. £81. f Turn in trench, / beg you to forgive her. $ See long, p. 175. 
|| To be so good, to be so kind, are expressed by Avoir tant de bonlt • BE so GOOl>, 
BE so kind, in the imperative, Ayez la bonte ; not Soyez si bon. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules, 
I thank you. I will 1 ? 3 not deprive you of it. I do not care (for it.) 

remercier vouloir (kk) priver - se soucier en 

I have bought it with the intention of giving 154 it away. Have you 

acheter dans dessein donner - En 70 

got another? Yes, I have' . Is this your new 32 watch ? Yes, it is. It 

*i° un mitre ? , NB - Est-ce ici neuve montre ? , ce 70 62 

is silver; I thought 221 it was gold. My uncle has promised me a gold 

d'argent ; pensais 140 62 u0 d'or. oncle d'or 

one, if I get a prize this year. I wish 221 you may 7 °. NB ' Ah ! 

en 70 , remporter prix (bb) 233 souhaiter en remportiez un. Ah ! 

is it 62 you? How glad I am to see you ! If you had not called upon 

N.B. f 185 a i se 168 voir I av -l ez 266 

me now, I would have called upon you this afternoon. I wanted 260 
a prisertt, 266 (bb) *apres midi. 14 ° 

to see you. We go to the play to-night; will you come with us? 

aller comedie* 235 ; t venir 9 

Will your cousin 134 be there? I think 221 she will 70 . I will go; for I long 

-t cousine f. (e)p.74. penser NB - t ; car- J 

(very much) to see her. She is a most amiable 32 young lady. You 

fort 168 voir 65 des plus aimables jeune demoiselle.^ 

do not know (how much) I love and esteem her. I always think 
savoir combien aimer estimer 184 penser 

of her, but I (am afraid) 221 she never thinks of me. What reason 

200 ( craindre ' 190 200 82 raison 

have you to think so? Because, when I meet her, she does not 

168 i e 54 f Parceque y rencontrer, - \\ 

take any notice of me. You should 1 ' 6 speak to her. You should 

(aire aucune attention & devoir (0) 176 

call upon her. I (am afraid) of offending 154 her. I know 221 she has 
(kit) 266 craindre dtplaire 202 lui savoir 

a great regard for you, but I can not say that she loves you. 

- beaucoup de respect pour , (kk) dire (bb)™- 13 - 

Yet, I recollect that one day, as I was speaking of you to her, 

Cependant, se rappeler un jour, comme 155 (0) , 

she asked me if I knew 140 you well. I told her that I did 70 , 

demander connaltre bien dire (f) p. 79. (bb)^-B. ^[N.B. 

• Comedie in french, does not mean Corned// only, but is said of any kind of plays acted upon a stajre, 
and also of the house itself where such plays are acted ; you may also express the word Play by Specta- 
cle. Theatre in french is generally understood of that part of the house called the stage ; yet it is said 
also of the huuse itself. 

t Seo note * p. 143. % See the impersonal verb LONG, p. 175. 

<S Demoiselle is said of all ladies who have never been married, whatever their age may 
be ; Dame i<? said of all ladies who are or have been married. 

|| Express Not hy ne only, hefore the verb, as aucune which follows it, supplies iho 
place of pas or point. 

If You may express I did by Qui only, or you may repeat the verb Connaitre, and 
say, I did hww you. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 

and she seemed"? pleased (at it.) If she is at the theatre to night, 

parakre bien aise en ft comMie* 23s 

I will tell her what you have told me. I shall be much obliged 

81 bien oblige* 

to you, if you do. I see a gentleman in that box yonder who 

(o) , t monsieur (bb) loge ti-bas 75 $ 

owes me (a great deal) of money, but I dare not ask him for it, for 

devoir — beaucoup argent, oser § , de 

fear of giving him 9 pain ; yet I am in great want (of it ;) and 
pear faire 15t 162 peine ; cependant, avoir grand besom en ; 

as (yon are acquainted with him,) I will be obliged to you, if you 

comme vous vous connaissez , (o) , 

will tell him so, the first time you have an opportunity to 

144 dire (f) p. 79. le 5 *. fois(s) 142 24 occasion 18a 

mention it to him. Who, Mr. A ? I know him very well. He is 
parler en (o) Qui, Mans. A ? connaftre tres bien. 

a very honest man ; he will pay you, you may be sure of it. I 
honnete(i) ; payer , pouvoir sur 

answer for him as for myself. I suppose 221 he has forgotten it. 

repondre 200 comme 200 moi-meme. s'imaginer oublier 

My sisters were talking this morning of going 154 to drink tea? at 

155 parler (bb) matin alter 17 ' 2 prendre thd 

your 200 house this afternoon. Shall you be there ? Certainly, I shall? . 
NB * 2 apres midi. (e) p. 74. Certainement, N - 3 - 

I should not like to lose that opportunity of seeing them. I want 

aimer 169 (bb) occasion 154 ' 2G0 

to return 205 them the book which? 4 they have lent me, and to thank 

n.b. (f) p. 79. ( m ) p# 82. prefer , remercier 

them (for it.) I have been told that one of them is going to be 

en 92 une % - 155 i?« 

married 261 . Is it true? They 90 talk of it, but I do not know whether 

se marier. vrai '/ NB - parler , si 

it is true or not. Ask 1G2 her. I dare not ask her such a thing ; 

ou non. Demander le (f) p. 79. oser (f) p. 79. M chose^; 

she would be angry with me. I met 13 ? them walking together 

fucM 29 200 rencontrer a la promenade ensemble 

the other day, and I related 13 ? to them what had 238 happened to us, 

autre } raconter (o) ** 6tait arriver (o) , 

after we had left 159 them ; they laughed (at it) (very much.) They 

apres que 137 quitttes ; f Tire 13 ? en beaucoup. ^ 

* See note * p. 303. t Here you may express Do by the verb Faire, or you 

may repeat the verb and the pronouns, if you tell it her. 

t Turn ; I see in that box yonder a gentleman who See. £ See note l| p. 596. 

|| Leave out with him ; as Vous vous connahsez means, you are acquainted with zach othe*: 
*f Mind the gender of the noun which this pronoun represents. 



recapitulatory ejcercise on the foregoing rules. 

told 13 ? me they wished 140 that they had been with us. I also 184 shewed 137 
dire — l * souhaiter (nn) aussi montrer 

them the letter which you have written to me, desiring* me not 190 to 
(f)p.?9. (m)p.82. icrite 159 (o) , pour prier n.b.w* 

mention it to them, for fear 218 your father (should come) to know of 
parlor en (o) , de pear que 195 vint a satoir - 

it ; but I requested them not 190 to mention it to him. Have they 
le ; prier 137 n.b. de purler en (o) * 

mentioned it to you? No, they have not 70 . They only 184 told 136 -me 
en (o) 191 , * N.B * settlement out dit 

that they had met you, and that you had 237 walked (a little way) 

(bb)y.s. * acaient , ttiez se promener tin peu 

with them. They were (very well) pleased" with you. I was not 

* * tris - content n.b. 200 

less so 54 with them. They have invited me to come and spend tm 
moins le d' * * inviter 169 venir (nn) ** 1 

evening with them. I intend 125 to pay them 162 a visit soon 183 . 
234 avec * avoir dessein lee rendre (f) p. 79. bientot. N - B> 

Pray give my love to them, and tell them 168 so. I will 70 . Is not 

fuire amities (0) t , (J) p. 79. le n.b. 

your country ^house finished vet 183 ? No, it is not, and I do not 

de campagne 134 finir iM N - B - m , . • 70 , 

know when it will be. My father does not like it now. He says 

savoir quand * 70 - aimer * (L) p. 80. 

that it is too near the road. He wants 200 to sell it, and 204 

(bb)v.B.* trop pres de route. avoir envie 168 * (h) p. 80. d'eri 70 

build another a little further in the country. I wonder he does 
bdtir 120 unpen bin 41 213 23 ° s'ctonner ■« 

not like it; it seems 125 a good house, and it is in a pleasant 

• ; • avoir apparence - X , * 213 agrM)le 3i 

situation. He is going 155 to add a terrace to it, and make a moat 
- aller l7i ajouter terrasse , fosse 

round it. Have you been in the park ? They 90 are making a pond 

JUtOUr M pare ? n.b. - fuire l55 hang 

in the middle of it. (Here is) some fruit. Will you have* 74 any? 
milieu 64 ** 7 9 . (p) 

I shall be obliged to you, if you will give me some. Take some. 
obligi (0) , 144 (p) Prendre (p) 

Take some more. (There 240 is) plenty in the garden. We have 

( p) davantage. en 70 abondunce 213 jardin. en 7 ° 

(so much) that ( we do not 192 know what to do (with it.) Have you 
tout (bb) n-b- - n.b. q Ue 172 f uire 200 || e , K 

• Mind the gender of the noun which this pronoun represents. 

+ Express this sentence thus: / pray you to give my love to them, una to tell thrm fyc. 
\ Turn this sentence thus: It has a good appearance. [] With is implied in the pronoun en, 




recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 

been where 1 told 138 you? No, I have not? . Why do not you go? 

etre oil ai dit l9i , N - B - Pourquoi - y 7 ° 133 

Are you not ready yet 183 ? Yes, I am. Is your sister ready ? I 
133 pret encore n.b. , ro is4 29 

(am afraid) she is not. Go and tell her 102 to (get ready) as fast as 
craindre 221 146 ?° Alter -(nn) dire (f) p. 79. 1M sapprtter 43 vite 43 

she can 142 . Is this the book of which you were speaking- to me? 

poura. Est-ce ici 74 155 (0) 

Yes, it is. Have you read it? Yes, I have? . Is it entertaining? Yes, 

70 lire n.b. amusant? 

very. Read it. You know Mr. B.; do you not 282 ? Yes, I do.? 

connaitre Monsieur ; 7i'est-ce pas ? Oui, N * B - 

He is a very clever young man, but I (am afraid 195 ) he is a little (too 

65 tres habile 3 * jeune , craindre 221 14S unpen 

much) addicted to gaming. Has he ever asked you for money ? Yes, 

trop adonnt 7 jeu. jamais * 9 argent? , 

he has? . Did 136 you lend him 102 any? Yes, I 136 did?°. I am very sorry 

n.b. Avez pretS (f) p. 79. (p) , ai n.b. fdchg 

(for 200 it,) for I do not think that he will ever return it to you. Do 
en , car - (bb) N - B - rendre 145 (0) 

you think he will' ? Yes, I do* . He is a very worthy 32 young 
221 145 n.b. , n.b. es fa beaucoup de mhite 

man. I wish 221 you would recommend him to some of your friends 

180 vouloir recommander 93 

who could serve him. I will? . I esteem him (very much) myself, 

put servir n.b. estimer fort (m)x.B. 

and I beg you by all that is dear to you, not 190 to mention to him 

supplier par tout ce qui cher (0) } n-b. de parler de (0) 

what 84 I have said to you, for I would never pardon you for it. I 

(m) p. 82. (0) , car 190 pardonner * 

will? not. Only 184 tell him 162 , when you see 142 him,, that I shall be 
N-B. Seulemcnt (f) p. 79. voir , (bb) n.b. 

much obliged to him, if he will do me the favour that he has pro- 
tie?! oblige" (0) , 144 faire grdce 7 * pro- 
mised me. I will tell him 162 so 54 . I like them who shew themselves 

mettre 159 (f) p. 79. le aimer 63 montrer se 

such as they are. (So do I.) Tell him le2 to call upon me as soon as 

tels que Etmoiaussi. (f)p.79. 168 266 43 tot 43 

he can 142 . I will? . Now, I must wish you good morning. Come 

pouvoir. n.b. A present, m souhaite* 7 234 n.b. Veni* 

and see us again soon. You may 1 ? 8 be sure that I will 70 . I will 
— (nn)revoir t bientot. pouvoir sur (o&^n.b. n.b. 

come as often as I can, whilst I am so near yon. I hope you will 70 . 

43 43 14 ' 2 , pendant que U3 prts de 22 '* n.b 

• See note J page 295. ■)■ Re prefixed to a verb, expresses the voiH again. 



74. When who, that, which are the nominative of a verb, they 

WHO, THAT, which nominatif , Us 

(are expressed) by qui; I see a gentleman yonder who is waiting 

s'exprimer (ii) >'.b. pur ; voir monsieur t Id bas 75 155 attendre 

for me. It 62 is from him I have bought that horse which is lame. 
201 k.b. 22 i acheter (bb) boiteux. 

He has another which suits me. I have one which, I think, will die. 
en 70 tin autre convenir en 70 un , entire, tnourir. 

When whom, that, which are the object of a verb, they are 

WHOM, THA T, WHICH objet * , 

expressed by Que ; You know the gentleman we have just 244 met. 

s'exprimer ; i t (s) tenons de rencontrer. 

It 68 is from him I have bought the horse that you have seen. He has 

K.B. 221 vo j rm e „70 

another which I want to buy, to replace that which I have lost. 
120 230 acheter, l7 ° remplacer ** perdre. 

Whose, of whom, of which, are expressed by dojU ; He is the 
Whose, of whom, of which - s'exprimer t ; 65 

gentleman whose horse has won the race. He is not the person 

t gagn£ In prix de la course. 65 personne f. 

of whom you complain. No, he is? not. He is a man of whom I have 

seplaindre. , 65 (r) 65 

a good opinion. The horse of which I was speaking to you is sold. 
2i 29 - purler l55 (o) vend re. 

75. Qui, Que, doiU, whatever be the order of the words which 

, , , quelque n7 soit 

correspond to them in english, must be placed immediately after the 
correspondre 63 en , devoir - se placer immediatement 

noun to which they relate ; A gentleman has been here who 

79 G2 se rupporter(ii) ; f ii est venu ici |j 

wanted 230 to speak to you. Is the man (come back) whom I had 

vouloir 14 ° '" 2 (o) 134 revenir avuis 

sent (for him) ? Yes, he is' . Is the money to be had (turn, can 

envoy er lequerir? , "•»• Peut-on 92 avoir 

one w have the money) which we are in need of? No, it is not.' 

(hh) aeons 9 * besom 2n3 m , 

N. B. Bout, (besides its being placed) immediately after the noun 

, outre qu'il doit se placer 

to which it relates, must also be followed immediately (by the) nomi- 

79 il , doit aussi tire suivi du 

native of the verb which? 4 follows it ; as, (That is) the gentleman 

(m) p. 02. suil re 5t ; , Zi7 i 

• See note *, p. 204, the distinction between the nominative and the object of a verb, 
+ Monsieur, not Gentilhomme, which in the french language means Nobleman. 
X See page 140, and 152, the difference between Savoir and Connaitre. 
| Turn this sentence thus ; There has been here a gentleman who wanted &c. 




whose horse I wanted 230 to buy. He is a man whose probity I know, 

vouloir 140 172 aclietei'. 65 probitS * , 

a man whose talents I admire, and whose friendship I value much. 

, amitU priser fart. 

If the sentence can not be turned in this manner, whose must 

phrase pouvoir (kit) — se tourner de (bb) maniere, WHOSE doit (kk) 

be expressed by duQiiel, de laouelle, desQuels, desouelles, agreeably to 
— s'exprimer par , , , * , suivant — 

the gender and number of the noun to which the pronoun relates 125 ; 
genre 3 nombre 76 se rapporter ; 

He is a man to whose family I owe every thing, and in whose hands 

6J famille devoir ' m , main 

all my property is. They are people upon whose word one may depend. 

bien 65 

76. After a preposition whom is expressed by qui for both genders 
whom - s'exprimer les deux 

and numbers ; which by leouel, laouelle, lesQuels, lesQuelles ; 

les deux ; which , , , ,* 

from which by duQuel, de IctQuelle, desciuels, desQuelles; to, at which 

from WHICH , , , ; to, at WHICH 

by aiiQuel, a laQiielle, auxQitels, auxQiielles, agreeably to the gender 

, , , , suivant - 

and number of the noun to which it relates ; You know the gentle- 

3 il se rapporter ; * 

man to whom I have spoken. It 62 is he who has brought the parcel 

purler. n.b. 52 apporter paquet 

in which your letter was. (This is) the carriage in which he came 130 . 
140 w voiture est venu. 

Are these the horses to which he is so much attached? They are not 

Sont-ce ici si fort attach^ ? 

fit 20 for the use which they are intended for 203 . Let us walk along 

propre 200 usage les 92 destine. & Se promener f le long de 

the road in which we walked 13 ? yesterday. What is the name of 

route (v) se promener t hier. m 

the place in which we are? I like to know the name of the places 

2 endroit ' (v) aimer 169 * 

through which I go. Have 23 ? you inquired for the town from which 

( v) passer. Vous etes-vous inform^ de (v) 

he comes ? I could not hear any thing on which I can rely. 

venir ? at 136 pu " apprendre " (u) 145 compter. 

77. who, whom used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun 
Who, whom employe' absolument, c'est tl dire rapport 

mentioned in the sentence, implies the word person understood, 

{dont il soit fait mention) phrase , renfermer person sous-entendu, 

* See p. 140, and 1j2. the distinction between Savoir and Connaitre. i See Se BLAMER, p. 11*. 



and is expressed by qui; Whom did' 33 you meet? Whom were 
- s'exprimer * ; avez trouve ? uo 

you with ? Whom did 133 you give it 55 to ? I do not know whom 
133 a* avez donne 203 - savoir 

you mean 1 * 6 . I do not know whom you are speaking- of. 

vouloir dire. - - 155 2L ' a 

78. Whose used in the same sense, i. e. without reference to a 

Whose employe me me sens, cest u dire rapport 

noun expressed, implies also the word person understood, and is 
exprime, renfermer aussi person - 

expressed by de Qui, when it is used for of whom ; and by a qui, 

s'exprimer* , - s 'employer* . of whom; , 

when it is used for to whom; Whose son are you? Whose daughter 
* to whom; 133 

is she ? Whose relations are they ? Whose house is that, or whom 

parent cette, t 

does that house belong to ? Whose property is it, or whom does it 

- (bb) est 203 _ e 2j j. 

belong to? Whose children are these, or whom do these children 
art 20S ces, t (bb) 

belong to ? Do you not know whose they are ? They are my sister's. 

_ 133 £ 

Which used to ask a question, is sometimes 183 joined like an 

Which 169 faire , - quelquefois sejoindre*, comms 

adjective to the noun which follows it; as, which man? Some- 

udjectif suivre 5i ; comme, which man? 

times it is joined to it like a substantive by the preposition of; as, 
il - sajoindre* 6a substantif par of; 

*/hich of these men? and sometimes it is used without (a noun 
WHICH of THESE MEN? - s 'employer * etre suivi 

after it,) but with reference to a noun expressed in the former 29 part 

d'un nom, avec rapport exprimti premier purlie 

gf the sentence; as, It 02 is one of these men; which is it? 
phrase; , n.b. (bb) • which is it? 

79. When which interrogative is joined like an adjective to the 

WHICH intcrrogatif -sejoindre * comme 

noun which follows it 9 *, it is expressed by Quel, Quelle, Quels, Quelles, 
suivre le , it - s'exprimer * , , , , 

agreeably to the gender and number of the noun; Which horse will 

$itivunt - genre 3 nombre ; ' rJ || 

you ride? Which road shall we g;o by 203 ? Which inn shall we 
133 monterf route 13a alter pur auberge l8> 

(put up) at? Which is the best inn in this town? Which room 
descendre 20u meilleur (bb) ville / chambre 

* See N. B. under note (ii) pn^e 235. 

+ These two modes of expression are generally rendered in the same manner in french, 

j See note (o) p. 88. || See note * p. li'3. 



will you sit in? Which paper would you like to read? 
** rester 203 papier l< *> lire? 

80. When which interrogative is joined like a substantive by the 

which - sejoindre * comme 

preposition of, to the noun which follows it, or when it relates to a 
of, suivre 54 , il se rupporier 

noun mentioned in the foregoing part of the sentence, it is expressed 

(dont il est fait mention) premier 29 pariie phrase, si - s'exprimer* 

by leauel, laQuelle, lesQuels, lesQuelles, duQiiel, de laouelle, des Sfc. 

i. e. the article le, la, les ; du, de la, des ; ait, a la, aux, agreeably to 

c'est d. dire ; ; suivant - 

gender and number, is added to the words Quel, Quelle, Quels, ouelles ; 

' 7 , - s\ijouter* ; 

Which of these horses will you ride? Which is the easiest? 

t »? 3 vionter? aistl" 

Which of these two roads shall we go by 203 ? Which is the shortest 44 ? 

133 par court 29 ? 

Which of these rooms will you sit in ? Which has the finest view ? 
tf g ' rester 203 belle" vue? 

81. Sometimes which implies the pronoun that or those under- 

fVHiCH renfermer THAT on those sous- 

slood ; Then it is expressed by celui Que, celle Que, ceux Que % 

entendu; Alors il - s'eivrimer* , , 

celles Que, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun to which 

3 78 

it relates; Which horse shall I ride? You may ride which (i.e. 

62 se rapporter ; 13s monter pouvez 

that which) you please 142 . Which of these roads shall we go by ? 

(/ vous plaira. 133 alle" ^ 

Go by which you like 142 . In which room shall I put your luggage 1 ? 

vouloir. 133 mettre bagage? 

Put it 55 in that which I told 136 you. Put it in which you will 142 . 

Mettre s ' 2 * ai dit 55 62 vouloir. 

82. What joined to a noun, or relating to a noun mentioned 

What joint , ayant rapport (dont il est fait mention) 

in the sentence, is expressed by Quel, Quelle, Quels, ouelles, agreeably 

phrase, - s'exprimer* , , -, , suivant 

to gender and number, in the same manner as which; What place 

- "' 7 de manure que WHICH ; endroit 

do you come from ? What road did 136 you come by ? What inn 

- 133 venir 203 etes 238 venu 203 

will you go to 203 ? Have you heard the report? No, what is it? 

aller entendu bruit qui court f , 

* See N. B. under note (it) page 235. + See note * page 214. 



83. What used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun 

Wha t employS , c'est (t dire rapport 

expressed in the discourse, implies the word thing understood, and 

eiprime 213 discours, renfermer THING , 

is expressed by Que or by Quoi. What is expressed by Que, when it 63 
-s'exprimer ou What- s'exprimer , il 

is the object of a verb; What do you think of this country? What 

- 133 penser ™° 

do you intend 125 to (do with yourself)? What do you mean 125 ? 
133 avoir dessein de deoenir - - 133 vouloir dire ? 

What do you want 260 to do with that? What is that to you? 

133 vouloir V* fairs 20 ° 89 (y) fait m (o) 5i 

What (is expressed) by quoi, when it is used as an interjection, or 
What , il - s' 'employer - , on 

when it is governed by a preposition; What! he is not come yet" 53 . 
62 v6gir par ; ! venu encorex.u. 

What! you do not answer me. ^Listen to me. Well! what? 

- repondre 5l Ecouter (o) 56 Eh Men ! 

What are these people talking- about? What do you meddle with? 
(bb) gens I31 purler 155 de 203 - * se meler de W3 

"84. What is often used in the sense of that which: in these 
What - 183 s' employer 213 sens that which: (bb) 

instances, what is expressed by ce Qui, when it is the nominative 
cus, what ~ s'exprimer (m) p. 82. il nominatif 

of a verb, and by ce Que, when it is the object ; Do yon know what 

, (iu) p. 82. objet ; - 133 

(that which) makes her angry ? Do you hear what she says ? I know 
fdcher — - entendre 

what she wants 260 . But when what in the sense of that which is 


governed by a preposition, (it is necessary) to consider whether the 
regir il faut 17 ' 2 considerer si 

preposition comes before or after what ; for of what is de ce Qui, 

venir WHAT; car of WHAT 

de ce Que, i.e. of that which ; what of is ce nont, i.e. that 

, c 'est a dire, of that which; what of , that 

of which; to what is a ce Qui, a ce Que, i.e. to that which ; 

of WHICH; to WHAT (ill) p. 82. , to THAT WHICH; 

what to is ce a quo'i, i. e. that to which ; as, You speak of what 
WHAT to . THAT to which ; commc, purler 

will never happen. What you are speaking of will never happen. Are 
193 arriver. iyj ' 20S 

you sure of what you say ? It is what you may 1 * 8 be sure of. Will 

sur (m) p. 82. dire? 65 pouvez 203 

you trust to what he proposes ? What you trust to is very uncertain. 

sejie.*- proposer? 20a trcs incertuin. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules * 
What! is it 02 you? Where have you been since 193 I saw 136 you? 

/ n.b. Oil depuis que ai vu ? Si 

What country do you come from? What ship did 136 you come 

pays- 30 - 133 venir 203 navire etes 239 venu 

in? What news do you bring? What do they 90 say in town? 

203 nouvelles - 133 apporter - 133 n.b. a ?ville ? 

Read the papers, and you will see. Which paper must I read ? 

Lire papier, voir. 181 133 

Which of these papers do you advise me to read ? Which has the 

- * 133 conseiller M lee 

latest 44 news ? (There is) very little 8 difference ; read which you 

fraiche 22 846 tres peuv.B. ; 

can 142 get. Now, what do you think of the news? I do not 

pourez trouver. Maintenant, — 133 penser - 

believe a word of what that paper says. (There is) not a word of 
croire mot (bb) 243 

truth in what I have read. What shall we do now? Let us g*o 

vrai f 138 - . , - aller 

to the place in which we are to meet your cousin. What have you 
endroit (v) 842 l7a renconirer . *33 

done with your stick? I do not know what I have done (with it). I 

faire 80 ° baton ? — savoir en 55 

(am afraid) I have left it at the inn at which we have 23 ? stopped 
craindre (nn ) laisser M & auberge (v) nous nous sommes arrette 

to dinner. If your father asks you what you have done (with it), 
diner. ** en 55 , 

what will you answer 802 him ? Indeed, I shall not 198 know what to 

J 33 repondre lui 5 * Mafoi, n.b. 173 

say. What would you advise me to say ? I will tell you sincerely 

dire. 133 conseiller 5i 16S t dire M sincerement 

what I would say. Well! what? What would you say? I would 
Eh Men.' 133 

tell him 152 the truth. It 68 is what I was thinking of. What is your 

'f)p. 79. virile. n.b. «5 a 208 . 

reas m for leaving this country ? Because I see nothing here to which 

-aisan de quitter (bb) 23 ° X ' Parceque " ici (u) 

I can 145 apply. I want to go abroad. What country would you 

puisse s'appliquer. 2S0 dans les pays grangers. 2eo 

like to go to? To France or Italy? Which country would you 
aimer 169 20S 6 Htalie? »° ' ™ . 

advise me 54 to go to? Which of those countries is the most pleasant? 

conseiller 168 808 plus agriable f 

* See note * p. 281. 

f When the French speak of an action which they are on the point of doing, they do not use the. future 
as the English do; they express Shall, Willhy the present tense of the verb Aller, to go; je vat's, tu vas, 
il va, nous allons, fyc. with th e folio win jf verb in the infinitive; so turn this sentence thus, What are w« 
<70jtjv/ 155 to do now f % Turn ; What reason have you to leave this country ? 



recapitulatory exercise q?i Ike foregoing rules. 
You have seen them both ; which do you like best ? If you will 

voir 122 ,* - 133 aimer le mieux ? lii 

come with me, I will go to which you like 142 . I will consider (of it.) 

58 , vouloir. psnser y 54 

(That is) the gentleman whose? 5 house we have just 244 passed by 203 . 

247 monsieur n.b. venons de passer pres de 

It is the house in which we lived 140 formerly. Is it 65 the house which 

65 (v) demeurer autrefois. 133 

your father wanted 250 to buy, and for which he offered 133 (so much 8 ) 

vouloir 140 l " 2 acheter, a offert tunt >'-b. 

money? Yes, it is. Do you know that young lady? Yes, I do. 70 
argent? Oui, <° 133 * (bb) , n.b. 

Who is she ? Whose daughter is she ? She is married 29 . Whose 

marie". »•»• 

wife is she ? Whom is she married to ? She is the wife of that 

femme 158 203 65 (bb y 

gentleman whom we were speaking of. I know whose daughter she 

155 203 * 

is. I know whose relations they are. Whose handkerchief is this 

* parent mouchoir 

which I have found on the staircase ? I do not know whose it is. 

trouver sur escaliert - * 62 

I do not know whom it belongs to. What shall I do (with it) ? 

- * appartenir 203 faire en ** 

Take it" back to the place in which you found 136 it. Which door 

Remettre 6i - endroit (v) avez trouve' 55 porte 

must I e;o through? Which of these doors must I go through? 

IBl 133 passer pur 203 181 133 203 

Go through which you like 142 . Have you heard what I said 136 to 

Pusser voudrez. entendre ai dit (o) 

you? No, what is it? The man you trust to deceives you. The 

55 1&l , (y) se fieri 203 tromper 5i 

company he keeps, is not honest. You do not know all the harm 

compagnie frequenter, honnete. — mal 

lie does you. I do not 192 know what to do. I wish 221 you would tell 
faire M - n-b. • 173 faire. 1C0 vouloir 

me what I must do. You do not know what a disagreeable situation 

« »8i 20 desagrtable 

I am in. What must I do? Do what I told you. I do not see what 

203 181 133 Faire 136 34 - 

you can do better. If you had believed me, what you complain of 

(hk) de mieux. auiez " , se plaindre t 203 

would not have happened. I am sorry for what has happened to you. 

etre 238 crriver. fdchc 200 238 (o) 

* See pape 140, 152, the dilFerence between Sqvuir and Connaitrc. t ^ rnjlcclivc verba, p. 114. 



85. The possessive 32 pronouns le mien, la Mienne, les Miens, les 

possessif 29 proyiom 

Miennes, mine ; le Tien, la rienne, fyc. thine ; le sien, la sicnne, #c. 
mine; fyc. thine; §c. 

his, hers must be of the same gender and number as the noun to 
His, hers devoir etre genre * nombre que 

which they relate ; Are our horses ready ? Yours and mine are? , 

76 se rapporter ; l 1Si prit 29 ? 72 , 

but hers is? not. Get hers ready as soon as you can 142 . Have they 00 
72 Appreter t 43 tot. 43 * pourez. » k.b. 

cleaned our boots? Yours are cleaned 29 , but his and mine are* not. 
dScrotte 1 botte? decrotte, n.b. 72 

He does not want 200 his now. Clean mine. I want mine directly. 

- avoir besoin de tout d. Vheure. 

86. After the verb be used in the sense of the verb belong, the 

Aprcs verbe be employe* 213 sens BELONG, 

possessive words mine, thine, his, &c. are expressed by the same pro- 

29 32 mot MINE, THINE, HIS, §c. - s'exprimer par mimes 

nouns as would be used 92 with the verb belong ; thus, mine, a sioi ; 

que - on employ erait BELONG ; ainsi, MINE, ; 

thine, a ioi; his, a lui ; hers, a Elle ; ours, a nous; yours, a vous; 


theirs, a eux, masc. a Elles, fern. ; Is not this fan 134 yours? No, Sir; 

THEIRS, , , ; 2 coentail 191 , ; 

it is not mine. I think 821 it is my sister's. Yes, it is hers. Are these 

62 penser 62 J , 62 13 

horses yours or his ? They are not ours ; They are my cousin's. 

134 on 62 ,• 62 cousin.\ 

87. The possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, &c. joined 29 by 

29 32 MINE, THINE, HIS, HERS, §C. joint N.B. 

the preposition of to the noun to which they relate in this kind 

OF 76 6i se rapporter, 213 l sorte 

of idioms, a friend of mine, a book of yours, and such like, are 

8 idiolisine, A friend of mine, a book of yours, autres semblables, - 

expressed in french by the possessive article ; thus, of mine, de Mes ; 
>exprimer en par 32 ; aussi, of MINE, : 

of thine, de res; of his, of hers, de ses ; of ours, de nos ; of 

of THINE, ; of HIS, of HERS, ; of OURS, ; of 

yours, de vos ; of theirs, de Leurs, which, agreeably to the rules 
yours, ; of theirs, , 7i , suivant "- regie 

on the article, are placed before the noun, which must always be 

sur , - se placer 206 , 7i devoir it re 

plural in french ; as, I (have just 244 ) met an acquaintance of mine 
; , venir de rencontrer connaissance 

* Repeat of the same. t Ready is expressed in the word Appreter. % See note (o) p. 88. 



who told 36 me that a friend of ours is dead. Is not Mrs A. 

a ait 55 (bb) N,B moarir. Madame 13 * 

a relation of yours ? A son of hers is dead. A cousin of mine has 


married 261 a daughter of hers, but she is no 8 relation of mine. They 

epouser »-b. , ison.b. 

are neighbours of ours. I am going to dine with an aunt of theirs. 
voisin 155 alter 172 tanie 

recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 
Your mother and mine are gone 158 to (take 863 a walk) in our fields; 

alter l & n-b. 213 champ; 

Let us go and (take a 263 walk) in yours. Is not that house yours? 

- "" (an) n.b. (bb) 134 

No, it is not ours; it is my uncle's. I should have taken it 55 for 
191 , 62 ; 62 oncle. t prise 62 pour 

yours. Ours is not so fine as his, and his is better situated than 
42 42 , (b)p.72.situ^ 158 

ours. Let us go (this way) ; I want to call at a friend's of mine. 

- par id; 260 26(i i08 vneamie 

I think she is a friend of yours too. Who? Mrs. A. She is an 

221 65 aussi. Madame 65 

old acquaintance of ours, but she is no friend of mine. I do not 

ancienne * connaissance , 19 ° — 

like her. She is incessantly 181 talking of herself, or of some relation 
limer 5i — sans cesse 155 ellememe, 98 parent 

of hers. Let us walk into this room. What a pretty work 23 bag 

- Entrer 213 (bb) 82 20 joli outrage sac- 5 

you have got there. Is it yours ? No, it is not mine ; it is my 

270 /^ f 62 191 02 . 62 

sister's. This 88 is mine. Hers is (very much) like 202 yours. Hers 
t k-b. - fort 13i ressembler au 

is not so pretty as mine. How long 188 have you had yours ? 

4:i 42 Combien y a-t-il que vous avez 

I got 136 mine about the same time that my sister got hers. Yours 
ui eu vers terns 136 

looks 253 better than hers. Yes, because I take more care 8 of my 

avoir apparcnce 33 que , prendre soin nb. 

clothes than she does of hers. (What is the matter with) your 
habit * 7 faire Qu' estce qu' a SCI 

neighbour? A sister of his is dead. She went 13 ? (a few days ago) to 
voisin? mort. l5B alter it y a quelques jours lra 

see a child of hers who is at a relation of ours in the country, 

208 230 " 


and she died 13 * there. You have got a handkerchief of mine. A 

270 mouchoir 

See note * p. 26] t Bpe note (0) p. 88. X Pat this adjootive before the noun. [) See § p. 353 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
Handkerchief of yours ! I have no handkerchief of yours. I have 

none but what are 145 mine. What! is this 13 * yours? Yes, it is mine. 

pas 193 soient » / a? NB> ' ^ 62 

You are greatly mistaken: It is not yours; it is my mother's. 

- fort 18i se tromper : 62 62 * 


88. The demonstrative 32 pronouns celui, celle, this, that ; ceux, 

dtmonstratif 29 THIS> THAT; 

celles, these, those must be of the same gender and number as the 
, these, those devoir etre genre tnombre que 

noun to which they relate; This steeple is not so high as that of St. 

76 62 se rapporter ; (bb) clocher 42 haut 42 

Paul. ^This church is larger than that which we have just 244 passed 

(bb) iglise grande 41 ? s venous de passer 

by 203 . These trees are finer 41 than those which are in your park. 

pres de (bb) arbre beau 7* pare. 

N. B. Observe that celui, celle, ceux, celles do not express that 

Observer (bb)v.v. exprimer la 

local 32 distinction which is implied in the words" this, these ; that 

de lieu W renfermd 150 THIS, THESE; THAT 

those ; therefore, if you wish to make that distinction in french, 

THOSE ; e'est pourquoi, voulrir W faire (bb) en , 

(you must 101 ) add to these words, ci to denote the nearest 44 object, and 

ilfaut n.b. ajouter (bb) , '7° designer pres 3 ' 2 7 , 

La to denote the remotest; This 13 steeple is not so high as that. That 13 

170 eloign^ 4 * ; n.b. « N . B . 

church is much larger than this. These 13 trees are finer than those. 

beaucoup 41 n.b. •» 

But ci, La, are not requisite, when the demonstrative pronoun is fol- 

nScessaire, 32 

lowed by a noun or by a relative pronoun; as, This gown is prettier 41 
tuivre 20 "° 200 32 . f ( bb j - robe j oU s9 

than that of your sister. This is not so fine as that which I shewed you. 

43 belle 42 ai montrde\ 55 

89. Sometimes this, that are used without reference to a noun 

THIS, THAT - s' employer rapport 

expressed, but Tmply the word thing understood ; then they (are 
eiprimS, renfermer THING sous-entendu ; alors 62 - 

expressed), this by ceci ; that by cela ; Give me this. What will 

s exprimer, this ; THAT ; 1?3 

you do with that ? Take this. Let that alone. I will take this 

faire de Prendre Laisser - $ 

* See note (o) page 88. t Repeat of the sama* f See note t page 312. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 

Do you hear that man? He is scolding 155 that woman who has 

133 entendre t - gronder 

been beating those children. Look at that house. Is not that a 

155 battu Regarder 801 N'est-ce pas Id 

o-ood house ? Yes, it is a good house, but this is a better 29 one. 

°s> , « f (b)p.72. t 

Nay ! I think that is better. Those rooms seem to me to be 

Ohnon! penser m (b) p. 72. paraitre (o) 5i - - 

larger 41 than these ; besides, that is much better situated than this. 
grand®* ; outre cela, [b) p. 72. sitae* 15S 

I do not see that. I think this is as pleasantly situated as that. Do 

voir » 43 agrtablement 158 « 

you admire those flowers? What flowers? Those that? 4 we see in that 
" 133 admirer fleurl 82 (m) p. 82. 

garden before that house. How do you call this? This is a poppy, 
decant Comment - 133 appeler pavot, 

fcnd that is a marigold. I do not like that kind of flowers ; I like 

souci. - aimer sorte 8 ; 

those that 74 have a pleasant smell. What do you think of these ? Oh, 
(m) p. 82. agrSable 32 odeur. M - penser Oh, 

I like these better than those. These smell sweet. The action of 

(b) p. 72. ont une douce odeur. action 

Virginius sacrificing his daughter, is as strong and more pure than 
Virginius sacrifier , ^ fort 29 pur 29 

that of Brutus condemning his son ; nevertheless this is glorious 29 

Brutus condamner ; neanmoins glorieux(g) 

and that is not. Virginius secured only the honour of his family; 

70 sauvait seulement 'honneur fumille ; 

Brutus saved that of the laws and of the country. (There was) much 8 

sauvait loi putrie. 11 y avait n.b. 

pride in the action of Brutus, perhaps there was nothing but pride; 
orgueil , peut-etre n'y 2IS avait-it - que 9 ; 

there was in that of Virginius only honesty and courage ; but this did 137 

9 'honnetet6 9 ; fuire 

(every thing) for his family, that did 137 every thing, or seemed 137 to 

107 pour , fuire l ° 7 , ou semblei' i7i 

do every thing for Rome, and Rome, which considered 130 the action of 

faire , a consider^ 

Virginius as that of an honest man and of a good father, consecrated 
comme honnete , a 13 ° consacre 

the action of Brutus as that of an hero; is not that just? 

comme htros ; 134 juste ? 

* See note * page 281. f Read note (66), p. 217, before you write this exercise, 

t If you express This by the pronoun, you mnst leave out a and one ; but you may exprevs This is by 
Void, rule 24"; then you express a by une, and one by en, before Void ; thus, En void une fye. 



90. When the words one, we, they, people, are used indefi- 

Quand ONF, WE, THEY, people, s'employer (dans 

nitely, i. e. without reference to any particular 32 person, they 

un sens indefini,) rapport quelque en particulier personne, 

are expressed by on ; but though on represents we, they, people, 

'exprimer (ii) n.b. quoique reprhenter WE, THEY, PEOPLE, 

which are plural, it always requires the verb in the third person 

piurier, il 184 demander <X troisieme 

singular; People are spreading 155 strange 10 reports. They say that 

au singulier ; - faire 1 ' 25 courir itrange bruit . dire (bb)v-n. 

we have been beaten. Who says so? They say so. People say so. 

nous battre } ™. le 5i st 

(You 181 must not) believe every thing that people say. 
II n.b. ne faut pas croire tout ce que 

91. All 29 indefinite 38 expressions like these 86 , it is thought, 

Tout indefini* 7 semblables d. n.b. ? jj js thought, 

it is said, &c. are also expressed by on, by changing the verb (from 

IT IS sa l D, fyc. - 108 s' 'exprimer par , (hh) changeant 

its) passive sense into the active; It is thought that (there will be) 

du passif en - actif; f penser (bb) n.b. U y aura 

a peace. It is said that the preliminaries are signed. It will soon 18 * 

- paix. (bb) n.b. prMiminaire signer 158 . bientut 

be known if it be true. It was asserted yesterday on the exchange. 
si cela 2l7 vrai. f assurait hier <J bourse. 

92. English 32 passive verbs used indefinitely are generally 183 changed 

Anglais ,29 32 7 employ 6s - ordinairement se changer 

into- their active signification in french, and take on for nominative; 
dans 32 en , prendre j 

but by changing thus the sense of the verb, the noun or pronoun 

(bhj ainsi , 3 

which is the nominative of the verb in english, becomes its 17 object in 
74 en , devenir en 5i en 

french ; How can that be believed, when such great preparations for 

; pouvoir w t croire, 10 si s3 prbparatif 

war (are going on) ? I was told yesterday that it has been resolved 

7 guerre 155 faire - f 137 (bb) n.b. t resolu 

to (carry on) the war. Do you know if the letters have been received 

168 continuer t rem 

which (were expected) by the last 29 mail? They have not been received 

74 attendait li0 dernier poste? t recues 159 

* Though in point of order, this is the proper place for thesp pronouns, yet as they are easy, and of 
less consequence than the other exercises which follow them ; not to break the chain of the most useful 
rules,I would advise the learner, after ha-ving read the rales on the indefinite pronouns, page 218, and 
following, and written rules 90, 91 and 92, to pass over the rest of the rules and go to the exercise on the 
verbs, the knowledge of which is necessary to have a complete idea of the language. The rest of tLis 
exercise may he written after all the othe/exercises. 

f A Passive verb is made Active, by leaving out the verb be, and making the past participle into a 
verb of the same tense and person as the auxiliary verb is ; as It is tliought ; turn, One thinhs. It hat 
been said; turn, One has said. 



yet 188 . They are expected to-day. Somebody has been sent to know 
n.b. * attentive aujourd'hui. 95 * envoy 6 pour 

why they have not been brought sooner. We have been much deceived. 

pourquoi * apporttes tot.* 1 * fort trompes. 

93. Oneself, himself used indefinitely, and itself after a pre- 

ONESELF, HIMSELF dans un sens indi 'fini , itself 

position are expressed by Soi ; Let 248 every one think of himself. 

- s'eiprimer t par ; Que 105 penser 20 ° 

Every one for himself, and god for all. That is harmless in itself. 

, touts * innocent de 

Vice is odious of itself. The earth contains all seeds 7 in itself. 
7 odieux terre contenir 29 semence en 

94. Some repeated in a sentence of two parts, is, in the first part 

Some rtpeti phrase partie, , 29 

les uns, in the second part, les Autres; Some like one thing, some 
, 23 , ; aimer , 

like 70 another. Some will have it one way, some will have it another. 
en aimer 1;i 5i d'une maniere, 17i w d'une autre. 

95. Somebody is Quelquun ; Somebody has told me so 55 . I heard 133 it 
Somebody ; dit le entendre 55 

from somebody. I expect somebody. Somebody will call upon me soon 183 . 
uttendre 266 bientot.^.B. 

96. Some, any, few used to denote a small quantity, or a small 
Some, ANY, FEW employes 169 designer petit 29 quantite, 

number of the substance (spoken of,) are expressed by Qiielquun, 

•wmbre (dont on parle,) - s'exprimeri , 

Quelquune, Quelques uns, Quelques unes, agreeably to the gender and 

, , , suivant - 

number of the noun to which they relate ; Have you seen any of my 

3 76 serapporter; vu 

flowers? Will you have some (of them) ? I will take a few (of them). 

fieur ? 174 en M X prendre 

97. Nobody, not any body, is expressed by personne ; nobody 

nobody, not any body - s' exprinier t NOBODY 

whatever by qui que ce soil; these two words require ye before 

WHATEVER j (bb) mot demandcr antnt 

the verb which attends them ; Nobody likes that woman. That 
accompagner il ; aimer (bb) (bb) 

woman likes nobody. Do not tell it to any bod\\ Have you met 

dire V 
nobody ? Has nobody met you ? I have not met any body whatever. 

See \ p. 313. \ See X. B. under note (i«) p. 235. % Set note f p. 319. 



98. Something is expressed by auelque chose; I feel something 

something - s'exprimer* par ; 

that hurts me. I have something curious to tell you. Is not that 

74 blesser 5i (cc)' curieux & 5i JN'est-ce j)as lei 

something wonderful? Why do you not apply to something? 

(cc) etonnant? - 133 s'appliquer(ii) 

99. Nothing, not any thing is expressed by men ; nothing 


whatever by Quoique ce soit ; these words require Ne before the verb 

WHATEVER ; demander 

which attends them ; I will give you nothing. You have not done 
7-4 uccompagner 5i ; donner 5i fait 

any thing to-day. He applies to nothing whatever. He does not 
aujourd'hui. s'appliquer f 

mind any thing whatever. I would not part (with it) for any thing'. 
faire attention <} se defaire t en 59 

N. B. Quelqu'un, auelque chose, personne, men followed by an adjective 

j , , tuivis 206 adjectif 

or by a past 32 participle, require De before that 2 adjective or participle ; 

200 passi participe, demander 205 (bb) 3 

Somebody come. Something lost. Nobody hurt. Nothing done. 
venn. perdu. blesse. fait. 

100. None, not any followed by a noun or a pronoun is expressed 
A r o,V7v, not ANY suivi " 00 2 o* -s'exprimer* 

by Aiicun, masc. ; Aiicune, fern, and requires Ne before the verb ; None 

par , ; , demander 20s ; 

of the ladies whom we expected will come. We shall not see any 
t 7i attend ions 173 venir voir 

(of them) to-day. Do you know any of them ? No, I do' not. 
en 54 aujourahui. - 9t5 191 , n.b. 

101. None used absolutely, i. e. without reference to a noun, is 

None employe , rapport , - 

expressed by nuI, and not one by pas un, masc. pas une, fern. ; 
s'exprimer * par , NOT one , , ; 

these words are synonymous to personne, and require nc before the 

synonimes de . demander 

verb ; None is sheltered from censure. None can boast (of it.) 
; H I'abri " pouvoir se vanter en 59 

Many 8 people called themselves his friends, not one assisted him. 
n.b. 229 disaient se ** , aider 13 ? lui 5 * 

102. Each is sometimes 183 joined to a noun in the same manner 
Each - quelquefois sejoindre* de 

* See N. B. under note (it) page 235. f See reflective verbs, page 114. 

t Speaking oi young ladies, we should say demoiselles; speaking of married, or grewn up ladies, wo 
should say dames. 



as an adjective, and is expressed by chaque for both genders; Each 

que , - s'exprimer* par les deux ; 

horse carried two men. Each woman had a bundle in each hand. 

porter u0 paquet dans main. 

103. Each is sometimes joined to a noun by the preposition of, 
Each - sejoindre* of, 

or refers to a noun which has been mentioned before 183 ; then it 

se rapporter dont 92 fait mention dtjd. ; n-b. alors il 

is expressed by chacun, masc. chacune, fern ; each of these men has a 

- s'exprimer * , , , ,• (bb) 

shilling- a day ; or these men have each a shilling a day. Each of these 

iJieling par jour ; ( bb) 

women carried two bundles ; or these women carried two bundles each. 

porter ; 

104. Every followed by a noun requires a distinction. If every is 

Every suivi d' demander EVERY - 

used 125 to denote individuality, it is expressed by chaque ; Every 
»' 'employer* 169 designer des indkidus, it - s'eiprimer* ; 

science ft. e. each science) has its principles. Every season has its 

ses principe. Every saison 

attractions. Every plant has its properties. If every is used to denote 

cliarme. plunte propria. 169 

a totality, it is expressed by rout, masc. route, fern ; Every man lies, 

un touit, - s'erprimer* , , , 

(i. e. all men lie) but every man is not a liar. Every woman is frail, but 

- menteur. fragile, 

every woman does not yield. I am found at every hour of the day. 

- succomber. 92 d 233 

105. Every one requires the same distinction as every. If, by 
Every one demander que every. 

every one, you mean 1 " every one taken individually, it is expressed 

everyone, louloir dire EVERY one pris indiciducllcment, -s'exprimer* 

by chacun; Every one has a good opinion of himself, (i.e. each 

24 un, 

person.) Every one thinks himself to be 239 in the right. 

penser -\ - avoir - u raison. 

If, by every one, you mean 125 every one taken collectively, it 
every one touloir dire EVERY one pris collectiiemcnt, 

is expressed by tous, masc. bv routes, fern ; I have lost every one 
-s'exprimer* , , f . perdre 

of my books, (i. e. all my bocks.) I had won twenty guineas, and 

» aiais gagner , 

I lost every one of them. Every one of the robbers were taken. 

"• - voleur 137 prendre. 

* See N. B. note (ti) page 235. t This sentence can not be expressed liierally. 




106. Every body is rout le Monde ; Every body says so. She 
Every body ; dire le 5i 

speaks ill of every body. It 62 is impossible to please every body. 

dire du mal n.b. 168 p/ a f re ao2 

107. Every thing is rout ; Every thing- is for the best. You 
Every thing ; mieux. 

complain of every thing. I am prepared against every thing-. 

se plaindre * pret d. 

108. Any body, any one is sometimes used in the sense of 
Any body, any one - 183 s'employerf 

some body, some one, and is expressed by Quelqu'un; Is any body 
SOME body, some ONE, - s'exprimer t ; m 

come ? Have you met any body ? Can any body do what I do ? 

verm? Pouvoir 13i faire 8i 

109. Am body, any one is sometimes used in the sense of 

Any body, any one - 183 s' employ erf 

every body, and is expressed by rout le monde, or il riy a personne 

every body, -s'exprimer\ , 

qui ?ie> with this difference only, that rout le Monde requires the 

, (°b) , (MJn.b. demander 

following 1 verb in the indicative, and il n'y a personne qui ne requires 

qui suit 32 d indicatif, 

it (in the) subjunctive; Any body (or every body) may 178 do that. 

54 au subjonctif; pouvoir faire 89 

Any body will (or there is nobody but will) shew you the way. 

montrer chemin. 

110. With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, or after a compara- 

qui dhigne 7 7 doule, compara- 

tive, any body is expressed by personne, but without A~e, because 
tif, ANY BODY - s'exprimer , , 

personne attended by Ne, means no body ; Did ever any body do 

accompagnS de , signifier NO BODY 136 jamais 134 

such a thing! Yes; and you can do it as well as any body. 

38 (hk) 5i 43 4S 

111. Any thing is sometimes used in the sense of something, 
Any thing - 183 s' employ erf something, 

and is expressed by Quelque chose; (Is there) any thing in the bottle? 

— s'exprimer t ; 24S bouteille f 

Have you heard any thing ? (Is there) any thing new to-day ? 

apprendre 246 (cc) nouveau 

112. Sometimes any thing is used in the sense of every thing, 

ANY THING - s'employerf EVERY THING, 

and is expressed by rout; He is fit for any thing (or every thing.) 

- s'exprimer t ; propre 200 

* See a reflpctive verb, page 11 4. f See N. B. note (r7) page 235. 



I will do any thing to serve him. I prefer this to any thing. 

faire 17 ° servir prSferer 89 

113. With a verb denoting admiration or doubt, Any thing is 

qui dtsigne 7 7 doute, Any thing - 

generally expressed by men ; (is there) any thing finer 41 than civility ! 

183 s'exprimer * ; 246 (cc) beau 7 civilit4 ! 

I doubt that you will make 145 any thing good (of it.) 

douter que faire (cc) bon en 54 . 

114. Whoever, whosoever is sometimes joined to a substantive, 
Whoever, whosoever joint substantif, 

or relates to a substantive previously mentioned, and is expressed 

se rapporter dont on a dijd. fait mention, - s'exprimer * 

by Qitelque, Quelsque, masc ; Quelleque, Qiiellesque, fern ; these words 

; , , (M) 

require the verb (in the) subjunctive, and if the nominative of the 

demande.r au subjonctif, nominatif 

verb is a noun, it must be placed after the verb ; Whoever that 2 

, 62 devoir (kk) - se placer* ; (bb) 

man be, he is acting wrong ; or that man is acting wrong, whoever 

, agir 155 mal ; 155 , 

he be. Whoever those children be, they are ill 183 behaved. 

(bb) , - mal se comporter 125 

115. Sometimes whoever, whosoever, whomsoever implies the 

whoever, whosoever, whomsoever renfermer 

word person understood, and is expressed by qui que ce soit, followed 
PERSON , - s'exprimer* , suiii 

by qui, Que, or Dont, which requires the following verb (in the) sub" 

200 , , , 74 demander qui suit 32 au 

jnnctive ; Whoever speaks to you, you ought to answer civilly. 

; (o) 5i , devoir 172 ripondre civilement. 

Whomsoever you apply to, they 90 will tell you the same thing. 

s'adresser 203 , n.d. dire meme chose. 

116. Sometimes whoever, whomsoever is used in the sense of 

whoever, whomsoever - s' employer* 

every body, then it is expressed by routs ceax, followed by qui or 

EVERY BODY, alors -s'exprimer* , suivi 2ft0 

Que ; Whoever (or every body who) is found out at night is stopped. 
; 92 trouver dehors la nuit ^ arrcter t 

Bring with you whomsoever (or every person) you meet 142 . 

Amener rencontrerez. 

117. Whatever, whatsoever joined to a substantive requires a 
Whatever, whatsoever joint subslantif demander 

distinction. If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever 


• See N. B. note (ii) page 235. j Turn : one stops whomsoever one finds out at night. 




is joined, is the nominative of a verb, it is expressed by Quelque 

, nominatif t -s'exprimer* par 

ouelsque, masc. Quelleque, Quellesque, f. ; which requires the verb (in the) 

> j , ; demander au 

subjunctive ; and if the nominative is a noun, it is placed after the verb ; 

subjonctif; ,** -se placer* ; 

Whatever this 2 work be, it is too dear. Whatever his terms be, I shall 

(bb) ouvrage , 62 trap conditions , 

agree to them. Do not trust to their promises, whatever they be. 
accepter ** se fieri a promesse, 62 

If the substantive to which whatever, whatsoever is joined, is 


the object of a verb, it is expressed by Qitelque, sing. Quelques, plur; 
objet , 62 - s'exprimer * , ; , ; 

these words require Que after the substantive, and the verb (in the) 

(bb) demander , au 

subjunctive ; Whatever business you have, you should not neglect your 

', affaire , 176 nigliger 

friends. Whatever terms they propose, I shall agree to them. 

conditions proposer, accepter - 54 

118. Sometimes whatever, whatsoever implies the word thing 

whatever, whatsoever renfermer thing 

understood ; then it is expressed by Quoique ce soit, followed by Qui, 

; alors - s'exprimer * , suivi 200 , 

Que or DOJit, which requires the verb (in the) subjunctive ; Whatever I 

, 74 demander verbe au ; 

do, I am always scolded. Whatever he undertakes, he never succeeds. 

faire, • grander. entreprendre, 190 riussir. 

119. Whatever, whatsoever is sometimes used in the sense of 
Whatever, whatsoever - s'employer* 

any thing, or every thing, then it is expressed by rout ce qui, 

ANY THING, ou every THING, alors -s'exprimer* 

nom ; rout ce que, obj ; Take whatever you think 142 proper. He grants 

; , ; Prendre croirez a. propos. accorder 

her 162 whatever she desires,, He approves of whatever she does. 

(f)p.79. disirer. approuver 201 faire. 

120. Other is Autre; I see another man coming 153 . I have found 
Other ; voir quivient.^-^- trouver 

another flower. (Here is 24 ?) another. (There are) a great many others. 

fleur. En 70 void En 7 ° ^ - beaucoup d' 

121. Each other, one another is expressed by Tun V Autre, 
Each other, one another - s'exprimer* 

une V Autre ; les uns les Autres, les unes les Autres, agreeably to the 

; , , suivant - 

* See N. B. note («) page 235. f See imperative of a reflective verb, page 114. 



gender and number of the noun to which it relates ; Fire and water 

3 76 se rapporter ; Feu 7 eau 7 

destroy each other. These women hate one another. Observe 

se dttruire (bb) se hair Observer 

that the preposition which comes before each other, one another, 
(bb)*-*. venir each other, one another, 

must be placed between the two words Tun V Autre, Tune V Autre, fyc. 

devoir — se placer entre , , 

See those two women ; they are jealous of each other ; yet they can not 

; jaloux 29 (g) ; 

do 280 without one another. These people have fallen upon one another. 

se passer de (bb) gens 238 tombS 153 

122. Both, speaking of two individual 32 objects, is expressed by 

Both, parler individuel 29 , - s'exprimer 

Tunet pAirfre, or Touts dcux, masc; by Tune et pAittre, or routes Deux, 

, ou , ; , ou , 

fern ; Your brothers are 241 both very well, I saw them both last night, 
j se porter voir 235 

You know my sisters; they will both be here to-night. In speaking 

,• etre 235 En parler 

of a greater number of individuals, but considered as two parties, 
41 individu, conside're's comme , 

both is expressed by les uns et les Autres, masc ; les unes et les Autres, f ; 
both -s'exprimer , ; , ; 

The Russians and the Prussians have declared war against us ; but 

liusse Prussien declarer 7 guerre - 55 ; 

we will beat both. Both will have reason to repent (of it.) 

battre lieu de se repentir en 59 . 

123. Either is tun ou V Autre, Vune ou V Autre ; les uns ou les Autres, 
Either. , ; , 

les unes ou les Autres, agreeably to the gender and number of the noun ; 

, suivant - 3 ; 

Either of these men will do it. You may 1 ? 8 speak to either. Take 

(bb) faire 5i pouvoir parler Prendre 

either of these flowers. You may 1 ? 8 have either of them. 

(bb) Jleur. pouvoir (kk) 

121. Neither, not either, i. e. either with a negation, is express- 
Neither, not either, either - s'exprimer 

ed by Ni Vun ni V Autre, Ni Vune ni TAUlre ; Ni les uns ni les 

(U) N.B. f . 

Autres, Ni les unes ni les Autres, agreeably to gender and number; 

i , suivant - 7 1 

these words require jve before the verb ; Neither of them will study. 
(bb) demander Ne ; - )73 el'tdiev. 

Neither of these men can do it. I will not trust 202 either of them 
(bb) faire « i79 se ficr 4 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 

Do you know any of the ladies we have 244 just passed? No; I 

- connattre t ( s) venir cle passer t ; 

know none (of them.) I have not seen any (of them) before. 

en 5i en 55 ™ n.b. 

I should like to get acquainted with some of them. I know the two 

169 faire connaissance 58 $ 

last". Which of the two is the handsomest? They are both very 

dernier. 80 { belle"? ; ties 

handsome, and they have each a handsome fortune. You may 1 ? 8 

28 , | beau Men. pouvoir 

get acquainted with either of them, or with both, if you like. They 

(kk) - — , , vouloir. $ 

come here every summer. Every body is fond of them. Every one 

ici elt-. - aimer || 54 

who knows them is fond of the ; r company. They are very fond of 

54 - |1 - compagnie. $ - fort s' aimer - 

each other. They are always with one another. Are they married? 

$ t marier 15S ? 

No, neither of them is married, but I think they are both promised. 

W, t 15S , 221 t promettre.™ 

I would give any thing I possess to be acquainted with them. You 

(s) possSder V° connu 20 ° 58 X 

may speak to either of them. Bring here every one of your books. 

178 (kk) t - - Apporter ici 

Let 248 every one of you shew me his exercise. Every one of you 

Que montrer 54 theme. - 

will be punished. Can I do any thing for you ? Yes, you can. 

punir. Pouvoir faire pour 58 > " 70 

You can help me as well as any body. Nobody is more capable 

(kk) aider 54 43 7° 

than you. I should like to buy something, but every thing i-s so 

169 acheter , si 

dear now, that one can not get any thing. I should like to 

it present, (bb) n.b. se procurer 16S 

have some of these flowers. Which do you think are the finest 44 ? 

(bb) *>% - !33 belle™? 

Some say that these are the finest 29 ; some give the preference to 
(bb) n.b. s 8 n.b. « . preference 

those. These men relate both the same story, but neither of them 

88 n.b. (bb) rapporter mime histoire, - - 

believes that it 62 is true. I do not believe either of them. They are 

croire (bb)*?-*- 145 vrai 29 . - 239 

both wrong, whoever they be. Whosoever asks for me, tell him 59 

tort, 2 01 54 , 16?. 

* See * p. 281. t See | p. 320. t Mind the gender of the noun which this pronoun represents. 

tj We have no other word to express the words be fond of, in french, but the verb Aimer, to like. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
that I am not at home. Whatever he writes, let 248 me know it. 

(bb)tf.B. au logis. , faire n.b. 56 savoir 59 

Whatever is right, is not always approved. Whatever good is said of 

bien, approuver. bien 

us, we are not told any thing new. Whatever your rank and riches 
t dire (cc) nouveau. rang richesses 

may be, or whatever rank and riches you have, do not be proud, if 

, , - orgueilleux, 

you will not (be disliked) by every body. No one ought to be a judge 
144 de'plaire d devoir 172 23 juge 

in his own cause. People often flatter themselves more than they should. 

213 propre 1Si flatter se $ 4 47 !7fJ 

Every one complains of his memory, but no one complains of his 

seplaindre , 

understanding. There would not be (so much 8 ) disorder seen in the 

esprit. tant k.b. desordre * 

world, if youth? had a good impression given it at first, and if care 

monde, jeunesse * d' abord, 

was taken to form the mind of children as it ought to be. I have 

soin * 168 former esprit 7 comme devrait — - 

just been told that Mr. A. is dead. Indeed ? Yes, they say so. 
*" - dire Envtriti? , le si 

He was invited to supper yesterday at Mrs. B.'s. They waited 13 *! 

140 inviter 169 souper hier 208 Madame attendre 

for him a long time, but seeing that he did not come, somebody was 

201 5* - terns, voir - 138 , 

sent 13 ? to look for him; he could 13 ? not be found any where; they 

envoyer l72 chercher 201 54 ; pouvoir t - trouver nuUe part ; 

have been seeking 155 for him all night, and this morning he was 
chercher 201 M ?nuit, (bb) 234 

found drowned in a pond, not far from Mrs. B/s house. Every body 

138 noyer 213 ttung, non loin de 25 

is sorry (for it). Is it known how this accident happened 136 ? INo, 

fdche en 55 - savoir comment (bb.) arriver 233 ? m , 

nobody knows. It is supposed that he (lost his way) in the dark. He 

- s'imaginer s'igarer 137 213 obscurite". 

is to be buried to-morrow. You will be expected at his funeral. 

212 enterrer demain. - attendre fune'railles. (pi.) 

You will go; will you not? I will not go, unless 218 I am invited 
7° . 282 ' 70 j £ moins que 195 - inviter 

(to it.) You may be sure that they will invite you. 

63 W(hk) sur (bb)x.B. w 

* Turn this sentence thus : One would not see so much disorder in the world, if one gave at first a 
good impression to youth, and if one took care to form the mind of children as one should. 

t Express Notby Ne only, before the verb, as Nulle which comes after, supplies the place of Pas or 



Agreement of the verb with its nominative. 

Accord 19 verbe son iwminatif. 

You see in the conjugations that the termination of a verb differs 
voir conjugaisons (bb)v.B. terminaison diffe'rer 

according to the noun or pronoun which is its 1 ? agent or nominative. 

suivant - nom 3 pronom en iwminatif. 

125. The verb must be of the same number and person as this 8 

devoir etre mime nombre *personne que (bb) 

agent or nominative ; I study ; Thou studiest ; He studies; My brother 
; ttudier ; ; ; 

studies ; We study ; You study ; They study ; My brothers study. 
; » > > 

126. When several substantives are the nominative of the same verb, 

plusieurs substantif\ , 

the verb must be (in the) plural number ; My brother and sister study. 
devoir etre au plurier - ; 3 

127. If several substantives of different 32 persons are the nominative 

t different 29 personne 

of the same verb ; as the verb can not agree with two different 

; comme s'accorder 29 32 

persons at the same time; we 50 add to the sentence nous or rous with 
H la - fois; n.b. ajouter phrase 

which we 90 (make the verb agree.) We 90 add nous, if there is in the 

76 n.b fait accorder le verbe. n.b. , ily a 

sentence a substantive of the first 33 person ; as, You and I agree. 

t premier" 29 j , 52 etre d' accord. 

My sister and I are fond of study. She and I will learn together. 

52 - aimer X etude. 5 ' 2 ensemble. 

We 90 add vous, if there is in the sentence a substantive of the second 

N.B. , t 29 33 

person, and 219 there is none of the first ; You and your brother do not 

, 22 ° it n'y en ait pas 29 ; - 

agree. You and he are continually 183 quarrelling. You and your 
s'accorder. 52 - continuellement se quereller 155 

sister will learn together. You and they are of the same opinion. 

128. If the nominative of the verb is the relative pronoun qui, the 

relatip 2 

verb must be of the same number and person as the substantive to 

devoir * que 

which that pronoun relates j It 62 is I who will say my lesson first. 

? 6 (bb) serapporter; n.b. 52 ^j re lecon le premier. 

It 62 is we who will say our lessons first. It 62 is you who will 

n.b. les premiers n.b. 

* Repeat of the same before person. f See note * page 205. % See note (1 page 326» 



say your lesson first. It 62 is they who will say their lessons first. 

N.B. 52 

129. If Qui relates to several substantives of different persons, the 

serapporter plusieurs subsiantif* 29 , 

verb agrees with the first 33 person in preference to the second, and 

s'accorder 29 par preference M , 

with the second in preference to the third ; It 62 is you and I who will 

29 p ar 29 . N#B . 52 

beg-in. It 62 is you and your brother who will (g*o out) first. 

commencer. k«b. sortiv les premiers. 

130. When the collective 32 substantives la plupart, infinite, Nombre, 

Quand collectif™ , , , 

Quantite, rronpe, Multitude* are followed by another substantive, the verb 

, , , suivis 200 , 

agrees with this last substantive ; A great number of men perished. 
s'accorder dernier ; 8 ptrir. 137 

Most of the cavalry deserted. A crowd of people 229 came to see them. 

La plupart cavaleri'e deserter 137 . foule 8 gens venir l7 ' 2 

131. The collective substantives le Quart, le Tiers, la Moitie require 

, , demander 

the verb in the third person singular ; One fourth of the ships were 

a au singulier ; Le quart naoire 137 

taken or destroyed. One third of the crews deserted. One half of 

prendre dttruire. Le tiers dquipage 137 La moitie 

men do not think, and the other half know not 198 what to think. 

7 penser, ne savoir n-b. 83 l ? 2 

Placing of the nominative with the verb. 

Place 19 nominatif verbe. 

132. When the sentence is expositive, i. e. when a question is not 

phrase expositive, 9a 

asked, the nominative is placed before the verb; I study well. He 

faire, - se placer ; itudier 

studies well. This boy studies well. You study well. They study well. 

garcon t 

But when the sentence is interrogative, (it is necessary) to consider 

, ilfaut 172 conside'rer 

whether the nominative of the verb is a noun or a pronoun. 

133. If, when a question is asked, the nominative of the verb is one 

, 92 faire, 

of the personal 82 pronouns je, tu, il, idle, nous, vous, lis, eIIcs, on, 

personnel 29 

or ce, these words are placed in french, as the corresponding 32 words 

, mot — se placer % en , comme qui y correspondent 

* See note * page 205. t See note (ce) page 223. J See N. B. note (it) page 235. 



are in english, immediately after the verb ; Do I study well? Does 

se placer , * ; etudier 

he study well? Do we study well ? Do you study well ? Do they study? 

134. If, when the sentence is interrogative, the nominative of the 

, quand phrase , 

verb is a noun, this noun is placed before the verb, the same as 
, (hb) -se placer f , de meme que 

in expositive sentences ; but (in order to) shew that a question 
sis ss 32 7 ■ iro fairevoir (bb)s.B. 

is asked, we 90 put after the verb one of the pronouns i/, Elle, ils, 

92 faire, n.b. mettre 

Elles y agreeably to the gender and number of the noun which is the 

, suioant — 8 

nominative of the verb ; Does this boy study well ? Does this girl 

; ( bb) garcon jille 

study well ? Do these boys study well ? Do these girls study well ? 

Do any of them learn french ? Is not the french language very 

98 58 7f ran cais? 29 32 l an g Ue 

difficult ? Are your masters pleased 29 with you ? Does your father 

difficile? content n.b. 200 

often come to see you? Has your mother been here lately? 

18i 172 ici depuis pen ? 

indicative mood. Use 19 of the tenses of the indicative. 

Emploi terns 2 indicatif. 

135. The present tense of the indicative is generally used in the 

prhent - - 183 s 'employer f 

same instances in french as in english ; I like study. Study is the 

cas en que ; le'tude 7 2 

food of the mind. But the past 32 tenses require several distinctions 

aliment 2 esprit. passd 29 demander plusieurs 

in french, which the corresponding 32 tenses do not require in english ; 

t . qui y correspondent • 

therefore pay particular 32 attention to the following 32 rules. 

ainsi faire une particulier ^ suivant 29 

136. If we 90 speak of an action past 29 without mentioning 154 the time 

n.b. passe' n.b. faire mention du terns 

in which it 136 passed, or if we 90 mention a period, artd 219 that 

76 62 s'estpassee, n.b. faire mention d'un p4riode,$ et 220 (bb) 

period is not yet entirely elapsed, such as to-day, this morning, 

soit encore ScoulS, tel que aujourdlhui, matin, 

this week, this month, this year, &c. the action being past, and the 
(bb) , mois, 233 , fyc. etant 158 , 

* See note * page 223. f See N. B. note (ii) page 235. t See note f page 22A. 



period being still present, we 90 make (the verb partake) both of the 

encore , n.b. faire participer le verbe et 222 

present and past time, by adding the past 29 participle of the verb 

3 passe - , (hh) uj outer 32 n.b. participe 

expressing the action, to the present of the auxiliary 32 verbs Avoir, 

qui exprime , auxiliaire * 29 

to rave, or Etre, to be ; as, When did you see Mr. A. ? I saw him 

, ou , ; , Quand * t 

this morning. I met him as he was coming to town. He told me he 

23i j comme 138 155 " 7 diret 221 

was going to 208 your house. Did you not see him ? No, I did? not. He was. 

138 155 N .B. | ] N.B. j| 

at 208 our house, but I was not in. He only 184 found my sister there, 

n.b. t li0 y 5i § x y 55 > 

and he would not stop. Did you hear that he was going to be mar- 

vouloir ^ rester. X 155 172 - se ma- 

ried ? No, I did not ; (i. e. hear 70 it.) Who told you so ? His cousin 

rier? , X ; N - B - " X 55 le 59 " cousinef. 

told me so. I heard that he was going abroad. I shall 

+ 53 le 59 \ - 155 dans les pays Grangers. 

soon 134 know if it be true ; for, when he called this morning, he 

bientot 217 ; car, passer , 

promised my sister that he would call again (as he goes back.) 

X Iee (bh)v.-a. repasser - en s'en retournunt. 

137. If we 90 speak of an action past 15 * in a period of time which is 

n.b. passt 8 

also entirely elapsed, such as yesterday, last 32 week, last month, last 
tccuU, hier, dernier 29 7 } & 7 f aa 

year?, &c. then both the time and the action being past 31 , we 90 use the 

288 , fyc. alors et passi , n.b. 

perfect tense of the verb ; Where did you dine yesterday ? I dined at 

purfait ; Oil diner X 208 

my mother's, and supped at my sister's. Did you not go to the play ? 

, souper 208 X comMie? 

Yes, I did? . What play did they 90 act ? They 90 acted a new comedy. 
, n.b. e2 pi$ ce + n.b. jouzr n.b. + nouvelle comMie. 

How were you entertained? I did not pay much 8 attention to the 

185 X arnuser 158 ? X faire n.b. 

play. f conversed all the while with a gentleman who sat 140 by me. 
piece. purler X terns monsieur etre pres de M 

Did you not see me? No; I did 70 not. Where were you? I was 

% 191 . + N .u. Oft NO " 140 

(in the) pit. I did not stop long. I went home, where I read the play. 

au parterre. 1 rester X ait logis, X piece. 

* Turn ; when have you teen %c. + Turr. ; I have seen him. X $«*• note • page 225. 

|| Turn ; he hat been tjc. § See note • page 2?5. *[ Tarn ; he has not been willvH/, 



138. Sometimes we 90 speak of an action that was passing", end which 

Quelquefois n.b. parler 7i - se passer ^ 5 , 

consequently was incomplete at a period which we 90 mention 125 ; 

par consequent u0 imparfait 29 dont n.b. faire mention ; 

then the period being past, and the action being at that time incom- 
alors , (bb) 

plete, we 90 use the imperfect tense of the verb ; What were you 

n.b. employer imparfait — ; 83 

doing when I came in ? I was preparing myself to study a music 
155 mis 136 entre" ? 155 me 5i 169 musique 

lesson. I was going to play a tune. I was trying to tune my instru- 

25 155 !72 air. 155 fcsayer 168 accorder 

ment. Stop. You were doing it (the wrong way). You were spoiling 

Arreter. 155 5 * a rebours. gdter 155 

it. They 90 were making (a great deal) of noise at 208 your house last 

62 n.b. 155 beaucoup bruit n.b. 

night. Yes, we had some company. We were enjoying ourselves. 

235 , 9 compagnie. l55 rejuair nous 5i 

139. We 90 also 184 make use of the imperfect to denote that, the 

n.b. faire usage 17 ° designer que 

action (of which) we 90 are speaking has been habitual 23 , or that it has 

7* n.b. _ 155 habituei, (g) 62 

been reiterated ; How did you spend your time, when you were in the 

riixM™ ; 185 2n le terns, "° d 

country? As soon as we were up, we walked in the garden till 

230 Aussitot que uo levte, se promener jusqu' au 

breakfast time ; after breakfast we (sat at our work) till (twelve 

de'jeune' 23 ; travailler jusqu' a 

o'clock), and then we studied till dinner time. How did you spend 

236 , alors dine 25 185 2 ^ 

your evenings ? You had neither plays nor concerts to go to. Some 

les 2Zi 2 ' 24 * comedie * - ou alter i 

ladies and gentlemen in our neighbourhood often called upon us, or 

t messieurs voisinage 1&1 266 , , 

we called upon them, and we sometimes made a little concert, or we 

263 58 , m faire petit 

played at different games, but we generally 184 spent the evenings in 
'oucr d 29 32 *jeux, ordinairement W 234 169 

reading or in conversing. We spent our time very agreeably.J. 
lire 169 converser. 2 ' x le agreablement: 

* Do not put any article before the noun which follows NI. j- See note t page 282. 

% By using the Perfect instead of the Imperfect in these instances, the sentence would be equally- 
grammatical, but the idea would be very different. This difference will appear obvious in the following 
examples composed of the same words ; 

Quand /'ETAIS a Londrcs, j'ALL AIS a. la comedie; 
Quand'je FUS a Londres J' A LLA I a la comedie. 
By the first of these expressions, people will understand that when I was in London, I used to go to 
the play ; by the second they will understand that when I arrived at London, at a certain period either 
named or alluded to, I went to the play. Learners are very apt to confound these two tenses. 



140. Another very extensive use of the imperfect is in descriptions ; 

:so ttendu 3 * usage imparfait 213 7 ; 

for, whenever we 90 describe the state, place, situation, order or dis- 
car, toutes les fois que n.b. dicrire 2 Hat, HieUj 3 B ordre, 3 

position in which the beings (of which) we 90 speak were, in a time 

76 et re 74 n.b. 140 , terns 

past, we 90 make use of the imperfect ; Where were you yesterday ? I 

, n.b. * • Oil hier? 

called 13 * at 208 your house, but you were not in. I was not well. I had 

268 N.B.- f y 54 241 

a head-ache ; and as I could not study, I went 13 * to walk in the 

24 mal a la tete ; comme , alter 1 ' 2 263 213 

fields. There had been a little 8 rain. The plants were so fresh, the 

II 2i0 unpen, n.b. pluie. si fraiche' 2 ' 3 , 

trees were so green, and formed such an agreeable shade, and the flowers 

vert", former si t 32 ombrage, 

spread so sweet 32 a smell, that I could not be tired with admiring 

"•epandre douce M odeur, — se lasser 163 admirer 154 

the beautiful landscape which surrounded me. I wished to stay 

beau 33 paysage entourer l7 ' 2 rester 

longer" ; but it was late, I was tired, and I had a long way to go. 

long-tems ; tard, lasser, chemind f&ire. 

141. The future is generally used in the same instances in french 

futur X 183 213 cas en 

as in english ; When will you call upon me ? I will call to-night. 

que ; Quand 266 58 235 

I shall not be in. I shall be in the country. I will (set out) after dinner. 

y M 23 ° partir dine'. 

142. The present tense is sometimes used in french as in english 

- t en comme 

to express an action that is 242 to pass in a time (not far) remote 

170 exprimer 7i 17i se passer peu 6loign6 

from the time (in which) we are ; as, Where do you dine to-day ? 

, ou (v) ; comme, Oil diner 

Do you go to the play to-nifrht? No, we go to a ball. But if a 

com&die ^ 191 , bal. 

verb (in the) present tense, denoting a future action, is preceded or 

ait - , d4signant 3i , pr&ctdi 


followed by another verb (in the) future, that present tense 

suivi 80 ° an futur, (bb) - 

be expressed by the future in french ; Call upon me as soon as you 

- s exprimer I en ; 206 43 tot 43 

can. We shall begin as 43 soon as you are come. When you are 

pouvoir. commencer 43 arrivd. 

• See note • page 226. \ Turn ; a shade so agreeable. t See N. B. note (i'Q page 235. 



ready, we will go and take a walk 263 . You shall not (go out) till 

pret, - (nn) n.b. ne $or ti r que 

after we have done. We will go as soon as you will. I hope we 

apres que finir. partir 43 tot 4S 221 

shall see you oftener 41 , when we are in the country. Come as often 

souvent, d 230 * 43 

as you caii. I will call upon you every ?time that I go (that way). 

lM fois 74 & v parld f J 

143. The conditional tense has also the same properties in french 

conditionnel - aussi propriSth en 

as in english ; I should like much to go to France. What would you 

que ; fort l69 « ™ 

do, if you were there ? You would not have any 8 pleasure. You 

faire, y 5 * n.b. plaisir. 

could not understand the language. I think I should soon 183 learn it. 

entendre langue. 221 • bientot 

144. After the conjunction if, Si, shall, will can not be expressed 

conjonction if, , shall, will - s'exprimer 

by the future in french, nor should, would by the conditional ; 

par futur en , ni SHOULD, WOULD 

(will must be expressed) by the present, and would by the imperfect 

il faut exprimer WILL , WOULD imparfait 

of the verb vouloir, which then 18 * governs the following verb in the 

, 7i alors r6gir qui suit 32 a 

infinitive ; as, I will go with you, if you will come with me. I would 
infinity; * 58 , : - 58 * . 

go with you, if you would come with me. I will teach you french* 

, * * enseigner 7 francais, 

if you will learn it. I would teach you french, if you would learn 

* apprendre. * 7 , * 

it. How long do you think that I should be in learning it, if I should 

186 penser a apprendre , t 

begin now? You may learn it in six months, if you will take 

commencer 178 215 , * prendre 

pains. You might learn it in six months, if you would take pains. 

de la peine. 178 215 * 

I will be obliged to you, if you will call upon me to-morrow 183 . I 

obligS (0) 5 S * 26( 5 demain. n.b. 

would be (very much) obliged to you, if you would call upon me. 

ires - (0) * 268 

* Observe, that in the sentences where IF occurs, there are generally two Will, or two Would; that 
TV ill which follows If is the present, and Would is the imperfect of the verb to WILL, to BE WILL- 
ING, (see page 143.) and they must be expressed by the corresponding tenses of the verb VOULOIR, 
which then governs the following verb in the infinitive; t'he other Will is the sign of the future, and the 
other Would is the sign of the conditional of the following verb, which must also be expressed by the 
corresponding tenses, 1. e. the Future or the Conditional of thaf verb in french. See also note * page 

t When Should is the sign which follows If, this sign must be left out, and the following verb must be 
put in the Imperfect of the indicative. 



Use 19 of the subjunctive. 

Usage subjonctif. 

145 When we 90 speak of an action, the event (of which) is un- 
n.b. ivinement 75 in- 

ccrtain, which is generally the case when, in a sentence of two parts 

certain, ce qui cas , 213 phrase partie 

connected by the conjunction que, the first verb is either interrogative 

joint 157 par conjonction , oil interrogatif 

or negative, or preceded by si, this uncertainty is imparted to the 

nigatif, 20 ° , (bb) incertitude - se communiquer 

hearer, by putting the second verb (in the) subjunctive ; I think it will 

auditeur, (hh) au * ; 221 

rain soon. Do not you think it will 70 ? It will perhaps rain a little, 

pleuvoir bientot. 221 n.b. 183 un p eu> 

but I do not think that it will rain much. If I thought that it 

(bb) N.B. " 

would not rain, I would stop, but there is no 8 appearance that it will 

_ 149 rester 246 190 n.b. 

be fine to-day. I will (come again), if I find that it does not rain. 

wo . revenir, trouver 

But observe with respect to interrogative sentences, that it is only 
d I'tgard des 32 , ce 

when we 90 wish to express our ignorance of the thing (enquired after) 

n-b. vouloir l73 ttmoigner son + dont on s'informe 

that we 90 use the subjunctive; for, if the person who asks the question 

que n-b. employer ; car, - celui fatre 

Knew that a thing is, and only enquired 136 whether the person whom 

110 , 18i s'informer si 78 

he is speaking to knows it likewise, he would use the indicative; Dc 

155 '208 


you not think that I did well to go before the rain came? Do 

(bb)v.B. 133 des'en alter 2I8 pluie venir ? 

not you think that I should have been wet, if I had stayed longer? 
(bb)x.B. mouille', 14 ° rester 41 

146. All verbs and adjectives denoting will, wish, Desire, com- 

7 7 qui dhignent volont6, souhuit, dhir, com- 

mand, rear, wonder, surprise, astonishment, joy, dadness, Grief, 
mandement, crainle, admiration, surprise, ttonnement, joie, aise, peine, 

sorrow, in short all expressions which denote any passion or emotion 

chagrin, en un mot 29 7 quetque ou 

of the soul, followed by the conjunction Que, require the following verb 

2 dme,X suivi 29 200 , demander 

(in the) subjunctive ; I am glad 221 you are here. I wish 221 my brother 
au • bien aise ici. 18 ° 

• See note * page 229. | We could not say notre after on, which is singular, $ See note * P a g e 230. 



would come. I wonder that he is not yet arrived. I am afraid 221 

s'Stonner (bbji*-*. encore - craindre 

some misfortune has 195 befallen him. It 62 is a pity that somebody 

quelque 238 arrivS - ltd 55 n.b. ** dommage (bb )•$•*■ 95 

did 136 not go with him. I -am surprised that he has not written to 
238 allS ^ surpris (o) 

me. I am sorry that he went 136 there without my knowing it. I would 

55 f dcJi £ 233 ^55 218 j g susse 156 54 

have taken care that he should be treated as he deserves. 

soin - 92 traiter 149 comme mSriter. 

147. The following 32 impersonal 32 verbs and adjectives, il Faut, il est 

suivant 29 * impersonnel 29 , , 

Terns, il convient, il importe, il vaut mieux, il suffit, seul, a propos, 

Necessaire, indifferent, cruel, nonteux, juste, mjuste, possible, im- 

t > » > > > > 

possible, followed by the conjunction que, require also the following; 

, 157 20 ° , demander qui suit ^ 

verb (in the) subjunctive ; It is time that we should go 148 . I must be 

au ; s'enallerj m 

ready to-night. I must (set out) to-morrow. It 02 is fit that I should 

prit 235 partir n.b. apropos 

see in what state my affairs are, It 5% is impossible that they should 
-* 8 82 Stat affaires n.b. « 2 ' 

be so bad as I am told. It 62 is shameful that my partner does not 

148 mal que 92 dire. n.b. honteux associS 

write to me. Is it 02 necessary that you should go yourself? Is it 62 not 

Co) N.B. 143 (m) N.B. - N.B. 

enough that you write to him? I think it would be better that you 

suffire (o) 221 valoir mieux 

should send 149 somebody. I do not know any body whom I can send. 

y 70 envoy er 95 9 ? 145 y 7° 

I must either go myself, or I must send my brother. He is the only 

181 OU 1/70 ^ m J N-Bij y70 65 seu l 

man whom I can trust 202 . It 62 is indifferent whether I go or not. 

me fier a 203 n.b. que y 70 non. 

N.B. The subjunctive mood is also used after an Adjective (in the) 

subjonctif - - 183 s'employer au 

superlative degree, see the 50th rule ; After men, aucuu, pas un, per- 

superlatif, - , voir regie; , , , 

sonne, see fddj p. 219 ; After Quelque, Qui que ce soil, Quoique ce soil, 

» > > > » 

see 114th, 115th, 117th, 118th rules; After the conjunctions aJixv que, 

> > > y > 

Amoins que, Avant que, quoi que, and a few others, see 218th rule. 

* Put suivant after adjectifs. f See the reflective verb s'en Alter, page 117. 



Use 19 of the tenses of the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunc- 

Emploi terns subjonctif. 

tive depend (on 200 the) tenses of the verb which governs it. 
dependre des rcgir 6 - 

148. The present of the subjunctive is used when the verb which 

- s'employer 

governs it, is (in the) present or in the future of the indicative ; Do you 
au futur ; 

think your sister will come? I (am afraid) she will not be here to-day. 

221 ,45 craindre *" 146 ici 

Somebody must go and fetch her. He will be back before we begin 

95 181 ( nn ) chercher . de reiour 218 

It 68 is fit that somebody should go for her before it is too late. 

K.B. tlpropOS 95 ** * " 213 frop 

149. The perfect of the subjunctive is used when the verb which 

parfait - s'employer 

governs it, is (in the) perfect, in the imperfect, or (in the) conditional; 

ait 2 imparfait, au conditionnel ; 

I did not think 221 my sister would have 145 come. I (was afraid) she would 

uo 238 158 craindre 221 

not be here in time. It 68 was that which made me wish that somebody 

14(5 a terns. n.b. ho 89 74 f aisait (bb)K.*. 95 

would go for her. He might have returned before the play began. 

145 • 54 179 285 218 pfeg comme nCCr. 

It' 12 would be a pity 221 she should not see it c2 after waiting 154 so long. 

n.b. - dommage 148 avoir attendu 

150. N. B. The perfect of the subjunctive is also used, though the 

parfait 92 184 employe, 21S 

foregoing 32 verb is (in the) present, if, after the subjunctive, there is 

qui precede 218 au , , , 24a 

another verb in the imperfect, some conditional expression, or if the 

a 2 , qitelque conditionnelle 3 * , 

action spoken of is past ; Do you think your sister would come, if 

dont on parle passe 158 ; 221 145 , 

I went for her now ? It 02 is not probable that she would have 145 gone 

alleri * 54 n.b. 238 158 

there, if she had not been invited 159 . I do not think we should have 

V 35 , t 92 inviter. 221 145 

seen her, if it had not been for you. T do not think we should. 

159 ", ce t « cause de x t 

151. If after a verb (in the) subjunctive there is another verb express- 

ait «« 

• Go for is expressed by AVer chercher, not Alter pour. 

\ Was, Were, Had, Did, or any other past tense that comes after IF, Si, must be in the Imperfect. 

} Instead of repeating the verb, the french would say; Jc ne le pense pas uon plus. 



ing doubt, preceded by the conjunction Que, that verb must also be 

, prdctdt 20 ° , devoir 

(in the) subjunctive ; Do you think she expects 145 that I shall see her 

au ' ,' 231 s'attendre revoir 

again ? I wonder she could 1 ' 9 have thought that I was capable (of it.) 

* s'Stonner 2ai ait U6 pu penser en 5i 

152. When the gerund or present participle is used to qualify a 

gtrondif 32 participe - s'employcr 169 qualifier 

noun, it agrees like an adjective in gender and number with that 

, s'accorder comme en genre Wi nombre (bb) 

noun ; A charming girl, with a moving voice, singing her growing 

; churmant* 2 , de touchant' 62 , 153 naissant™ 

love, in seeking 153 her wandering sheep, heard some threatening 

amours, f. en chercher errant 3 ' 2 brebis, entendre 9 menacant 32 

words followed by piercing cries. I heard her trembling steps. 

•garole suivi 157 200 percant S2 cri. tremblant 32 pas. 

153. But, when the gerund expresses the action, and not the quality 

, exprimer , non quality 

of a substantive, it does not agree with that substantive ; A woman 

snbstantif, 62 s'accorder ; 

wandering through the country 230 , (lost her way.) Some men piercing 

errant a travers campagne, s y igarer. 9 percant 

through the croud and threatening to kill her, she fled trembling. 

- foule menacant 16e tuer , s'enfuir en 

N. B. If the substantive to which the gerund refers is the object 

76 se rapporter 

of a verb, it is generally expressed by the indicative in french ; We 

, - 133 s'exprimer par en ; 

met a woman wandering through the country. We heard a man 
errer d. travers 5S0 

threatening to kill her. We saw some huntsmen seeking for a hare. 

menacer 16B 9 chasseur chercher - lievre. 

154. The english gerund being governed by a verb, or by the pre- 

32 rdgi pur verbe, 

positions of, from, at, for, after, with, without, is expressed by 

OF, FROM, AT, FOR, AFTER, WITH, WITHOUT, - s'exprimer 

the infinitive of the verb in french ; I saw you doing it, without 

infinitif en ; 136 , 

taking any pains. I was afraid of spoiling it. I blame him for 

de la peine. craindre 140 gdter 20 ° 

going away, after having promised to wait for me. Be contented 

s'en itre allt, 198 201 54 - se contenter , 

with telling him 108 so. There is no occasion for (using him ill.; 
200 (f)p.79. le 5 * , 245 19 ° lieu de maltruiter 5i - 

Again M expressed by re before voir + See the Imperative of a reflective verb, page 114, 



155. The english gerund which is so often used with the auxiliary 

32 gerondif - 183 s'employer* auxiliaire 62 

verb be, to define an action more particularly, can not be expressed 

BE, 17 ° definir particulierement, - s'exprimer * 

by the gerund in french; (the auxiliary verb must be left out,) and 

; il faut omettre le verbe auxiliuire , 

(the gerund must be made into a verb) (in the) same tense and person 

faire du gtrondif un verbe au 3 

as the auxiliary verb is; What are you doing there? I am reading 

que 32 - : 83 la ? 

a novel. You are losing (a deal) of time. What have you been doing, 

roman. perdre beaucoup - , 

whilst I was dressing myself? I was waiting for my sister. I am 
pendant que habiller me 5i 201 

going to dress myself too. I (am afraid) 221 they will be going 140 before 
172 * 54 aussi. craindre 195 - partir 218 

I am ready. Make haste, for they are going to (set off) just now. 

p-rSt. se depecher,\ car alter 17 ' 2 partir tout a I'heure. 

156. The gerund which is sometimes used as a substantive in 

- 183 s'employer * — en 

english, i. e. preceded by an article, can not be expressed by the gerund 

, pre'ee'de 200 , - s'exprimer* par 

in frencn; (it must be expressed) by a noun, if a noun synonymous to 

; il faut Verprimer , synonime 

the verb can be found ; as, the reading of good books forms the mind. 

92 ; , lecture 7 ^ foi-mer esprit. 

His having been instructed (turn ; his instruction) was of great ser- 

; 136 d'un grand 

vice to him. If a noun synonymous to the verb does not readily 183 

Co) 55 aisiment 

occur to the mind, you 161 - must give another turn to the sentence ; as, 

se presenter , il n.b. faut tour phrase ; , 

I should have caught that bird, if it had not been for your making 

atlraper 2 oiseau, 

a noise; (turn ; if you had not made Sfc.) You are the cause of his 

du bruit ; ; ' fait &;c. 

having been punished ; (turn ; that he has been punished.) What is the 


reason for your being so angry with him? turn ; that you are so angry. 

rai&on facM 20 ° ? ; 

157. The past 38 participle joined to a noun has the property of an 

pasei joint propriety 

adjective, and agrees in gender and number with that noun ; A 

, s'uecorder en genre 204 nombre ; 

• See N. B. note (it) page 935. f See the Imperative of a reflective verb, page 114 




married 39 man. A married woman. Well brought up children. Well 
maner n.b. 32 ^ gn ^i ever 32 _ 9 

written letters. New built 32 houses. Roasted potatoes 9 . 

derive 32 9 nouvellement bdtir 9 rotir 32 pommes de terre. 

When a past participle comes after the auxiliary 32 verbs have or 

32 participe auxiliaire 23 HAVE 

be, you 181 must make a particular 32 distinction between these two verbs. 

BE, il n.b. faut particulier 29 entre (bb) 

158. After the auxiliary verb Eire, to be, the past participle agrees 

32 verbe , to BE, 32 s'accorder 

like an adjective, in gender and number with the nominative of that 

comme adjectif, 20i nominatif (bb) 

verb ; as, that man is married. That woman is married. Those 
; , marier. (bb) 

children are well brought up. These letters are well written. The 

Clever — 

potatoes are not done enough. Those houses are very well built. 
cuire 181 tres bdtir. 

159. After the auxiliary verb Avoir, to have, the past participle 

32 , to have, 32 

never agrees with the nominative of the verb ; so, in these examples ; 
190 s'accorder ; ainsi, (bb) exemple ; 

My mother has invited your sisters. Your sisters have invited my 


mother, the participle invite must not change its masculine termination; 

, devoir changer sa 32 terminaison ; 

except when the past participle comes after the participle Ete, been, 
excepts 32 , been, 

serving with Avoir, to form a compound tense ; for then it agrees 

servant , 169 former composd 32 terns ; car alors s'accorder 

with the nominative of Avoir ; as, My sister has been invited. My 

; , et6 in v itS. 

brothers have been invited. My sisters have been invited. 

In all other instances (in which) the past participle comes after 

213 7 cas oil 32 

have, it (is necessary) to consider whether the participle has an object, 

HAVE, il - faut 172 considerer si objet, 

and whether this object comes before or after the participle. 


If the participle comes before its object, it does not vary, i. e. it is 

son , changer, 

always masculine and singular j but if it comes after its object, it 

masculin singulier ; , 

agrees like an adjective in gender and number with that object; I 
s'accorder en 20 * 2 : 



have lost my watch. I have not found it. I have found a watch. 
perdre montre. trouver 55 

It is not that which I have lost. I have sent you a letter. I have 
65 88 envoy er 55 lettre. 

not received it. Have you not received the letter which I have sent 
recevoir 55 

you ? We have sold our house, but we have bought another. (That is) 

55 vendre maison, en 70 acheter une autre. 247 

the house which we have sold, and (this is) the other which we have 


bought. We have gained a complete 32 victory. Have you heard 

rcmporter complet 23 victoire. entendu purler 

of the victory which we have gained? We have destroyed or taken 

dttruire prendre 

all the enemy's 25 ships. (Here are) the frigates which we have taken. 
ennemi vaisseau 247 frigate 

N. B. Observe that the participle agrees only with its direct object ; 
Observer ( ' bb) nb. son 32 ; 

for, when the object is governed by a preposition expressed or under- 

car, rfgir exprimer 157 sous~ 

stood, the participle does not agree with that object ; (Here is) the 

entendre 15 ?, (bb) ; 247 

person to whom I have written the letter of which I have spoken to 

penonne ~ 6 7 * (o) 

you. It mentions a victory to which we have not contributed a little. 

55 62 fair e mention d' " 6 contribuer - peu im 

Over 200 (how many) 8 powerful 38 enemies have we not triumphed ! 

De combien *-b. puissant" triompher ! 

160. Sometimes after a participle preceded by an object, there is a 

precede 20 '° , 246 

verb in the infinitive, then (it is necessary) to consider whether the 
a infinitif, abort ilfaut 17i si 

object is governed by the participle, or by the infinitive which follows 

re'gir par , suivre 

it. If the participle governs the object, it agrees in gender and num- 

, 62 s'accorder 

ber with that object ; but if the object is governed by the verb which 
follows the participle, the participle does not require any agreement 

, tie demander pas n.b. accord 

with it ;* Have you finished the letter which I had given you to write? 

Vobjet ; HO 55 109 

Have you finished the letter which you had begun lo write? Have 

UO T 1G8 

• Here the noun must be repeated in the place of the pronoujii because the personal pronouns after a 
preposition, can not be used to represent things. Sec 64 rule. + See note * page 23& 



vou read the books which I had lent you to read ? Have you read 

li0 preter* 55 169 

the books which I had advised you to read ? Is that the actress 

conseiller* 55 166 Est-ce Id actrice 

whom we heard 133 sing- ? Sing the song which we heard her 55 sing 

entendre * chanter ? chanson 13fl * lui 

(These are) the figures which I have lately learned to draw. I 

24 7 dernierement * 169 dessiner. 

still 184 see the same faults which you had resolved to avoid. 

encore faute H0 rhoudre * 188 gutter. 

161. The participles plu, lu, pu, voulu do not agree with the object 

, , , saccorder 

that precedes them, because the infinitive of the verb which comes be- 

74 , parceque 

fore these words, is understood after them ; You have not written this 

, sous-entendu - 61 ; 

letter so well as you ought. You have had all the time and all the 

42 42 177 iems 

assistance that you wished 133 . I have taken all the pains that I could 136 . 

sccours 74 vouloir. " peine 7 * pouvoir. 


(A. word is 92 said) to govern another, when the word governing 

On dit quhm mot en re" git un autre, qui regit 

obliges the governed to 169 conform to certain rules. 

obliger mot qui est rigi se con former certaine (i) regie. 

162. When a verb governs two substantives, either nouns or pro- 

r6gir , soit ou f 

nouns, one of them requires a preposition, expressed before a noun, and 

, demander , exprimer 157 206 , 

generally implied in the pronouns ; Has your sister given my brother 
renfermer 157 ; 134 

any money? (turn ; given money to my brother.') Yes, she has lent 

9 ; , preter 

him 55 some ; (i. e. some to him.) Did he ask her for it ? (turn ; did he 

(f) p. 79. (p) ; (o) 13S 55 t ™ 

ask it to her?) No, it 68 was she who offered it 55 him ; (i. e. it to him.) 
(o) t 191 , N - B - uo offrir™ (f)p.79. ; (o) 

They have requested me to buy them books, (to buy books to them,) 
prier 16S (f)p.79. 9 , (o) 

and to send them to them ; but I will not send them any ; (any to 

168 (o) .; (0p.79.O>; ; 

them.) Have they returned your sister (to your sister) those which 

265 N . B . ( bb j 

she had lent them 55 ? No, they have^ not ; i.e. returned them to her. 

140 159 (£) p .79. , N.B. • ("a) 

* See note * page 233. t See note * page 205 t See note || page ! 



163. When a verb governs two objects, the shorter, i. e. the ob- 

re'gir objet, court 41 , 

ject which is compounded of the fewer 41 number of words, is generally 

compose plus petit 8 mot, - 183 

placed first ; I have brought your brother a very entertaining book. 

se placer le premier ; 162 amusant 32 

He must dedicate all the time that he can spare to study. How can he 

181 donner 7i pouvoir - 7 4tude l3i 

expect to learn unless 195 he pays all the attention he can to his books? 

suttendre 193 218 k.b. faire » (s) 

If the objects are nearly of an equal length, i. e. compounded of nearly 

upeuprcs 6 gale- , 

the same number of words, the direct 32 object must be placed before 

8 , direct devoir - se placer 206 

the indirect ; Have you lent my sister any money ? She intends to 
r objet ; 162 9 avoir 1 ' 25 dessein de 

present your brother with a book. He gives his friends (a great deal) 
faire present * 162 de * 162 - beaucoup 

of trouble. Tell her lc2 that I will send her children some fruit. 
peine. (f)j>.79.(bb)v-B> 162 

Yet the indirect object must be placed first, though it were 

Cependant 32 devoir , quand mime il serait 

the longer 41 , if by placing it last, it G2 caused an amphibology with 

long, (hh) le dernier, faisait amphibologie 

other words ; as, Take the parcel which I have brought into the 

d'autres ; } 236 paquet 

parlour. Have you sent the letter which I gave you to the (post office?) 

salon 136 55 poste 

164. The same noun may be governed by two verbs which have 

mime 17S regi par 

both the same government, i. e. which are both used without a pre- 

132 regime , — ia3 f s' 'employer - 

position, or which require both the same preposition ; as, I hate and 
, demunder l=a ; , hair 

despise that young man. He is always talking and boasting 155 of what 

mepriser (bb) m \ purler 155 se ranter 8 * 

he does. He is always opposing and (finding fault) with what other 
faire. 184 $ s'opposer 155 trouver 125 a redire a. les autres 

people do ; but we 90 could not say, I hate and mistrust that young 
- 39 faire; n-b. , semifierde 

man. He is always talking about, and finding fault with what other 
181 purler de, trouver & redire <i w 

people do ; because se mefier requires a preposition before the noun 

39 faire ; 
• See note |] page 206. + Put this pronoun after the verb. t Tut this adverb aftc tfie second verb, 



which follows it, and hair does not require any ; and because jiarlet 
suivre , 219 (p) Si ; 

and trouver a redire require different prepositions ; we 181 must say ; I 

29 82 9 ; K . B . . 

hate that young man, and I mistrust him. He is always talking about 
(bb) , se mefier de * 18 * 155 200 

what other people do, and finding- fault (with it.) 
les autres - M , 155 a redire y 5i 

165. The same verb may govern two parts of a sentence, provided 

1/8 r ggjr partie phrase, 213 

they are both affirmative or both negative ; as our reputation depends 

62 122 affirmative on 122 negative ; dtpendre 

much (upon 200 the) caprice of men, but still more upon our actions ; 

du 7 , encore de 

but if one part of the sentence is affirmative and the other is negative 

et 219 autre 22 ° 

(the verb must be repeated ;) so, instead of saying : Our reputation 

il faut rtpHer le verbe ; ainsi, au lien 154 

does not depend (upon 200 the) caprice of men, but upon our good or 

du , 200 29 

204 our bad actions ; repeat the verb, and say ; but it depends upon our 

de 29 ; rdpiter , ; 6a 200 

good or our bad actions. All men are equal; it 62 is not birth?, but 

7 dgaiix; n.b. naissance, 

virtue alone (say, it 6Z is virtue alone) Avhich makes the difference. 

7 vertu seule n.b. 7* 

166. Some verbs govern the verbs which follow them, indifferently 

* rtgir suivre , indiffe'remment 

.11 the infinitive or (in the) subjunctive; but when any one of these 
a 2 au ; 96 

verbs governs two verbs, they must be both (in the) same mood ; so, 

, devoir 122 au mode; ainsi, 

(it would not be proper to say;) I am glad to see you, and that I 

on ne dirait pas bien ; bien aise de , que 

have an opportunity to tell you so ; you !81 must say, and to have au 
21 occasion :o8 59 le 5 * ; n.b. , de ** 

opportunity to tell you so. Instead of saying : I have ordered the 

168 59 le 5 * Au lien de l5 * ; ordonni 

coach to (be got ready), and that they 90 bring 253 it here ; say, I have 

d' appreter,f , que k- b - amener 5i ici ; dire, 

ordered the coach to be got ready, and to be brought here ; or, I have 

168 - apprcterj 188 - 25 ~6 ; , 

ordered that the coach be got readv, and that they 00 bring it here. 

92 NlB . 256 ^ 54 

* See note f page 282. f Turn ; to get ready the coach, and to bring §-c. 



167. Passive verbs require ne or par before the noun which they 

pussif 32 7 demander 206 

govern. They require De t when the verb expresses an action wholly of 

rigir. ex-primer entierement 

the mind ; as, He is blamed by all his friends, and despised by all his 

esprit ; , , mtpriser 

neighbours. She is commended and esteemed by every body. They 
vcisin. louer 1X 158 105 

require par, when the bodily 32 faculties participate in the action ; The 

, du corps avoir m part a, ; 

town was besieged by the Austrians, and afterwards taken 158 by the 

137 * assitger 158 Autrichiens, ensuite prendre 

French. The houses were plundered by the mob. This news was 
137 *' piller 158 populace. nouvelle l8s 

sent 153 to us by my correspondent. The letter is written by a man 

emeyer (o) correspondant. l58 

who was upon the spot. But instead of these passive expressions, 

140 place. flit lieu (bb) 32 

which are foreign to the genius of the french language, (it is better), 

Stranger a genie 29 32 , U vaut inieux, 

by changing the order of the words, to give to the verb its active sig- 

(hh ) changer ordre , l 7* sa 32 

nification ; thus, All his friends blame him, and all his neighbours 

; ainsi, , 

despise nim. Every body commends and esteems her. The Austrians &c. 

mipriser 106 louer m 

When two verbs occur in 213 the same part of a sentence the 

se rencontrer partie 

latter is governed by the former in the infinitive mood, sometimes 

dernier rigir par premier a infinitif - , 

(by the) means of a preposition, and sometimes without it.f 

au moyen , preposition. 

The preposition to, the sign of the infinitive mood in english, is 

TO, ** signe -en , - 

expressed by oe, i, or pour, but not indiscriminately. 

r'expriimr J , , ,91 indiffiremment. 

168. To, before an infinitive is expressed by ne, when it can 

To, 206 .- i- s'eiprimer $ il pouLo'ir 

be changed into of or from, and 539 the infinitive can be turned into 

- se changer X en of from, et que - S e tourner par 

the gerund or present participle ; this generally occurs when the infi- 

ge'rondif ** parlicipe ; m i»» arriicr 

nitive comes after a noun used in a definite sense ; as, You shall have 

employe" dcftni 31 sens; , 

See note • p. 226. f See note • page 311. \ See N. B, notv" ('<) p. 935. 



the trouble to do it, or (of doing it) over again. Will you have 

peine refaire , * 

the goodness to help, or (of helping) me ? If you have any desire 

bonte aider, 21 enoie 

to serve me, you have now a fine opportunity to do it. Have the 

servir , a present occasion 

complaisance to wait for me. I have not time to stay. It is time to 
* * tester. II 

go. I do not hinder you from going. See, rule 168, a list of the verbs 
partir. empecher voits en aller. , regie , liste 

and adjectives which require Be before the infinitive that follows them. 
8 demander 2 " 6 infinitif ? 4 

169. To, before an infinitive is expressed by a, when it can be 

To, - s'exprimer* A, il - 

changed into in, and 219 the infinitive can be turned into the gerund, 

se changer en in, et que - se tourner par gtrondif, 

or present participle ; this generally occurs after nouns used 15 ? in a 

33 ; 89 184 arriver 7 employer 

partitive sense ; He will have some trouble to do it (or in doing it) 

partitif 32 ; 9 peine refaire 

over again. He perhaps 184 will have somebody to help him. Is there 

t peut-etre 95 aider lui s * 246 

no 8 risk to go (this way?) A virtuous man takes pleasure to do good, 

n-b. risque par ici? vertueux 9 bien. 

Amuse yourself with reading some instructive book, instead of spend- 

Amuser vous 56 15i quelque instructif 32 , au lieu 271 

ing 154 your time in playing. See, rule 169, a list of the verbs and 

jouer. , , liste 

adjectives which require a before the infinitive that follows them. 

SOS 7* 

170. To, before an infinitive is expressed by pour, when it can be 

To, — s'sxprimer * , il - 

turned into in order to ; as, I was going to write to you to beg, 

se tourner par IN ORDER to; , 155 aller l7% (0) demander 

or (in order to beg) a favour of you. You are too civil to refuse me. 

grace — 5i trap refuser 

(I will do any thing) to oblige you. I want money to buy a horse. 

Ilii'estrienquejenefasse 26 ° acheter 

I have not money 8 enough to buy one. It is not enough to have money 

n-b. assez en? un. - sujfire 168 9 

to get a horse, one must 181 have money to keep it. He wants 
se procure^' , n.b. - maintenir 

to have a horse, in order to make (people believe) that he is rich. 

croire aux gens 
* See N. B. note (u) page 235. t Over again is expressed by re before faire. 



N. B. The english gerund preceded by the preposition for, explain- 

32 gerondif *°° FOR, seivant 

nig the motive of an action, is also expressed by the infinitive 

3 expliquer motif , - 18i s'eiprimer par infinitif 

with pour; He has been taken up for having fought a duel. Is 

■ arreter - s'etre* 37 battre en duel. 

that 134 sufficient for arresting a man ? He was not arrested for fighting, 

19 suffire 135 13S s'etrebattu, 

but for robbing and ill using the man whom he had 23 ? fought with. 

avoir void maltraite 78 s'ttait *° 3 

171. The infinitive is used without a preposition in french, when 

- s' employer - en , 

it is the nominative of a verb ; as, To love and to be loved are the 

; , aimer 

greatest pleasures in life 7 . To love without measure is a folly, not 190 

44 49 vie. mesure folie, n.b. 

to love at all, is insensibility. To do to others as we would wish 

dn tout, insensibilite. & autrui ce que vouloir 

(to be 98 done to), is to follow the law of reason. 

qu'on nous fit, c'est - loi 7 raison. 

172. The infinitive is also used without a preposition after the verbs 

- s'employer - 

Aimer mieux, raloir mieux, Alter, venir, Assurer, croire, compter, 

i >■>>>> 

Daigner, Declarer, Devoir, Entendre, EJivoyer, Esperer, Fulloir, sima- 

t » > > » » 

giner, raisser, oser* paraitre, penser, pretcndre, pouvoir, Reconnaitre, 

> > > j > > > 

Regarder, Retourner savoir, sembler, souhaiter, soutenir, vouloir, 

> > i > > i } 

voir, Appercevoir ; as, I am going to embark for America. When do 

, ; , m'embarquer 5 Amerique. 

you intend to go ? I want 260 to (set out) as soon as I can. I hope you 
compter partir f souhaiter pariir 142 2 ' 21 

will come to see us before you go. I do not think I shall (be able) 

218 pariir 221 pouvoir Ub 

to call 266 before I go ; but I expect to see you often when I have 142 

passer 218 partir ; espirer 233 

returned. You seem to have a great desire to 1G8 go. No; I would 

265 envie y'° aller. ; aime<- 

rather stay than go ; but I do not 192 know what to do here. It is 

mieux rester (11) y aller ; n.b. savoir 83 11 vaut 

better to gain a little than to gain nothing. I would rather gain 

•meux gagner - peu (11) " aimer mieux 

nothing than to toil myself for so little. See the 172nd rule. 

(II) lourmenter me * si peu de chose. regie. 



173. Will, would. If, by the words will, would, you wish to 
Will, would. , par will, would, ' vouloir i " i 

denote will, wish desire, inclination, you 181 must express them by 

designer volonte, soulmit, dfoir, , il n.b. faut ex-primer 

the verb vouloir, and put the following verb in the infinitive; if you 
, mettre a 

wish to denote a determination, (will, would must be considered) 

lr3 , il fant considtrer WILL, WOULD 

only as the signs of the future, or of the conditional of the verb which 

comme futur, conditionnel 

follows them ; as, Will you do me the favour to call 266 upon me ? I 

; , * faire grace 168 s» 

Tiill call, if I can. Would you do me the favour to call upon me? 

, pouvoir. * 266 

I would call, if I could. Will you bring your sister with you? I will 

pouvoir. * amener avec 

bring her, if she will come. Would you bring your sister with vou ? 

144 " "56 ° J J 

I would bring her, if she would come. My sister will not come ; she 

amener , lH 

will stay at home. My sister would not Come; she would stay at home. 
rester an logis. ■ 

174. Will have, would have. When wrLL have, would have 
Will have, would have. will have, would have 

are used to denote the wish to possess, will, would are expressed 

- s' employer I69 dhigner dcsir 168 posseder, WILL, WOULD - s'exprimer 

by the verb vouloir, and have is left out ; if will have, would 
, have -s'omettre; will have, would 

have are used to denote not the wish, but the certainty to possess, 
have - s' 'employer 169 non , certitude 168 , 

they are expressed by the future, or by the conditional of Avoir ; as, 

- s'exprimer futur, conditionnel ; , 

My brother will have a horse. He will have one (cost what it will.) 

* en 7 ° * un coute qui coute. 

My brother would have a horse. He would have one (at any rate.) 

* * il quelque prix que ce fut. 

He will have a watch too. He would have a watch too. He will 

* montre aussi. * en 70 

have one, if he learns well. He would have one, if he learned well. 

, apprendre en 70 , 

He will have none, if he will not have this 88 . He would have, none, 

n'en 70 pas, 144 n.b. n'en 70 pas, 

if he would not have this. He will have one like yours. 

* These sentences may be expressed two ways, but each way denotes a different idea, and this idea 
can be determined onlv by the speaker or writer. See the examples under rules 173, 1?4. See also the 
different notes on Will, Would, page 143, 228, and 334. 



N. B If will have, would HWE, in the sense of wish, are fol- 


lowed by another verb, the object of have becomes the nominative of 

vis 20 ^ , objet HAVE devenir nominatif 

the following verb which must be (in the) subjunctive in french ; 

suivant 3i devoir au en ; 

What will you have me do ? What will you have my brother do ? 

as * faire? * faire? 

I will have you learn Italian 7 , and I' will have him learn French 7 . 

t Italieu, t Francak. 

Would you have us do 149 nothing but study? Must we never play? 

t faire " qu' etudi'er? 181 133 i9 ° jouer 

Yes, I would have you learn your lessons first, and I would 

, U9 lecon premierement, 

have you play afterwards. I will not have any of you be idle. I 
" 9 ' ensuite. 10 ° oisif. 

will have every one of you do his duty before he does any thing- else. 

105 devoir 218 m autre chose. 

175. Would have in the sense of chosen, been willing, followed 
Would have chosen, been willing, suii>re 15 i 

by a past participle is expressed by the imperfect or by the condi- 

- s'exprimer par imparfait condi- 

tional of Avoir, with the participle voulu, viz. Avals voulu, Aiirais 

tionnel , , c'est ddire 

voulu, and the english participle is expressed by the infinitive in french ; 
, 32 - s'exprimer en ; 

If you would have let me go, I should have been back long since. 

laisser , de retour il y a long terns. 

This would have been done in time, if he would have helped me. 

89 finir a terns, aider 

I asked 136 him to help me, and he would not. I would not have 

prier * , im 

helped you for ever so much. Why did you not tell me so before 
rien au. monde. 136 55 cela 2i8 

I began ? If I had told you so, you would not have come. If any 

t M le™, tout 

body but you had told me so, I certainly would not have believed him. 

autre que f 59 le 5i , 1W 

176. Should. When should, which is generally a sign of the con- 
Should. should, signe 

ditional tense, is used in the sense of ought, it is expressed by the 

- , - s' 'employer OUGHT, - s'exprimer 

• Turn, What will you that I do ? What will you that my brother do ? for it is not the person whom 
you wish, but you wish that the person should perform some action. 

t Turn, I will that you learn Italian, and I will that he learn french. Would von that we should hi 
nothing but study ? and so on with other bentences of this kind. * See note » page 337. 



conditional of the verb Devoir, viz. nevrais ; as, you should take 

, c'est a dire ; , 

more 8 pains than you do. Children should learn, every day, something 

n.b. peine 47 faire. ? , touts les jours, " 

by heart. They should (get up) (sooner in the morning) than they do. 

par coeur. se lever plus - matin 4 ? 

177. Should have, ought to have, followed by a past participle, 
Should have, ought to have, 20 ° 32 , 

are expressed by the conditional of Avoir, with the participle du, viz. 

- * par , Du f 

Aurais du, and the english participle is expressed by the infinitive 

in freneh ; You should have gone (viz. ought to have gone) with your 
en ; idler 

brothers. You should not have let them go alone. They ought not 

laisser sew/ 29 . 

to have gone without leave. They should not have stayed so long. 

2/ 7 ° permission. rester si long terns. 

You ought to have told them 54 so. You have not acted as you should. 

dire (f) p. 79. ie 59 agir 

178. May, might. If may, might are used to denote the power 
May, might. may, might - * ,6!) designer pouvoii, 

of doing a thing, may is expressed by the present of the verb pou- 

154 , MAY - * 

voir, viz, puis, fyc. and might by the conditional pourais, which 
, , , 8)C. might , 

govern the following verb in the infinitive ; If may, might denote the 
rtgir « 2 ; may, might 

mere possibility of doing a thing, they may be expressed by the sub- 

simple possibility l5i , t - * 

junctive of pouvoir, or by the subjunctive of the following verb ; Any 

, qui suit 32 ; 

body may do that ; (i. e. can or is able) to do that. You may do it, 

109 ^ (bb); m fa™ > 

(i. e. You can or are able) to do it, if you like. I will shew you 

, vouloir. $ montrer 

how it may be done ; (i. e. how one can, or is able to do it.) Leave 

92 . , Laisser 

it here, that I may try ; (i. e. that it may be possible for me to 
56 , afinque essay er ; m 

try.) I will lend it 54 you, that you may learn ; (i. e. that it may 

preter 59 , afinque ; 

be possible for you to learn.) Any body might do that ; (i. e. 

* See N. B. note {'it) page 2oS, + See note * page 138, N B. p. 139. } See note f p. 312. 



would be able) to do that. You might do it, (i. e. you could or 

fuire , * 

would be able) to do it, if you had 140 a mind. I will shew you how 
! en 70 24 envie. t 

it might be done ; (i. e. how one could do it.) I left 136 it here that 

s 2 ; * laisser 55 afinque 

you might try ; (i. e. that it might be possible for you to try.) 

179. Could have, might have. When could have, might have 
Could have, might have. could have, might have 

are followed by a past participle, they are expressed by the imperfect 

138 200 32 ,'.-■$ imparfait 

or by the conditional of Avoir, with the participle pu, viz. Avais pu, 

conditionnel , , , 

diirais pu, agreeably to the tense, and the english participle is ex- 
, suivant - , 32 - 

pressed by the infinitive in french ; If I could have done it, (i. e. h 

X en ; * fuire , 

I had (been able) to do it,) I would not have asked 252 you to help 

110 pu l 7 2 , prisr 168 aider 

me. You might have done it (i. e. you would have been able to do 
it) as well as I 52 . I could not have done it so soon ; (i. e. I should 

43 43 « 


not have been able to do it so soon.) You perhaps 184 could not, (or 

si tot. peut-etre , 

would not have been able to do it) but you might have tried ; (i. e. 

essay er ; 

you would have been able to try.) I might have tried, (i. e. I should 

have been able to try) as you say ; but I am sure that I could not 
comme ; sur 

have succeeded ; (i. e. that I should not have been able to succeed.) 
riumr ; 

180. Wish. The present tense of the verb wish, followed by another 
Wish. - wish, 200 

verb in the imperfect or (in the) conditional is expressed by the con- 

& Ull - J 

ditional of souhaiter, viz. souhaiterais, and the verb which is in the 

, e'est ii. dire, , it 

imperfect or (in the) conditional in english, must be (in the) perfect 

au en , devoir (kk) an parfait 

of the subjunctive in french ; as, I wish that was done. I wish 

subjonctif ; , «« (bb) 221 

• See the different use of Could, page 133. ♦ See note t p. 312. % See N. B. note (it) p. 235. 



your sistei would come. I wish somebody would help me. I wish 

221 95 aider 

I had never attempted it. I am glad that I have done (with it.) 

~(nn) entreprendre 55 168 - -(nn)eb*e dibarassi en 5i 

181. Must. The vert) must is conjugated with the three different 
Must. musj - se conjugner* M 32 

persons, viz. I must, thou must, he must, &c. but the verb which 


represents it, has only the third person singular of each tense, with 
, au singulier 102 , 

il for nominative, viz. il Faut, il Fallait, fyc. (see page 174.) then 

, , , £fc. a tors 

the nominative of must becomes the nominative of the following verb 
must devenir 

which is always (in the) subjunctive in french ; as, I must see (turn ; 

au en ; , ; 

it must that I see) that man. Thou must not go alone. He must 
2 t seul. 

come himself. Your brother must go with you. You must not stay 

(m) N.B. 58 i 

long. Must we not speak to him? Must not his friends know it? 

long terns. f (o) 5i t savoir ? 


N.B. When the nominative of must is indefinite, i. e. when it does 

MUST indtfini, 

not relate to any particular 32 person, it is generally left out in french, 

se rapportev en particulier , - 183 s'omettre * , 

and the following verb is put in the infinitive ; How many 8 times 

- * (I j N.B. 232 

must one tell you the same thing? We must employ our time 
dire le 

usefully. People must never be idle. They must help one another. 

utilement. oisif. s' aider 121 

182. Must have meaning to be in need, is expressed by il rant, 
Must have designer to be in need, - * , 

but have is left out, and (the nominative of must is made) the object 

HAVE - * , on fait du nominatif de MUST 

Of FClllt; thus, I MUST HAVE, U ME faut; THOU MUST HAVE, U TE 
; ainsi, 1 MUST HAVE, ; THOU MUST HAVE, 

faut ; he must have, il lui faut, Sfc. (see page 175.) I must have a 

,• HE MUST HAVE, , §C. + 

horse. He must have a saddle. My brother must have a wife. My 
$ selle. t femme. 

sister must have a husband. These children must have clothes. 

mari. habit. 

* See N. B, note (u) page 235. f See MUST used negatively, p. 174. % See MUST HAVE, p. 175. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules* 
I have done. Have you done? Has your brotner done? Has 


your sister done? My brother has sung a song. My sister has sung- 

chanter chanson. 

a song. My brothers have sung a song. My sisters have sung a 
song. Have you heard the song which my brother has sung ? Have 

entendre ? 4 

you heard the song which my sister has sung? Have you heard the 
song which my brothers have sung ? Have you heard the song which 
my sisters have sung ? They are gone. Are they gone ? Are your 


brothers gone ? Are your sisters gone ? How do they do 241 ? How 

134 185 se porter? 185 

does your mother do ? Is all your family well ? Is your sister 

241 241 ■» families 

returned from Bath ? Have the baths been of service to her ? I 
205 Bath ? bain faire du Men (o) 

think they have. She looks 253 much better than she did before 

221 t avoir mine $ i7 avoir ai8 

she went. T am glad m you are come ; I wanted to see you. If 
y alter. lien aise ; 260 

you had not come, I would have called upon you. I have some 

238 268 9 

news to tell you. Do you know that Mrs. B. is here ? No, 

nouvelles plur. savoir ici ? 191 , 

1 did not know it. When did 136 she come? She came this morning. 
Quand *** matin. 

I have just received this note from her. I am glad she is come 

244 recevoir billet 38 

(at last), for I longed 140 much to see her. I will wait upon her 
enfin, car see p. 175. fort passer chez M 

to-morrow morning. Will you come with me? I do not think I 

demuin jnatin. 58 2lJl 

shall (be able) to go. I (am afraid) my mother will not be able to 

pouvoir y 7 ° craindre 221 

spare 202 me. Since she has been ill, she wishes me to be always 

te passer de M Depuie que § malade, vouloir 

• See note • p. 281, and add to it that the whole of this exercise on the verbs must be well understood 
before the exercise is left off. 

t You m;iy express, I Ihink they have, by je pense qu' oui ; or if you express have, you must add the 
rest of the sentence and say ; je j,ensc qu ils lux en ontfait. 

t Turn this sentence, She has much better look than she had §c 

§ JIas been ill. The English often use this past tense to express an action or a state of being which 
is still lasting: as, I have been ill these si.r months ; the French can not use it in this sense ; so. lias 
been HI must be expressed by Est malade, if the person is ill still ; by A cte malade, if she has ceased to 
be so. U Turn, She wishes that I befyc. see note * p. 239, which is also applicable to wish. 




recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
with her. She will not let me (go out) for fear 195 I should slay too 

56 (kk)laisser sortir de peur que rester 

long. Do you wish me to go ? Yes, I do 70 . Well ; I will call, 

long-terns. * J/ 70 t , n.b. Eh bien ; passer, 

if I can. You may call, if you will ; it is not so far. I do not think 

pouvoir , ; 246 loin. 221 

your mother will refuse you to (go out) for such a short 8 time. I will 

sortir si - pen n.b. 

ask her. Do 70 ; i. e. ask her. I wish you would lend me the book which 
let (f)p.7"9. n.b. 22i (kk)priter 

you promised me the last time I was at 208 your house. I promised 

(s) N.B. 

to send it to my cousin after I have read it. She has nothing to 

f. apres que 62 " 

do now, and it is better she should do that than do nothing. 

H present, valoir mieux 221 " (U) 

I will lend it you now. I wish you (very much) to read it. I did 

§ 62 59 |j f art 

not lend it you then, for fear 218 you would not return 265 it to me in 

62 59 alors, de peur que - n.b. m & 

time. I (was afraid) that you would keep it too long. I have long 

terns. craindre 125 - l95 garder 62 long-terns. 

wished to read it. I could not lend it you, before you asked me for 

1 « pouvoir 62 59 , 218 59 201 

it. Here 247 it is. I wish 221 it may amuse you (as much) as it has 

62 n.b. 62 amuser autant que 62 

amused me. Do you think your cousin would come, if I sent for 

55 221 cousine , envoy cr chercher 

her? I do not think she can. She told me that she expects a friend 

221 70 attendre 

who promised to call upon her this afternoon. Did she tell you that 

266 apres midi. 

I drank 'tea with her yesterday 183 ? Yes, she did. 70 I wish 281 you had 

prendre the* hier n.b. n.b. iso 

been there. I wish I had. She is coming to spend the evening with 

y " ( e ) p. 74. ** Vi 234 

me (to-morrow, 183 ) will you come with her ? I wish I could ; but I 

demain. n.b. (kk) iso f nn> )70 ; 

can not. I am engaged at Mrs. A's. We will' meet some other day. 

70 208 se rencontrer quelque 120 

* Turn ; do you wish that I go? see * p. 239, which is also applicable to wish. 
f The verb Aller, to go, requires a place mentioned after it ; if the place has been mentioned before 
we always add to Aller the adverbial pronoun F, there ; see note (e) p. "Ji. 
X Add here, in french, the pronoun Le, it. § See note f page 312. 

•| Turn ; I wish much that you read it; see note * p. 239, which is also applicable to wish. 
Tf Turn ; it is long since I wish §-c. see note § page 353. 
** Instead of repeating this verb in french we should le souhaite aussi. 



recapitulatory exercise on the foregoing rules. 
I have just heard that Miss B. is very ill. Who told you so? 

venir de 244 apprendre' malade. dire 59 le s * 

Miss C. told me so. How 246 long has she been ill ? She was taken 

le M Combien y a-t-il que * prendre 

ill this morning. They 90 say she is very ill. I must send to inquire 

demal 234 n.b. 221 m 'informer 

how she is now. I think it is better that I go myself. It (is 

241 sai valoir mieux (m) n.b. 

necessary) that I should see her. It (is becoming) that I pay her a visit. 

falloir 125 convenir 125 rendre 16 ' 2 ** visite. 

Did you hear that Mrs. C. is dead? Indeed! When did she die ? 

entendre (bb}ix-B. mourirl ! 238 

I was with her last ni^ht. She seemed (well enough) when I left 

235 paraitre en assez bonne santi quitter 

her. She was taken ill suddenly in the night, and she died this 

prendre de mal subitement , 238 

morning. I am very sorry she is dead. She was the most estimable 

fdchi ™ l 65 aa 

woman that I knew 50 . I had invited her daughter to come and spend 

connaitre. (nn) 2yl 

(a few) days with me, but I do not think she will come now that 

quelques 58 , 221 

her mother is dead. Were you at the play lately? Yes, my sister 

comedie depuis peu? , 

and I went there (the night before last), to see a new actress. We 

127 y M avant hier au soir, nouvelle actrice. 

had expected some amusement, but we were greatly disappointed. The 

attmdre , bien tromper. 

players were very bad. I never saw a worse 41 set. Was it a good 

comidiens mauvais. mauvais troupe. Y avait-il beaucoup 

house ? Yes, the house was pretty full 29 . The lower 29 boxes 

de monde? t , salle passablement plein. premier loge 

were not full, but the upper boxes and the pit were very full, 

20 , $ parterre 31 

Was my cousin there ? I do not know. I did not see her. I met 

f. 2Z 54 

her yesterday, as I was going to take 263 a walk, and I went to drink 

hier, n.b. } § 

tea with her. After we. had drunk tea, we went into the fields, and 

96 § S13 

we picked s